2Cultural information 1 Cultural information 1. Why We Need an Equal Rights Amendment:Why We Need an ERA; The Gender Gap RunsDeep in American LawMartha Burk and Eleanor SmealWhy is the amendment needed? Twenty-three countries — including Sri Lanka and Moldova — have smaller gender gaps in education, politics and health than the United States, according to the World Economic Forum. We are 68th in the world in women's participation in national
3Cultural information 2Cultural informationlegislatures. On average, a woman working full time and year-round still makes only 77 cents to a man's dollar. Women hold 98 percent of the low-paying “women’s” jobs and fewer than 15 percent of the board seats at major corporations. Because their private pensions — if they have them at all — are lower and because Social Security puts working women at a disadvantage and grants no credit for years spent at home caring for children or aging parents, three-quarters of the elderly in poverty are women. And in every state except Montana, women still pay higher rates than similarly situated men for almost all kinds of insurance. All that could change if we put equal rights for women in our Constitution.
4Cultural information 2 2. Gender bias in education Gender bias in education is an insidious problem that causes very few people to stand up and take notice. The victims of this bias have been trained through years of schooling to be silent and passive, and are therefore unwilling to stand up and make noise about the unfair treatment they are receiving. Girls and boys today are receiving separate and unequal educations due to the gender socialization that takes place in our schools and due to the sexist hidden curriculum students are faced with every day. Unless teachers are made aware of the gender-role socialization and the biased messages they are unintentionally imparting to students everyday, and
5Cultural information 2Cultural informationuntil teachers are provided with the methods and resources necessary to eliminate gender-bias in their classrooms, girls will continue to receive an inequitable education.Sadker, D., Sadker, M. (1994) “Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls”. Toronto, ON: Simon & Schuster Inc.
6Global Reading-Text analysis1 Structural analysisText analysis1. Which two opinions are presented in the first paragraph?There are those who believe that the language that we use everyday is biased in and of itself. Then there are those who feel that language is a reflection of the prejudices that people have within themselves.
7Global Reading-Text analysis1 Structural analysis2. Which sentences in the conclusion show the writer’sattitude?In the last paragraph, we find these sentences: “It is necessary for people to make the proper adjustments internally to use appropriate language to effectively include both genders. We qualify language. It is up to us to decide what we will allow to be used and made proper in the area of language.” Evidently, they denote the writer’s attitude toward what we should do about gender bias in language.
81. What type of writing is the text? Structural analysis 1Text analysisStructural analysisStructural analysis1. What type of writing is the text?This text is an expositive essay with reference to gender bias in language.2. What’s the main strategy to develop this expositiveessay?The text is mainly developed by means of exemplification. Examples are abundantly used inParagraphs 2-6.
93. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Structural analysis 3Text analysisStructural analysis3. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table.Paragraph(s)Main ideaThe writer raises the issue to be discussed: Is language the cause of the bias or is it reflective of the preexisting bias that the user holds?1The writer provides quite a number of typical examples to illustrate gender bias in language.2-67The writer makes his attitude or opinion clear on the issue of gender bias in language.
10Detailed reading1 Gender Bias in Language Language is a very powerful element. It is the most common method of communication. Yet it is often misunderstood and misinterpreted, for language is a very complicated mechanism with a great deal of nuance. There are times when in conversation with another individual, that we must take into account the person’s linguistic genealogy. There are people who use language that would be considered prejudicial or biased in use. But the question that is raised is in regard to language usage: Is language the cause of the bias or is it reflective of the preexisting bias that the user holds? There are those who believe that the language that we use in day-to-day conversation is biased in and of itself.1
11Detailed reading2Detailed readingThey feel that the term “mailman”, for example, is one that excludes women mail carriers. Then there are those who feel that language is a reflection of the prejudices that people have within themselves. That is to say, the words that people choose to use in conversation denote the bias that they harbor within their own existence.2There are words in the English language that are existing or have existed (some of them have changed with the new wave of “political correctness” coming about) that have inherently been sexually biased against women. For example, the person who investigates reported complaints (as from consumers or students), reports findings, and helps to achieve fair and impartial settlements is ombudsman (Merriam-Webster Dictionary), but ombudsperson here at Indiana State University.
12Detailed reading3Detailed readingThis is an example of the gender bias that exists in the English language. The language is arranged so that men are identified with exalted positions, and women are identified with more service-oriented positions in which they are being dominated and instructed by men. So the language used to convey this type of male supremacy is generally reflecting the honored position of the male and the subservience of the female. Even in relationships, the male in the home is often referred to as the “man of the house,” even if it is a 4-year-old child. It is highly insulting to say that a 4-year-old male, based solely on his gender, is more qualified and capable of conducting the business and affairs of the home than his possibly well-educated, highly intellectual mother. There is a definite disparity in that situation.3
13Detailed reading4Detailed readingIn American culture, a woman is valued for the attractiveness of her body, while a man is valued for his physical strength and his achievements. Even in the example of word pairs the bias is evident. The masculine word is put before the feminine word, as in the examples of Mr. and Mrs., his and hers, boys and girls, men and women, kings and queens, brothers and sisters, guys and dolls, and host and hostess. This shows that the usage of many of the English words is also what contributes to the bias present in the English language.Alleen Pace Nilsenn notes that there are instances when women are seen as passive while men are active and bring things into being. She uses the example of the wedding ceremony. In the beginning of the ceremony, the father is45
14Detailed reading5Detailed readingasked who gives the bride away and he answers, “I do.” It is at this point that Nilsen argues that the gender bias comes into play. The traditional concept of the bride as something to be handed from one man (the father) to another man (the husband-to-be) is perpetuated. Another example is in the instance of sexual relationships. The women become brides while men wed women. The man takes away a woman’s virginity and a woman loses her virginity. This denotes her inability, apparently due to her gender, to hold on to something that is a part of her, thus enforcing the man’s ability and right to claim something that is not his.
15Detailed reading6Detailed readingTo be a man, according to some linguistic differences, would be considered an honor. To be endowed by genetics with the encoding of a male would be as having been shown grace, unmerited favor. There are far greater positive connotations connected with being a man than with being a woman. Nilsen yields the example of “shrew” and “shrewd.” The word “shrew” is taken from the name of a small but especially vicious animal; however in Nilsen’s dictionary, a “shrew” was identified as an “ill-tempered, scolding woman.” However, the word “shrewd,” which comes from the same root, was defined as “marked by clever discerning awareness.” It was noted in her dictionary as a shrewd businessman. It is also commonplace not to scold little girls for being “tomboys” but to scoff at little boys who play with dolls or ride girls’ bicycles.6
16Detailed reading7Detailed readingIn the conversations that come up between friends, you sometimes hear the words “babe,” “broad,” and “chick.” These are words that are used in reference to or directed toward women. It is certainly the person’s right to use these words to reflect women, but why use them when there are so many more to choose from? Language is the most powerful tool of communication and the most effective tool of communication. It is also the most effective weapon of destruction.Although there are biases that exist in the English language, there has been considerable change toward recognizing these biases and making the necessary changes formally so that they will be implemented socially.78
17Detailed reading8Detailed readingIt is necessary for people to make the proper adjustments internally to use appropriate language to effectively include both genders. We qualify language. It is up to us to decide what we will allow to be used and made proper in the area of language.9
18Detailed reading1-- bias 1 1) n. an opinion or feeling that strongly favors one side in an argument or an item in a group or series; predisposition; prejudicee.g.This university has a bias towards the sciences.Students were evaluated without bias.2) vt. to unfairly influence attitudes, choices, or decisionse.g.Several factors could have biased the results of the study.
19Detailed reading1– bias 2 Collocation:bias against/towards/in favor ofe.g.It’s clear that the company has a bias against women and minorities.Phrase:gender bias: sex prejudice; having bias towards the maleand against the femalee.g.Gender bias is still quite common in work and payment.
20Detailed reading1– nuance nuance: n. slight, delicate or subtle difference incolor, appearance, meaning, feeling, etc.e.g.Language teachers should be able to react to nuances of meaning of common words.He was aware of every nuance in her voice.Synonym:subtletyCollocation:nuance of
21Detailed reading1– prejudicial prejudicial: adj. causing harm to sb’s rights, interests, etc.;having a bad effect on sth.e.g.These developments are prejudicial to the company’s future.What she said and did was prejudicial to her own rights and interests.Synonyms:damaging, detrimental, prejudiciousDerivation:prejudice: n.
22Detailed reading1– in/with regard to in/with regard to: in connection with; concerninge.g.I have nothing to say in regard to your complaints.She is very sensitive in regard to her family background.I refuted him in regard to his injustice.
23Detailed reading1– reflective reflective: adj. (of a person, mood, etc.) thoughtful; (ofa surface) reflecting lighte.g.She is in a reflective mood.These are reflective number plates.Derivation:reflectiveness: n.
24Detailed reading1-- language is … ... language is a very complicated mechanism with a great deal of nuance.Explanation:… language is a very complicated system of communication. Even slight variations in the pitch, tone, and intensity of the voice and in the choice of words, etc. can express a great deal of subtle shades of meaning.
25Detailed reading1-- we must take … we must take into account the person’s linguistic genealogy.Paraphrase:we must consider the person’s long-standing conventions in language use.Translation:我们必须将这人的语言谱系学考虑在内。
26Detailed reading2-- There are There are people who use language that would be considered prejudicial or biased in use.Paraphrase:Some people do use language that would be thought of as expressing disapproval of women.Explanation:Prejudice is an opinion formed without taking the time or care to judge fairly. Such an opinion may be favorable or unfavorable and is held without regard to the evidence available. In this article, prejudice refers to an unfavorable opinion held in this way about women.Translation:有些人使用那些有可能被认为是具有偏见用法的语言。
27Detailed reading1- the language that … the language that we use in day-to-day conversation is biased in and of itself.Paraphrase:… the language we use in everyday conversation reflects in its own nature an unfavorable opinion about women.Translation:我们日常对话中使用的语言本身就具有偏见。
28Detailed reading1--Quesion Paragraph 1QuestionWhat does the writer think of language?The author thinks that language is very powerful and the most common method of communication, but is often misunderstood and misinterpreted, for it is a very complicated system of symbols with plenty of subtle differences.
29Detailed reading2—Quesion1 Paragraph 2QuestionWhat is the main idea of Paragraph 2?Paragraph 2 explains and illustrates the fact that some words in English are inherently biased against women and that the English language generally reflects male supremacy and female subservience.
30Detailed reading4--Quesion 2 Paragraph 3QuestionWhich is the topic sentence of Paragraph 3?This shows that the usage of many of the English words is also what contributes to the bias present in the English language.
31Detailed reading5—Quesion1 Paragraph 4QuestionWhat do you think of the two examples given in Paragraph 4?The two examples, which are vivid and interesting, are closely related to the main idea that women are seen as passive while men are active and bring things into being.
32Detailed reading6—Quesion1 Paragraph 5QuestionWhich sentence in Paragraph 5 shows that gender connotations in words affect people’s behavior?It is the last sentence, “It is also commonplace not to scold little girls for being ‘tomboys’ but to scoff at little boys who play with dolls or ride girl’s bicycles.”
33Detailed reading7—Quesion1 Paragraph 6QuestionWhich sentences in Paragraph 6 denote the writer’s attitude?The sentences that show the writer’s attitude towards the use of impolite terms in reference to women are “… but why use them when there are so many more to choose from?” and “It is also the most effective weapon of destruction.”
34Detailed reading8—Quesion1 Paragraph 7Questions1. What kind change has taken place in regard to gender bias in language?People have recognized gender bias in English and made necessary changes.2. What is the writer’s opinion in reference to gender biasin language?The writer thinks it is necessary to make the proper adjustments internally to use appropriate language to effectively include both genders, and that it is up to our decision of the proper word used.
35Detailed reading4-- denote the ... denote the bias that they harbor within their own existenceParaphrase:... indicate the unfavorable opinion that they hold about women
36Detailed reading4-- There are words There are words in the English language that are existing or have existed … that have inherently been sexually biased against women.Paraphrase:Many English words whose meanings make the female gender invisible are a natural part of the English language.Translation:英语语言中曾经存在过，目前仍然有一些固有的对女性性别歧视的词语。
37Detailed reading2-- achieve fair achieve fair and impartial settlementsParaphrase:reach agreements that are fair to both sidesTranslation:达成公平公正的协议
38Detailed reading2– denote denote: vt. be the name, sign or symbol of; refer to;represent or be a sign of somethinge.g.What does the word “curriculum” denote that “course” does not?Crosses on the map denote villages.Derivations:denotative: adj.denotation: n.Synonyms:connoteindicate
39Detailed reading2– harbor harbor: vt.1) keep bad thoughts, fears, or hopes in your mind for a long timee.g.She began to harbor doubts over the wisdom of their journey.2) contain something, especially something hidden anddangerouse.g.Sinks and draining boards can harbor germs.3) protect and hide criminals that the police are searching fore.g.You may be punished if you harbor an escaped criminal or a spy.Derivation:harbor: n.
40Detailed reading2– inherent 1 inherent: adj. used to describe sth. that is a natural part of sth. else and cannot be separated from ite.g.I am afraid that the problems you mention are inherent in the system.Every business has its own inherent risks.Collocation:inherent inDerivations:inhere: v.inherence: n.
41Detailed reading2– inherent 2 Translation:这设计本身存在弱点。There is an inherent weakness in the design.勤劳俭朴是中华民族的本色。Industry and frugality are the inherent qualities of the Chinese nation.爱好音乐是人类固有的特性（爱好音乐是人的天性）。A love of music is inherent in human nature.
42Detailed reading3– identify identify: vt. show or prove who sb. is or what sth. is; recognize sb./sth. as being the specifiede.g.He was too far away to be able to identify faces.She identified the man as the attacker.Collocation:identify sth. with sth. else: consider sth. to be; the same as sth. elsee.g.The teacher tried to orient his students towards the science subjects.One cannot identify happiness with wealth.The organization is strongly oriented towards research.
43Detailed reading3– orient 1 orient: vt; orientate; direct sb.’s interest to sth; direct sth. at sb.; specially design sth. for sb.e.g.The teacher tried to orient his students towards the science subjects.Our firm is oriented towards the export side of business.The organization is strongly oriented towards research.Collocation:be oriented to/towards/around sth./sb.Derivations:orientation: n.oriented: adj.oriental: adj.
44Detailed reading3– orient 2 Comparisons:oriented: giving a lot of time, effort, or attention to one particular thingoriental: relating to or from the eastern part of the world, especially China and Japan1) She has studied the cultures of countries.2) A lot of the younger students don’t seem to be politically at all.oriental_________oriented__________
45Detailed reading3– supremacy1 supremacy: n. position of the highest power, authority or statuse.g.Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere.Japan’s supremacy in the field of electronics is being challenged.Phrases:male supremacywhite supremacy Synonym:domination
46Detailed reading3-- supremacy2 Collocation:supremacy over sb./ sth.Derivation:supreme: adj.
47Detailed reading3– insulting insulting: adj. very rude and offensive to someonee.g.He was most insulting to my wife.He uttered insulting remarks, which hurt the manager.Collocation:insulting toDerivation:insult: n. / vt
48Detailed reading3-- disparity disparity: n. (fml) difference or inequalitye.g.There is much disparity in age, rank, income and status between them.A comparison of the two accounts revealed numerous disparities.Collocations:disparity in/betweenTranslation:The rich and the poor live side by side, but their conditions are of extraordinary disparity.虽然富人和穷人住在一起，但他们的条件差距极为悬殊。
49Detailed reading4-- contribute to1 contribute to: help in bringing about; have a share ine.g.Alcohol contributes to 100,000 deaths a year in the U.S.The doctor suggested that sufficient fresh air would contribute to good health.Would you like to contribute to our collection?你愿意给我们的募捐捐款吗？Derivations:contributing: adj.contribution: n.contributor: n.contributory: adj.contributable: adj.
50Detailed reading4-- contribute to2 Phrase:contributing factor: the factor that plays a role in the matter discussedTranslation:Human error may have been a contributing factor to the environmental pollution.人为的错误可能是造成环境污染的一个因素。All contributions will be gratefully received.我们对所有的捐助表示感谢。Older people are important contributors to the economy.老一辈人为发展经济做出了重要贡献。Alcohol is a contributory factor in 10% of all road accidents.所有交通事故当中有百分之十是酒后驾车造成的。
51Detailed reading4-- bring things into being bring things into being: cause things to come into existence; create thingse.g.That outstanding scientist is good at bringing things into being.
52Detailed reading5-- come into play come into play: (begin to) be active or have an influencee.g.Personal feelings should not come into play when one has to make business decisions.Political considerations do come into play (=have an effect) when making policy.Synonym:put sth. into play
53Detailed reading5-- perpetuate perpetuate: vt. make a situation, attitude, etc., especially a bad one, continue to exist for a long timee.g.These measures will perpetuate the hostility between the two groups.这些举措会使双方的敌对持续。Derivation:perpetuation: n.
54Detailed reading5-- virginity virginity: n. state of being a virgin; virgin condition; in an original or natural conditione.g.The woman writer kept her virginity throughout her life.She never lost her virginity.
55Detailed reading5– enforce1 enforce: vt.1) make sth. such as a statement, an argument, a belief, etc. more forcefule.g.Have any statistics that would enforce your argument?你有加强你论点的统计资料吗？2) make sth. such as law, rules, etc. effectivee.g.Governments make laws and the police enforce them.Martial law was enforced during the riot.Collocations:enforce sth. on/against sth.enforce sth. on sb.
56Detailed reading5– enforce2 Derivations:enforced: adj.enforceable: adj.enforceability: n.enforcement: n.
57Detailed reading5-- This denotes her … This denotes her inability, apparently due to her gender, to hold on to something that is a part of her, thus enforcing the man’s ability and right to claim something that is not his.Paraphrase:This indicates her inability, obviously because of her gender, to fight for her right to enjoy a full human identity and freedom, and emphasizes the man's ability and right to enjoy male supremacy.
58Detailed reading2—Quesion1 Paragraphs 4-5QuestionsWhat do you know about Hollywood studios and the studio chiefs?The studio chiefs “persuaded” the stars to sign seven-year contracts to built up their images. The stars were not entitled to choose their parts while the chiefs decided everything as a tyrant. The Hollywood studios turned starlets into superstars by advertising.2) How do you understand the statement that stars were often typecast?A star acts the role according to the impression he or she left on the public.
59Detailed reading5-- be endowed with sth be endowed with sth.: be provided naturally with any good quality or abilitye.g.The girl is endowed with intelligence as well as beauty.He was endowed with the power of acute observation.他天生具有敏锐的观察力。Collocation:endow sb./sth. with sth.Derivations:endow: vt.endowment: n.
60Detailed reading5-- yield yield: vt.1) bear, produce or provide (a natural product, result or profit)e.g.These trees no longer yield fruit.2) show or produce sth. that was hidden or difficult to find, or that people did not know aboute.g.Our research has only recently begun to yield important results.Phrases:high-yielding/low-yieldingDerivations:yield: n.yielding: adj.
61Detailed reading5–vicious vicious: adj. spiteful; with evil intentions; depraved; (ofanimals) savage and dangerouse.g.She was shocked by the vicious tone in his voice.There are many vicious practices in society.Keep away from that dog, he can be vicious.Phrase:vicious circle: a situation in which one problem causes another problem which then makes the first problem worseDerivation:viciousness: n.
62Detailed reading5– discerning discerning: adj. showing careful judgmente.g.She is a very discerning art critic.她是位眼光敏锐的艺术评论家。Anyone with a disconcerning eye can easily see the truth.Derivationss:discern: vt. notice or understand something by thinking about it carefullydiscernible: adj.
63Detailed reading6-- in/with reference to in/with reference to sb./sth.: about or concerning sb./sth.; used to say what you are writing or talking about, esp. in business letterse.g.I am writing in reference to your job application.I have nothing to say in reference to that incident.关于那次事件，我无可奉告。Choose the best answer to the following sentence.We are writing to the manager the repairs recently carried out at the above address.A with the exception B with the purpose ofC with reference to D with a view toC_____
64Detailed reading6– implement1 implement: vt. carry out; put sth. into effecte.g.This program of reforms must be implemented immediately.We implement the principle of assuming responsibility for mistakes.Derivations:implementation: n.implement: n. a tool or an instrument, often one that is quite simple and that is used outdoorsSynonym:carry out
65Detailed reading6– implement2 Choose the best answer in the following sentence.Furthermore, he was prosperous enough to achieve his objectives and his dream.complimentB. complementC. implementD equipmentC_____
66Detailed reading6-- be up to sb. be up to sb.: be required as a duty or obligation from sb.;be left to sb. to decidee.g.It is up to us to help those in need.It’s up to you whether you take the job or not. What do you prefer, an Indian meal or a Chinese meal? It is up to you.
67Detailed reading6-- To be endowed … To be endowed by genetics with the encoding of a male would be as having been shown grace, unmerited favor.Paraphrase:To be predetermined by one's genetic structure to be a male would be as having been shown God's kindness and undeserved favor.
68Detailed reading6-- was defined … was defined as “marked by clever discerning awareness” .Paraphrase:… was defined as having a clever and sharp mind for judging people and situations.Translation:……被定义为“具有聪明的明辨意识”。
69Detailed reading7- making the … … making the necessary changes formally so that they will be implemented socially.Explanation:… making the necessary changes officially so that they will take effect and be accepted by the general public.Translation:……正式制定一些必须的改变，这样它们可以在全社会执行。
70Detailed reading3- The language is … The language is arranged so that men are identified with exalted positions, and women are identified with more service-oriented positions in which they are being dominated and instructed by men.Explanation:The English language is male-oriented, so that men are identified with dominant positions and women are identified with positions in which they are viewed as subordinate to men and instructed by men.
72Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningtake into account = take into consideration 考虑Take everything into account before you make decisions.做决定之前要考虑彻底。Your teacher will take your recent illness into account when judging your examination results. 你老师在评分时会考虑你最近生病的情况的。e.g.
73Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningin / of itself = by its very nature 本身e.g.The money in itself means nothing to us.钱本身对我们没有什么意义。Success in itself can be a dangerous thing.成功本身可能带来危险。
74Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningcontribute to = lead to 导致e.g.Smoking can contribute to lung cancer.吸烟会导致肺癌。Various factors contribute to the bankruptcy of the company.公司的倒闭是多方面原因造成的。
75Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningin reference to = in connection with 与……有关e.g.I have nothing to say in reference to his death.关于他的死我没什么可说的。My only comment is in reference to David saying that most Americans are stupid.我唯一的评论是关于戴维所说的大多数美国人都很蠢。
76Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 1ceremony: a set of formal acts, often fixed and traditional, performed on important social or religious occasionse.g.At the ceremony he was presented with a scroll commemorating his achievement.party: a social event, often in someone’s home, at which people enjoy themselves doing things such as eating, drinking, dancing, talking, or playing gamese.g.Most teenagers like to go to parties.
77Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 1meeting: an occasion when people come together intentionally or not intentionallye.g.We’re having a meeting on Monday to discuss the problem.congregation: a group of people gathered together in achurche.g.The congregation knelt to prey.
78Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 2complaint: a statement in which you express your dissatisfaction with a particular situatione.g.You have no real grounds for complaint.word: news or a messagee.g.We got word of their plan from a former colleague.
79Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 2remark: something that you say when you express an opinion or say what you have noticede.g.He was fired for making racist remarks during an interview.utterance: the things that people saye.g.He gave utterance to his thoughts.
80Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 3convey: to express a thought, feeling or idea so that it is understood by other peoplee.g.His poetry conveys a great sense of political ambition.consider: to think about something carefully, especially before making a choice or decisione.g.The committee has been considering the report.
81Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 3confront: if you are confronted with a problem task or difficulty, you have to deal with ite.g.She was confronted with severe money problems.contend: to compete in order to win somethinge.g.There are three world-class tennis plays contending for this title.
82Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 4usage: the way in which words are actually used in particular contexts, especially with regard to their meaningse.g.He was a stickler for the correct usage of English.use: a purpose for which something is usede.g.A food processor has a variety of uses in the kitchen.
83Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 4word: a single unit of language which has meaning and can be spoken or writtene.g.Your essay should be no more than 2,000 words long.vocabulary: all the words that someone knows or usese.g.Reading is one of the best ways of improving your vocabulary.
84Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 5identify sb./sth. with sth. : to believe that sb. or sth. is closely connected or involved with sth. elsee.g.Many football fans are unfairly identified with violent behaviour.involve: to include or affect sb. or sth.e.g.These changes will involve everyone on the staff.
85Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 5connect: if something or someone connects one thing to another, the two things are joined togethere.g.I was surprised to hear them mentioned together: I’ve never connected them before.preoccupy: if something preoccupies someone, they think or worry about it a lote.g.She seemed preoccupied all the time I was talking to her.
86Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 6inability: if you refer to someone’s inability to do something, you are referring to the fact that they are unable to do ite.g.Her inability to concentrate could cause an accident.ability: the physical or mental power or skill needed to dosomethinge.g.There’s no doubting his ability.
87Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 6disability: a physical or mental condition that makes it difficult for someone to use a part of their body properly, or to learn normallye.g.Public places are becoming more accessible to people with disabilities.capability: if you have the capability or capabilities to so something, you have the ability or the qualities that are necessary to do ite.g.The standards set four years ago in Seoul will be far below the athletes’ capabilities now.
88Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 7weapon: an action, piece of information, piece of equipment that you can use to win or be successful in doing somethinge.g.Right now, she felt the need of every weapon in her armory, including surprise.purpose: the purpose of something is the reason for which it is made or donee.g.Tony seems to do these things on purpose.
89Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison9 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 8fashion: a style that is popular at a particular tome, especially in cloths, hair, male-up, etc.e.g.Long hair is back in fashion for men.idea: a plan or suggestion for a possible course of action, especially one that you think of suddenlye.g.She got the idea from an article in a fashion magazine.
90Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 8harbor: to think about or feel something, usually over a long periode.g.He’s been barbouring a grudge against her ever since his proportion was refused.enjoy: to get pleasure from somethinge.g.I enjoyed every minute of it.
91Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 8cherish: if you cherish something, you keep it in your mind for a long period of timee.g.One of our cherished privileges is the right of free speech.offer: to ask someone if they would like to have something or if they would like you to do somethinge.g.She was offered a job in Paris.
92Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 9enforce: to make something happen or force someone to do somethinge.g.It is unlikely that a record company enforce its views on an established artist.force: to make something happen or make someone do something difficult, unpleasant usually by threatening or not offering the possibility of choicee.g.I really have to force myself to be pleasant to him.
93Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 10capable: if a person or thing is capable of doing something, they have the ability to do ite.g.The kitchen is capable of catering for several hundred people.able: to have the necessary physical strength, mental power, skill, time, money or opportunity to do somethinge.g.She’s never been able to admit to his mistakes.
94You may qualify for unemployment benefit. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 10qualify: to have the right to have or do something, or to give someone this righte.g.You may qualify for unemployment benefit.competent: able to do things welle.g.I wouldn’t say he was brilliant but he is competent at his job.
95Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGive synonyms or antonyms of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used.1. Language is a very powerful element.Synonyms:strong, mighty, forceful2. Yet it is often misunderstood and misinterpreted, for language is a very complicated mechanism with a great deal of nuance.Antonyms:understand, comprehend, interpret
96Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. That is to say that the words that people choose to use in conversation denote the bias that they harbor within their own existence.Synonyms:entertain, cherish, nurture4. They feel that the term mailman, for example, is one that excludes women mail carriers.Antonyms:include, embrace
97Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening5. For example, the person who investigates reported complaints (as from consumers or students), reports findings, and helps to achieve fair and impartial settlements is ombudsman.Synonyms:unbiased, just, balanced6. So the language used to convey this type of male supremacy is generally reflecting the honored position of the male and the subservience of the female.Antonyms:inferiority, subservience
98Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening7. It is also commonplace not to scold little girls for being “tomboys” but to scoff at little boys who play with dolls or ride girls’ bicycles.Synonyms:conventional, common, usual, habitual8. Although there are biases that exist in the English language, there has been considerable change toward recognizing these biases and making the necessary changes formally so that they will be implemented socially.Antonyms:little, small, inconsiderable, insignificant
99Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningRephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets.The aircraft can carry 480 people, not including the crewand cabin staff (exclude)The aircraft can carry 480 people excluding the crew and cabin staff.2. His poetry expresses a great sense of religious devotion.(convey)His poetry conveys a great sense of religious devotion.
100Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningRephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets.3. The judge decided that allowing the videotape as evidence would influence people unfairly about the outcome of the trial (prejudicial)The judge decided that allowing the videotape as evidence would be prejudicial to the outcome of the trial.4. It seems he’s not the only one to blame for the accident (solely)It seems he’s not solely to blame for the accident.
101Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningRephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets.5. The two communities obviously disagree with each other in their political views (disparity)The political disparity between the two communities is obvious.6. At the ceremony many speakers expressed their admiration for his lifetime contribution to the movie industry (exalt)At the ceremony many speakers exalted his lifetime contribution to the movie industry.
102Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningRephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets.7. In the last two to three years, drinkers have had more knowledge and experienced and are now enjoying a wider variety of beer of better quality (discerning)In the last two to three years, drinkers have become more discerning and are now enjoying a wider variety of beer of better quality.8. The changes to the national health system will take effect next year (implement)The changes to the national health system will be implemented next year.
103Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- exclude \ convey VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening1. exclude v. keep out 除外e.g.The students are excluded from the survey.excluding prep. except 除外e.g.The promotion is carried out in all the supermarket excluding those in the suburb.2. convey v. deliver, carry 传达e.g.Sign language cannot convey complicated information.
104Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- prejudicial \ solely VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. prejudicial adj. biased, harmful 有偏见的，有空的e.g.Smoking is prejudicial to health.You can’t hold a prejudicial opinion toward it.4. solely adv. only 单一地，唯一地e.g.He did it solely for your own good.
105Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- disparity \ exalt VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening5. disparity n. difference 不同e.g.The disparity of the students’ intelligence should not be obvious.needn’t do: not have to 不需要e.g.You needn’t give me your answer immediately.6. exalt v. praise, raise 赞扬，提高e.g.He was exalted to the president of the company.Please don’t exalt your kids to the sky.
106Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- discern \ implement VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening7. discern v. distinguish 领悟，认识e.g.We should learn to discern the importance of cooperation.discerning having keen insight 有见识的e.g.He is a discerning literature critic.8. implement v. execute 执行e.g.It is considered inappropriate to implement the law by force.
107Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main GrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningUse of the relative clauseThe present and the future
108Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening1. Use of the relative clauseA relative clause is a clause that is introduced by a relative word — either by a relative pronoun or by a relative determiner, or by a relative adverb. Relative clauses may be restrictive or non-restrictive.1) Restrictive clause: A restrictive relative clause gives essential information about the meaning of the antecedent. It forms an integral part of the noun phrase, without which the head can’t be identified as the specific object. A restrictive relative clause is usually introduced by relative pronouns who, whose, that, which, whom and relative adverbs when, where, why.e.g.He drives a car that can travel 150 miles an hour.James Russell is a man for whom I have the greatest respect.
109Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeninga) The relative that is normally used as subject complement in an SVC construction or there be construction. In this use, “that” is usually omitted.e.g.When Mary was born, Dorothy decided her daughter would be the singer (that) she always wanted to be.The 9.15 is the fastest train (that) there has ever been.b) When the antecedent is an indefinite pronoun such as all, anything, something, or nothing, the following relative clause usually requires a relative that as subject, and that/zero as object.e.g.All that live must die.All (that) I want is peace and quiet.
110Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningc) When the antecedent is composed of a personal head with determiners as only, all, any, and when the antecedent takes a premodifier in the superlative degree, the following relative clause is normally introduced by that rather than who or which.e.g.Any man that wants to succeed must work hard.Newton was one of the greatest men that ever lived.
111Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2) Non-restrictive clauses: A non-restrictive relative clause doesn’t restrict the referential meaning of the antecedent. If it is taken away, the antecedent still refers to the same person or thing. A non-restrictive relative clause is usually introduced by who, whom, whose, which. The antecedent of which may be a clause or part of a cause.e.g.This book, which only appeared a year ago, has already gone through several editions.He tried to stand on his hands for five minutes, which — as you know — is rather a difficult thing to do.
112Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPracticeComplete the following sentences using the appropriate relative words, adding a preposition where necessary.1. The only thing matters is to find our way home.2. The people he worked regarded him aseccentric.3. She cycled from London to Glasgow, is prettygood for a woman of 75.4. He wasn’t looking forward to the time hewould have to give evidence to the court.5. It has been found that the trees are being destroyed bya moth, caterpillars tunnel under the bark.6. David is not the man he was ten years ago.that_____with whom____________which_______when/at which_________________whose_______that / who____________
113Consolidation Activities- Grammar3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. The present and the future:Future time is expressed by means of model auxiliaries, by semi-auxiliaries, or by the simple present and present progressive forms.1) will/shall +verbe.g.The next train to Shanghai will leave at 8 a.m.We shall know the result next week.2) be going to +verbe.g.He’s going to be a doctor, when he grows up.
114Consolidation Activities- Grammar4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3) be +-ing (present participle): Verbs of movement from one place to another such as go, come, leave, start, arrive, etc. can be used in this structure.e.g.The plane is taking off at 6.30.4) be to +(infinitive)e.g.I’m to have tea with Betty this afternoon.4) simple presente.g.I’ll give it to you after I return.
115Consolidation Activities- Grammar5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPracticePut the verbs into the most appropriate form.Unless we (hear) from you by Monday at the latest, we (suppose) that you(no longer wish) to rent the house.2. I assure you that the matter (attend to) as quickly as possible. Have a little patience.3. A: Why are you turning on the television?B: I (watch) the news.4. Mary and Tom (come) to our party this evening.5. I will give him the letter if I (see) him.6. The Prime Minister (visit) China next month.hear_____will supposeno longer wish______________________________will be attended to_____________________am going to watch____________________are coming____________see____will visit or is to visit_______________________
116VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningIt is a non-restrictive relative clause and refers to the previous sentence.
117“Whose” can be used when the antecedent is non-personal. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening“Whose” can be used when the antecedent is non-personal.
118Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningIt is a non-restrictive relative clause and refers to the previous sentence.
120VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWe use the present tense in the adverbial clause to refer to the future time.
121Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening“Be+coming” can express the future time.
122Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWe use the present tense in the conditional clause to refer to the future time.
123Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening“Be to +verb” can express future time.
124Consolidation Activities- Translation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningTranslate the following sentences into English.1. 那位诗人能将不同情感的细微差别表达出来，我惊叹不已。(nuance)A nuance is a subtle difference or distinction in expression, meaning, response, etc., or a very slight difference or variation in color or tone.I marvel at the poet’s ability to express nuances of different feelings.
125Consolidation Activities- Translation2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.这些用户会很快了解他们所使用程序的每一个细微差别。These users will easily learn each nuance of the applications they use.婴儿对母亲声音的最细小变化都很敏感。A baby is sensitive to the slightest nuances in his mother's voice.
126Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. 教育制度的一些新政策从明年起开始实施。(implement)To implement is to fulfill; perform; carry out; or to put into effect according to or by means of a definite plan or procedure.Some new policies in the educational system will be implemented next year.
127Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.很多大学采取了减少开支的措施。Cost-cutting measures have been implemented in most universities.他说他计划的最大优点在于最容易于执行。He said his plan had virtue of being the easiest to implement.
128Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. 他认为一个人应该有崇高的思想，不能一味“向钱看”。(oriented)“To be oriented” is to adjust with relation to, or bring into due relation to surroundings, circumstances, facts, etc.He believes that a person should be noble-minded, but not money-oriented all the time.
129Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.这个国家是出口型经济。The country’s economy is export-oriented.这种唯利是图的开发模式只会导致生态失衡。This kind of profit-oriented development can only bring about the ecological imbalance.教导性的讲座不再受学生们的欢迎。The discipline-oriented lectures are no longer popular with the students.
130Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening4. 把大众文化和低俗文化混为一谈有失公允。(identify with)“Identify with” here means associated with.It is unfair to identify popular culture with vulgar culture.
131Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.跟小说中的主人公发生共鸣identify with the hero of a novel然而更重要的是，我们完全能够感受到韩国人的那份喜悦和骄傲。Most importantly however, we can identify with the joy and pride of the Korean people.
132Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDictationFill in the blanks
133Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDictationYou will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.
134Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDictationA major topic of sociolinguistics / is the connection, if any, / between the structures, vocabularies, / and ways of using particular languages / and the social roles of the men and women / who speak these languages. / Do the men and women who speak a particular language / use it in different ways? / If they do, / do these differences arise from the structure of that language, / or alternately, / do any differences that exist / simply reflect the ways / in which the sexes relate to each other in that society, / whatever the reason? / These issues have generated / a considerable amount of thought and discussion / in the last decades of the twentieth century.
135Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFill in each blank in the passage below with ONEword you think appropriate.Observations of the differences between the ways males and females speak were long restricted to grammatical features, such as the differences between masculine and feminine morphology in many languages. In earlier usage, the world gender was generally (1) to these grammatical distinctions. They cause problems for speakers of languages like English, (2) grammatical gender is marked mainly in pronouns, (3) they learn a language like French, where non-sexed (4) like table (la table) can be grammatically feminine.restricted___________where_______when______items______
136Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningIt was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked________with_____source_______
137Consolidation Activities- Hints1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “limited”.Observations of the differences between the ways males and females speak were long restricted to grammatical features, such as the differences between masculine and feminine morphology in many languages. In earlier usage, the world gender was generally (1) to these grammatical distinctions. They cause problems for speakers of languages like English, (2) grammatical gender is marked mainly in pronouns, (3) they learn a language like French, where non-sexed (4) like table (la table) can be grammatically feminine.restricted___________where_______when______items______
138Consolidation Activities- Hints2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word to lead an attributive clause.Observations of the differences between the ways males and females speak were long restricted to grammatical features, such as the differences between masculine and feminine morphology in many languages. In earlier usage, the world gender was generally (1) to these grammatical distinctions. They cause problems for speakers of languages like English, (2) grammatical gender is marked mainly in pronouns, (3) they learn a language like French, where non-sexed (4) like table (la table) can be grammatically feminine.restricted___________where_______when______items______
139Consolidation Activities- Hints3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word to lead an adverbial clause.Observations of the differences between the ways males and females speak were long restricted to grammatical features, such as the differences between masculine and feminine morphology in many languages. In earlier usage, the world gender was generally (1) to these grammatical distinctions. They cause problems for speakers of languages like English, (2) grammatical gender is marked mainly in pronouns, (3) they learn a language like French, where non-sexed (4) like table (la table) can be grammatically feminine.restricted___________where_______when______items______
140Consolidation Activities- Hints4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “word”.Observations of the differences between the ways males and females speak were long restricted to grammatical features, such as the differences between masculine and feminine morphology in many languages. In earlier usage, the world gender was generally (1) to these grammatical distinctions. They cause problems for speakers of languages like English, (2) grammatical gender is marked mainly in pronouns, (3) they learn a language like French, where non-sexed (4) like table (la table) can be grammatically feminine.restricted___________where_______when______items______
141Consolidation Activities- Hints5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningEthnographers paid attention to it.It was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked________with_____source_______
142Consolidation Activities- Hints6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “words as a whole”.It was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked________with_____source_______
143Consolidation Activities- Hints7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningTo use “male” words for women may be laughed at.It was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked________with_____source_______
144Consolidation Activities- Hints8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “symbolizing”.It was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked________with_____source_______
145Consolidation Activities- Hints9 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere “associate with” is a regular collocation.It was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked________with_____source_______
146Consolidation Activities- Hints10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “origin”.It was ethnographers who first (5) attention to distinct female and male varieties of language, often with clear differences in (6) , Livi-Strauss noted how an Amasonian father laughed at his young daughter for using the (7) word for “hunting”. Other ethnographers have provided the cases of (8) differences in the language of men and women. American servicemen in Japan who learned Japanese from the women (9) whom they associated where thus a(10) of amusement to people who knew the language.drew______vocabulary____________male______marked_____________withsource_______
147Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGiving a talkHaving a discussion
148Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGiving a talkThe text “Gender Bias in Language” reminds me of a passage where I read about the fact that all hurricanes used to be given female names, such as Hurricane Susan. Search in your library or on the Internet for more information about gender bias in language. Then present to your class what you’ve found by giving a talk. You could probably begin with “With the idea that women tend to be biased against in language, I surfed on the Internet. Let me share with you what I’ve found.”
149Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFor your referenceYou could probably find some examples as follows:—Some compound words formed by word plus “man” structure, such as “chairman”, “congressman”, “newsman” and “businessman” are seen as an indicator that males are the center of the society.— Many professionals such as doctor, professor, and engineer can be used to indicate both males and females. But when indicating female’s position, professional, etc., those words are created by adding a bound morpheme or by combining them with a word referring to female. For example, host (male) — hostess (female), teacher (male) — female teacher.
150Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningIn some English proverbs, “he” and “his” are used instead of “she” and “her.” For example, 1. Everyone has an eye to his own interest. 2. He laughs best who laughs last.—
151Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. Having a discussionHave a discussion with four or five of your fellow students about the tentative change in the use of the English language to do away with gender bias. For example, instead of actor or actress, stage performer is used; instead of waiter or waitress, attendant is used; instead of airhostess, flight attendant is employed; instead of chamber maid, room attendant is used; instead of chairman or chairwoman, chairperson is employed. Try to find more examples to further illustrate such a trend.Also, take a look at your own language. Do you find some similar changes in contemporary Chinese? Or does Chinese remain stubbornly gender-biased?—
152Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFor your reference:1) You could probably find more examples as follows:— Instead of mankind, humanity is used.— Instead of man-made, artificial is used.— Instead of housewife, homemaker is used.— Instead of saleslady, customer’s representative is used.2) You could probably find cases of gender bias in Chinese language as follows:— When men and women are presented together, usually words denoting male sex are put in front of female sex, such as “男女”，“夫妻”，“子女” and so on.—
153Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening— In most cases,“人”can refer to both sex of the people in Chinese, as in“人们”. But in some phrases such as“人老珠黄”， here“人”especially refers to women. In the context of derogative meaning,“人” refers to the woman.— When the possibility for the referent to be a man or a woman is for half, people usually use “他”. For a group of people consisting both men and women, even most of them are women, people still use “他们”.—
154Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3) You may want to express your viewpoint concerning whether the Chinese language remains stubbornly gender-biased as follows:— I can not find some similar changes in contemporary Chinese. Chinese characters consist of various strokes or radiacals which are very fixed since they were created. Personally speaking, it is almost impossible to change the combinations of the strokes or radiacals, while in English, new words can be created by adding a bound morpheme.— I am afraid the Chinese language still remains stubbornly gender-biased. In China, the traditional idea that men are superior to women still exists. In some parts, it is still very deep-rooted in people's mind. That’s why there is still sexism in Chinese language and it is not easy to challenge the idea.—
156Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening1. ConcisenessA sentence should not contain unnecessary words and the same ideas must not be stated more than once. This does not mean that sentences should be short or without detail; it simply means that each word should count. The opposite of conciseness is wordiness, which means the use of more words than necessary in expressing our thoughts. It is a stylistic fault in student’s writing.To achieve conciseness, students should avoid wordiness. When two versions express the same idea, the shorter, the better. Here are some general strategies for reducing wordiness in writing:
157Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningA. Eliminate unnecessary repetitionA sentence should contain no unnecessary words. If the idea is fully expressed, the fewer words used, the better. Wordiness only obscures, instead of clarifying, the idea. Repetition is sometimes necessary for emphasis, but unnecessary repetition, either of the same words or of different words with the same meaning, should be avoided.Example:Dangling:In my opinion, I think your plan is feasible.(In my opinion has the same meaning as I think.)Concise:In my opinion, your plan is feasible.
158Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWordy:He gave many reasons for the failure, but the reasons he gave were not convincing.(“Reasons” is repeated awkwardly.)Concise:He gave many reasons for the failure, but none of them was convincing.B. Eliminate unneeded wordsWhen a writer tries to write very formally or tries to reach an assigned word limit, deadwood usually results. In writing, the term deadwood refers to words that can be deleted without any loss of meaning. Sometimes the words serve no function whatever; other times they repeat ideas that don’t need to be repeated.
159Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningA roundabout expression conveys its meaning in a lengthy, indirect way. It should be replaced by terms that mean the same thing more directly.Example:Wordy:Work crews were dispatched for the purpose of fixing the potholes. (Deadwood)Concise:Work crews were dispatched to fix the potholes.Wordy:It is of great importance that action be taken in regard to this matter at the earliest possible date. (Roundabout)
160Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningConcise:It is important that action be taken about this matter as soon as possible.C. Reduce clauses to phrasesClauses can often be reduced to verb phrases, prepositional phrases, appositives, or single words.Example:Wordy:Professor Li was absorbed in work and he did not notice my presence.Concise:Absorbed in work, Professor Li did not notice my presence.[Reduced to verb phrase]
161Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWordy:During the three years when I studied at high school, I seldom watched TV.Concise:During the three years at high school, I seldom watched TV.[Reduced to prepositional phrase]D. Eliminate wordy sentence structuresExpletives can often work better than any other construction to express in idea. However, when relied upon unnecessarily, they contribute to wordiness. Meanwhile, although the passive voice meets some needs in English prose, it is wordy and sometimes awkward. The best way is to use the active voice.
162Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningExample:Wordy:It is the main character who arrives first.Concise:The main character arrives first.[Eliminate unnecessary expletive.]Wordy:Britain was defeated by the United States in the war of 1812.Concise:Britain lost the war of 1812 to the United States.[Change unnecessary passive construction to active construction.]
163Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPracticeRevise the following sentence to state their meaning in fewer words.1. Historically in the past, information theory was developedto find fundamental limits on compressing reliablycommunicating data.(Historically and in the past have similar meanings.)Revised: Historically, information theory was developed to find fundamental limits on compressing reliably communicating data.
164Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. He dropped out of school on account of the fact that itwas necessary for him to help support his family.(On account of the fact contains deadwood.)Revised: He dropped out of school to support his family.3. Trouble is caused when people disobey rules that havebeen established for the safety of all.(The wordy clause can be reduced to single words.)Revised: Disobeying safety regulations causes trouble.
165Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening4. At this point in time we can’t ascertain the reason as towhy the door was left open.(We can’t ascertain the reason as to is roundabout expression.)Revised: We don’t know why the door was left open.5. It is expected that the new schedule will be announcedby the bus company in the next few days.(The sentence contains unnecessary expletive andpassive construction.)Revised: The bus company will probably announce its new schedule in the next few days.
166Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDifferences Between Boys and GirlsListen to a scientific report on differences between boys and girls. Complete the following chart.
167Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGirlsBoysPhysical and mentaldevelopment at theearly stagedeveloping faster;at an earlier age;being more ready to, to ,and todeveloping ;having moreandfeeling andbones, muscles, and nerves______________________________aggression____________________talkingcourage_________________________remember facts_____spell________energy_____read_______strong_______________independent
168Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGirlsBoysperfor-mance atschoolshowing superior ability in tests measuring, , and ;performing better school tasks, especially if the task requires, , and;good at remembering what the teacher has told themscoring higher on testsmeasuringrefusing to acceptinsisting uponfor themselves;learning to think in moreways___________________vocabularyspellingmathematical reasoning__________________________，memory________mechanical abilityand________________________________________ ;problem-solving skillssittingother people’s solutions____________________________________still___________________obeying commandssolving______________________accepting theproblems _________________________teacher’s ideasindependent _____________
169Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGirlsBoysPerformance in theadult societyso few becoming greatdoing the most important;getting the ,the ,and the ;being chosen for thinking__________________scientistsbig salary______________________________great responsibility______________powerful job______________key positions
170Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDifferences Between Boys and GirlsDo you believe that only boys do well in science? Does it seem to you that girls have better vocabularies than boys? In your opinion, are boys better at building things? If your answer to each of those questions is “Yes,” you are right, according to an article in Current Science.On the average, males score higher on tests that measure mathematical reasoning, mechanical ability, and problem-solving skills. Females show superior ability in tests measuring vocabulary, spelling, and memory.It is known that bones, muscles, and nerves develop faster in baby girls. Usually, too, baby girls talk at an earlier age than boys do. Scientists think there is a physical reason for this. They believe that nerves in the left side of the brain
171Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningdevelop faster in girls than in boys. And it is this side of the brain that strongly influences an individual’s ability to use words, to spell, and to remember things.By the time they start school, therefore, little girls have an advantage that boys do not have. Girls are physically more ready to remember facts, to spell, and to read.These, of course, are skills that are important in elementary school.But what have the boys been doing in the years before starting school? They have been developing something called aggression. An aggressive person has courage and energy. He feels strong and independent. He is often the first one to start a fight.
172Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningConsequently, it is easy to understand why little girls often perform school tasks better than boys, especially if the task requires sitting still, obeying commands, and accepting the teacher’s ideas. A girl may pass easily through the first few grades. While boys of her age bring home low marks, the girl may easily get good grades. Girls seem to have “better brains” in school. Why, then, do so few girls become great scientists? Why is the most important thinking in adult society done by men?According to scientists, the answer is again aggression. Because boys are aggressive, they refuse to accept other people’s solutions; they insist upon solving problems for themselves. Thus, while little girls are
173Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeninggetting high marks in school for remembering what the teacher has told them, little boys are learning to think in more independent ways.In the adult world, the aggressive person is usually the one who gets the big salary, the great responsibility, the powerful job. And since males are trained at an early age to be aggressive, males are more often chosen for key positions.Many people believe this situation is wrong. They think women could be successful in science and industry if they were trained to be independent and problem-solving, as boys are.
174Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable quotesLead-in questionsTextQuestions for discussion
175Lead-in questions Lead-in questions Text IIMemorable quotesLead-in questions1. According to you, what are the gender differencesbetween male and female?2. What are the causes of those differences?
176The Difference Between Sex and Gender Text1Text IIMemorable quotesThe Difference Between Sex and GenderIn today’s society sex and gender seem to have two separate connotative meanings. Sex is a more scientific term that explains physical traits and sexual preferences. Gender carries a more social tone, meaning that it refers to the different clothing, activities, career choices, and positions people hold in society. A person’s social status helps separate or classify the two sexes.Sex is the total sum of physical characteristics that distinguish males and females from each other. The most distinctive difference in characteristics is that men and women have different reproductive organs. This is pretty obvious and so are other traits like facial hair, deep voices, and muscular builds. It is not often that you see a six foot12
177Text2Text IIMemorable quotesfive inch bearded lady who sounds like Barry White walking around. Women are smaller and feminine. They normally walk with a switch and speak with soft voices.These descriptions may not apply to all men and women, but they are pretty good examples of what to look for if confused.That brings me to my other definition of sex. Sex is also known as the preference of sexual partner or mate that one desires. A person’s preference determines their sexual identity. There are three types of preferences. First, there are heterosexual people who like people of the opposite sex. There are homosexual people who prefer partners of the same sex. And then there are bisexual people who like to have partners who are either male or female.3
178Text3Text IIMemorable quotesThe environments that some people are raised in contribute to confusion about their sexual identity. Some people say that these preferences were present the day that they were born. I feel that it is one’s own choice what preference they choose. No person is born straight or gay.Certain traits may get mixed up when dealing with people who like to cross-dress. Those are people who like to dress like the opposite sex. Some people get sex change operations and become transsexuals. There are even people who are born with both a male organ and female organs. They are called hermaphrodites. I feel sorry for them because they didn’t ask to be born with such a deformity.4
179Text4Text IIMemorable quotesGender consists of social classifications that help determine sex. With the rapid changes in gender equality it is not as easy to separate sex by what a person does for a living. What position they hold in society or a household is not a good indication either. Years ago I could have said that if a person is a police officer, a soldier, a fireman, a politician, a lawyer, a doctor or any type of highly paid professional then that person must be a man. Back then this would have been a pretty good hypothesis. The father was the man of the house. The minister was always male and there was no such thing as women in sports.5
180Text5Text IIMemorable quotesI could have probably also said that if a person was a secretary, a grade school teacher, a receptionist, a nurse,a maid, or a homemaker then that person must be a woman. People in the female group or gender worked lower paying, less demanding jobs because it was believed that a woman could not handle the pressures that a “man’s job” required.With the absence of the father figure in many American homes women have taken over as head of the house. They juggle home life and work to keep their families together so that they can properly raise their children.Women have broken the gender barrier in almost every sport except for football and hockey. Some women’s sports are pretty interesting to watch. I like to look at women’s track, basketball, and boxing every now and then. Women have proven themselves as good athletes.678
181Text6Text IIMemorable quotesI notice that women have gained prominent positions in society. Women like Rosa Parks and Hilary Clinton are highly respected figures. There are women in almost every professional field. There are women politicians, lawyers, doctors, ministers, etc.Gender is a tricky term to define. I think that gender should be left up to people to interpret for themselves.The term gender is a little sexist because it associates sex with social status. As for me I think that gender is a little outdated. Sex is a sufficient enough classification to separate men, women, and the people who are confused about what they are.910
182Text1 – connotative meanings Text IIMemorable quotesconnotative meanings (Paragraph 1): the additional meanings that a word or phrase has beyond its central meaning. These meanings show people’s emotions and attitudes what the word or phrase refers to. For example, child could be defined as a young human being but there are many other characteristics which different people associate with child, e.g. affectionate, amusing, lovable, sweet, noisy, irritating. Some connotations may be shared by a group of people of the same cultural or social background, sex, or race; others may be restricted to one or several individuals and depend on their personal experience.
183Text2 –Barry WhiteText IIMemorable quotesBarry White (Paragraph 2): ( ) was an American record producer, songwriter and singer. A multiple Grammy Award-winner known for his deep bass voice and romantic image, White’s greatest success came in the 1970s with the Love Unlimited Orchestra, crafting many enduring hit soul and disco songs.
184Text2 –They normally walk … Text IIMemorable quotesThey normally walk with a switch and speak with soft voices. (Paragraph 2): Women usually walk swaying from side to side and speak with gentle voices.
185Text2– These descriptions may … Text IIMemorable quotesThese descriptions may not apply to all men and women, … (Paragraph 2): These oversimplified characteristics may not be applied as a generalization to all men and women.
186Text2– sexual identityText IIMemorable quotessexual identity (Paragraph 3): Sexual identity is a person’s strong feeling of being a male or female. It includes sexual orientation — that is, whether a person is sexually attracted to the opposite sex or the same sex. People who are primarily attracted to members of their own sex are called homosexual, gay, or, if they are women, lesbian. People who are attracted to the opposite sex are called heterosexual or straight. People who feel attracted to people of both sexes are bisexual. Despite considerable research, the origins of sexual orientation are not completely understood.
187Text3- Certain traits may get Text IIMemorable quotesCertain traits may get mixed up when dealing with people who like to cross-dress. (Paragraph 4) : Certain features of the two sexes may be found mixed in the case of those who like to wear the clothes of the opposite sex.
188Text3- Some people get sex Text IIMemorable quotesSome people get sex change operations and become transsexuals. (Paragraph 4): A small number of males and females believe they should have been born a member of the other sex. Such individuals, called transsexuals, believe they have the wrong body for their feelings and emotions. They feel “trapped” in the body of the wrong sex. Some transsexuals have surgery to change their anatomy to match their feelings. Transsexualism occurs more in males than in females. Its cause is unknown. Some behavioral scientists think it results from an early disturbance in the mother-infant relationship and a lack of proper identification with the same-sex parent. There is no evidence of hormonal abnormalities in transsexuals.
189Text3- hermaphroditesText IIMemorable quoteshermaphrodites (Paragraph 4): A hermaphrodite is an animal with both male and female organs of reproduction. In human beings, hermaphroditism is not normal. The organs and functions of one or both sexes usually develop imperfectly in such rare individuals. Few human cases of hermaphroditism have been reported.
190Text4- Back then this would Text IIMemorable quotesBack then this would have been a pretty good hypothesis. (Paragraph 5): Years ago one’s occupation would have provided a sound, though tentative, clue to one’s sexual identity.
191Text5 - grade schoolText IIMemorable quotesgrade school (Paragraph 6): In the United States, a grade school is an elementary school or grammar school. Elementary school is a school for children from age 5 or 6 to age 12 or 14.
192Text5 - They juggle home … Text IIMemorable quotesThey juggle home life and work … (Paragraph 7): They manage to fit their work into homemaking …
193Text5 - Women have broken the Text IIMemorable quotesWomen have broken the gender barrier in almost every sport except for football and hockey. (Paragraph 8): Before the 20th century in the United States women could not play in most organized sports. Soon, however, they began to enter the sports arena. In 1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments Act outlawed discrimination based on gender in education, including school sports. Schools then spent additional funding on women’s athletics, which provided an enormous boost to women’s sports of all kinds, especially basketball, which became very popular. Women’s college basketball, part of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), is a popular focus of interest. By the end of the 20th century, this enthusiasm led to the creation of a major professional women’s basketball league. Women have become a large part of athletics, making their mark in a wide range of sports.
194Text5 - Rosa ParksText IIMemorable quotesRosa Parks (Paragraph 9): African American civil rights activist. In 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man. Her action led to the Montgomery bus strike, which was the first large-scale, organized protest against segregation that used nonviolent tactics. Rosa Parks’s personal act of defiance opened a decisive chapter in the civil rights movement in the United States.
195Text6 - Hilary ClintonText IIMemorable quotesHilary Clinton (Paragraph 9): Democratic member of the United States Senate from New York (2001- ) and wife of the ex-president of the United States Bill Clinton. During her husband’s presidency ( ), she became a powerful symbol of the changing role and status of women in American society. Her election to the U.S. Senate while being first lady was unprecedented in U.S. history. And she is now serving as Secretary of State in the Obama Administration.
196Text6 - The term gender is Text IIMemorable quotesThe term gender is a little sexist because it associates sex with social status. (Paragraph 10): The term gender reflects the belief that females are inferior to males in a variety of attributes because it helps determine sex by what a person does for a living.
197Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussionWhat is the difference between sex and gender?Many people use the terms sex and gender interchangeably. However, two terms have different meanings. Sex refers to the physical characteristics that make a person male or female. It is also used to describe the sexual activities that occur between intimate individuals Gender refers to a sense of being male or female or having the recognizable traits of one’s sex. It carries a more social tone, concerning a society’s expectations for males and females, including values, attitudes, and behavior.
198Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion2. What does the word “feminine” in the second paragraph mean? What is the opposite of the word?It refers to characteristics and behavior that are generally associated with being a female such as body shape, voice, hairstyle, clothing, body movements, and display of emotions. Characteristics and behavior generally associated with being a male are called masculine.
199Questions for discussion3 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion3. According to the author how does sexual identitydevelop?Each person must decide how he or she wants to express sexuality. Sexual identity develops partly from biological influences, and partly from cultural influences. Most people are influenced in their decision by values learned from their family, culture or peer group.
200Questions for discussion4 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion4. What prompts the author to suggest that sex besubstituted for gender?Women historically have endured prejudice because of social and sexual taboos. But the author feels that in the process of pursuit gender equality, there is confusion about the definition of gender because it consists of social classifications which undermine women’s sense of their human identity. Sex would include both sexes, eliminating the differences that society has imposed.
201Questions for discussion5 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion5. What is the author’s purpose of writing this passage?It encourages a society’s respect for human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
202Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes Text IIMemorable quotesMemorable QuotesRead the following quotes and analyze the functions of language indicated by them.Guidance: Human language is unique in being a symbolic communication system that is learned instead of biologically inherited. A language is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information.Samuel Johnson (1709 — 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English author who made great contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. His Dictionary of the English Language had a far-reaching effect on Modern English.
203Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes Text IIMemorable quotesMemorable QuotesWalter Whitman (1819 — 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. Whitman is often called the father of free verse.
204Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes 1. Language is the dress of thought. Text IIMemorable quotesMemorable Quotes1. Language is the dress of thought.— Samuel JohnsonLanguage is a means to express thought.
205Memorable QuotesText IIMemorable quotes2. Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary-makers, but is something arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its bases broad and low, close to the ground.— Walt Whitman
206Memorable QuotesText IIMemorable quotesLanguage is not a difficult design of the knowledgeable people, or dictionary-makers, but something that comes out of the daily life of the ordinary people — their work, needs, relationships, happiness, emotions and tastes throughout the history of humanity. It has wide and low bases, close to the most ordinary people.arise (out of/from sth): (rather formal) to happen as a result of somethinge.g.Unemployment arises out of the economic recession.