Presentation on theme: "Laboratory and Chemical Safety Part One. Laboratory and Chemical Safety Sheharbano “Sheri” Sangji, a 23-year-old University of California at Los Angeles."— Presentation transcript:
Laboratory and Chemical Safety Sheharbano “Sheri” Sangji, a 23-year-old University of California at Los Angeles staff research assistant, died in 2008 after suffering massive second- and third-degree burns when a chemical she was handling caught fire. a state agency fined the university nearly $32,000. The charges alleged that the regents and the professor violated state codes mandating employee training on handling of hazardous chemicals Sangii was wearing a synthetic sweater, not a protective lab coat, which caught fire and melted when the syringe she was using to transfer t-butyl lithium fell apart. The professor faced up to 4 1/2 years in prison, and UCLA faced a possible fine of up to $1.5 million for each of the three counts. Half of the felony charges were dropped when the University of California regents agreed to follow comprehensive safety measures and endow a $500,000 scholarship in her name.
Harran plea bargain(June 20) - must acknowledge and accept responsibility for lab conditions -make no public statements denying responsibility -adhere to state employee safety standards -cooperate with state worker safety agency -pay $10,000 to Grossman Burn Center -create and teach a chemistry course for South Central Scholars -speak to UCLA chemistry and biological sciences undergraduate students about importance of lab safety -five years or back to trial -is not well received
Texas Tech On January 7, 2010, there was an explosion in a chemistry lab at Texas Tech. Nobody was killed, but a graduate student was seriously injured. Two graduate students were working on creating derivatives of nickel hydrazine perchlorate, an explosive. They made 10 grams of the substance, 100 times more than their professor considered safe. (The professor instructed them to not make more than 100 mg) One of the students decided to crush the substance with a mortar and pestle prior to analysis. The crystals exploded under friction and the student suffered burns and lost three fingers.
Dartmouth University Karen Wetterhahn died after receiving a toxic dose of dimethylmercury, even though she was following proper safety precautions. The LD50 of dimethylmercury is 50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight, which means a 130-pound woman (59 kg) could be killed by about 3 mg of the substance. Wetterhahn accidentally got a few drops of dimethylmercury on her glove-covered hand. The chemical seeped through, touched her skin and entered her body. A few months later, she began to experience symptoms of mercury poisoning, such as trouble with balance, as well as impaired speech, vision and hearing. She then slipped into a coma and died, becoming the fourth laboratory victim of dimethylmercury. Two in 1865 and one in 1972.
Marburg In 1967, 31 workers at a laboratory in Marburg, Germany began suffering from an array of horrifying symptoms: fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and massive bleeding from a variety of internal organs. Seven of the workers would eventually succumb to their illnesses. After an extensive investigation, scientists identified the source of the outbreak, a pair of grivet monkeys imported from Uganda for polio research. The primates were carrying a shocking, never-before-seen virus, which later was named Marburg for the city in which it was discovered. Marburg surfaces, kills, then disappears. It spreads by contact with bodily fluids like blood, urine, or saliva. To date, the worst outbreak occurred in Angola in 2005. 252 cases were reported, 90% of which resulted in fatalities. There is no known cure.
Why is it important to study safety? No one wants to be in an accident. Each year numerous people are injured or killed in lab accidents. Numerous government agencies lay down new rules that effect safety each year. There has been an increase in lawsuits involving accidents. We need to take measures to prevent accidents.
Each person in an undergraduate general chemistry lab enters with different experiences from their high schools. Some have little to no lab experience. You must learn to evaluate the hazards and learn risk management. We have no way of knowing if you are in the knowledgeable group or the other.
What does safety involve Chemical – we will need to know the hazards associated with each chemical that we use. Personal – how can we protect ourselves from accidents by our own behavior Physical – what are the hazards in the room concerning the layout and equipment Group – each person is responsible for all others in the lab
RAMP (Hill and Finster) Recognize Assess Minimize Prepare
How do we respond What type of accident? - chemical or physical? What caused the accident? Was the accident a result of ignoring rules, inadequate rules, or an unexpected occurrence? Did we respond correctly? (Post accident investigation) What does the government say we should do – should have done?
What should you do to prevent an accident? -Recognize where an accident might occur and be prepared to prevent the accident. -Read the experiment before lab, “spot” areas where you think an accident might occur, and think about what you will do to prevent it.
What else should you do to prevent an accident? Be aware of what steps in the experiment need to be done in the fume hoods. Do not perform unauthorized experiments. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing. Know the location of the first aid kit. Don’t assume that an accident cannot happen. Keep your mind on the experiment. Do not use iPods or other devices with ear phones which keep you from hearing instructions. Turn off your cell phone and do not use it during class or lab. Report all accidents to the professor. The accident report sheets can be obtained from the professor, the stockroom, or the safety Officer. Report all unsafe conditions to the professor or to the Safety Officer.
Government Regulations - OSHA OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Laboratory worker protection from exposure to hazardous chemicals. Respiratory protection. Emergency Response Plan for –Chemical spills – cleanup and containment –Gas cylinders –Fires, floods, earthquake, power outages. –Physical injuries – burns, cuts, ingestion, eyes, skin, etc. Assurance of a workplace free from recognized hazards. (general duty clause)
RCRA The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted by Congress in 1976 to protect human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal, to reduce the amount of waste generated, and to ensure that wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner. Congress amended RCRA in 1984 with the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to require facilities that have hazardous wastes to clean up environmental contaminants at their sites regardless of the time of the release.
CERCLA The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund, was enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980. Created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Established prohibitions and requirements concerning closed and abandoned hazardous waste sites; provided for liability of persons responsible for releases of hazardous waste at these sites; and established a trust fund to provide for cleanup when no responsible party could be identified.
The law authorizes two kinds of response actions: Short-term removals, where actions may be taken to address releases or threatened releases requiring prompt response. Long-term remedial response actions, that permanently and significantly reduce the dangers associated with releases or threats of releases of hazardous substances that are serious, but not immediately life threatening. These actions can be conducted only at sites listed on EPA's National Priorities List (NPL).National Priorities List Current list 51 proposed sites, 1318 final sites, and 383 deleted sites. In Virginia,
Superfund Sites in Virginia Current 31 active, 4 closed
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) amended the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) on October 17, 1986. SARA also required EPA to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) to ensure that it accurately assessed the relative degree of risk to human health and the environment posed by uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that may be placed on the National Priorities List (NPL).Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActHazard Ranking SystemNational Priorities List The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 (EPCRA) was created to help communities plan for emergencies involving hazardous substances. The Community Right-to-Know provisions help increase the public's knowledge and access to information on chemicals at individual facilities, their uses, and releases into the environment.Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
NFPA – National Fire Protection Association (diamond). TSCA – Toxic Substances Control Act gave the EPA the right to track and screen industrial chemicals. CAA and CWA – Clean Air Act (1990) and Clean Water Act (1976) HMTA – Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. Most of these acts and legislations are controlled by the EPA. GHS – Globally Harmonized System
WHY! Any time we deal with chemical or physical hazards - a chemical laboratory, a biological laboratory, a photography studio, a cleaning business, a school, a building contractor, or a house painter – will have to deal with some or all of these governmental agencies.
Safety Terminology SDS – Safety Data Sheet Toxic – hazardous to health when breathed, swallowed, or in contact with the skin PEL – Permissible exposure limit. (regulatory limits) LD50, LC50 – lethal dose or concentration that kills 50% of a population LDLo, LCLo – lowest published lethal dose or concentration RQ – Reportable quantities OEL – Occupational exposure limit
Carcinogen (causes cancer) Mutagen (genetic mutations) Teratogen (birth defects) Lachrymator (tears) Corrosive (visible destruction of living tissue or certain destruction of iron in a certain time) Peroxide former (forms potentially explosive -R-O-O-R bonds)
Personal Protective Equipment Clothing – cover the skin! -No shorts or skirts (blue jeans!) -No exposed midriff -No tights or leotards Shoes – closed, no sandals. Leather shoes are best, tennis shoes ok. For the eyes – no contact lenses (unless you notify the lab instructor). Safety goggles must meet ANSI Z-87+ standards. Face shields are used in high splash areas. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Personal Protective Equipment Lab coats, aprons – can be purchased. These cover the body and can afford best protection. Jewelry – Any jewelry can react with the chemicals in the lab. Rings can allow chemicals to be trapped next to the skin. It is strongly recommended that you remove all jewelry before working in the lab. Gloves – are available whenever needed or desired.
Laboratory Dress Code Shoes, not sandals or open shoes, are required in the lab at all times. Shorts or skirts will not be worn. Leotards are not appropriate leg cover. Shirts that expose your midriff are not permitted in the lab. Goggles are required in the lab at all times.
Penalties! First time – you will go home and can come back properly dressed. You will not be given additional lab time. Second time – a zero for the lab (no chance for makeup). Third time – you will be dropped from the course.
Laboratory Dress Code Sign-off Sheet Laboratory safety is of paramount importance. You will follow the rules listed below for appropriate dress in the laboratory. Lab Dress Code: Shoes, not sandals or open shoes, are required in the lab at all times. Due to the probable spillage of water and the floor becoming slippery, rubber soled shoes, such as tennis shoes, are best. Shorts, leotards, or skirts will not be worn. They will not keep solutions from splattering on your legs. Blue jeans may the best type of lab wear.
Belly-button policy: Shirts that expose your midriff are not permitted in lab. The bench top is near your waist level, so spills there will be common. A buttoned lab coat covering the midriff is acceptable. Safety goggles are required at all times in the lab. If you are wearing contact lenses in the lab, you must notify the instructor in case of an accident. Prescription glasses are acceptable with safety goggles. Penalties: First violation - you will be sent back to your dormitory or house to make the necessary changes to come under compliance. Second violation – you will receive a zero for that experiment. Third violation – you will receive a zero for the lab course (automatic failure) and dropped.
Additional notes It is important that each student be aware of all activities that are going on in the lab at all times. 1- You are not allowed to use any device in lab with earphones. 2- You must silence your phones or put them on vibrate mode. You will not make any calls, take pictures, text, or connect with any other social media while in the lab. Special circumstances are up to the professor.
Personal Hygiene How can you tell that a person is a chemist? They wash their hands before and after using the bathroom. Must take specific care not to touch your face, eyes, etc. Whenever you “feel” a chemical on your skin – wash IMMEDIATELY with tepid or cool water, NOT hot. A general rule of thumb is to wash 5 minutes for every minute of exposure.
Handling chemical bottles Read the label of the bottle to be certain you have the correct chemical and you know the hazards. NH 3 is NOT nitric acid. Hold the bottle with you hand covering the label. Pour the sample. This keeps the solution from dripping down the bottle and ruining the label. Replace the lid and place the bottle where you found it.
Handling of Glassware Glassware Hot metal and glassware Glassware Hot metal and glassware Beaker tongs crucible tongs test-tube holder
Signing the Dress Code You are now required to sign and print your name on the dress code sheet. This sheet will be placed in the lab as a reminder that you have agreed to these policies.