Presentation on theme: "1 Module 3 Sentences in Essay Matakuliah: G1222, Writing IV Tahun: 2006 Versi: v 1.0 rev 1."— Presentation transcript:
1 Module 3 Sentences in Essay Matakuliah: G1222, Writing IV Tahun: 2006 Versi: v 1.0 rev 1
2 What’s inside 1.What should be considered in writing an essay. 2.How to create sentences in an essay 3.What is a gender-biased/sexist words 4.Do’s and don’ts in composing sentences in an essay
3 Sentences in an essay 1.INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Consider what a reader needs to know in order to understand what you are writing about. Are there details of time and place that are important? Attention-getter To capture the reader's attention, so they will want to continue reading. (some of the most effective devices are a quote from a famous person that relates to your topic, a compelling description or scene, startling statistics, or a question). Anything that will interest a reader and involve them in the topic is good.
4 Sentences in an essay Sufficient background information; appropriate context For example, if your essay is a biographical study of your favorite writer, you probably want to include the writer's name; what country (and even what state/province and city) they are from; what period they were/are writing in; and how many books, stories, or poems they've written, all in the introduction. If there is a lot of background material, it can be a good idea to put it in a separate paragraph, with only the very basic information in the introduction itself. Focused subject Abstract terms refer to ideas or concepts; they have no physical referents such as love, success, freedom, good, moral, democracy, and any -ism (chauvinism, Communism, feminism, racism, sexism). Concrete terms refer to objects or events that are available to the senses. spoon, table, velvet eye patch, nose ring, sinus mask, green, hot, walking. Because these terms refer to objects or events we can see or hear or feel or taste or smell, their meanings are pretty stable.
5 Sentences in an essay Clear, explicit thesis statement It is a one or two sentence summary of a papers' purpose or point, and which usually exists as the last sentence in the introduction. A thesis statement should be very clear as it announces your topic and your point, and limited in scope, so that writing your essay is a managed task. A good thesis statement will usually include the following four attributes: 1.take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree 2.deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment 3.express one main idea 4.assert your conclusions about a subject
6 Sentences in an essay EACH BODY PARAGRAPH Topic sentence A topic sentence states the main point of a paragraph: it serves as a mini-thesis for the paragraph. You might think of it as a signpost for your readers—or a headline—something that alerts them to the most important, interpretive points in your essay. Topic sentences usually appear at the very beginning of paragraphs.
7 Sentences in an essay COHERENCE (MAKING SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS STICK TOGETHER) - Clue words (or glue words)-"however," "in addition" - Parallel sentence structure for coordinate ideas - Clear use of pronouns - Topic sentence a part of thesis statement - Transition devices at beginning of paragraph
8 Sentences in an essay SUFFICIENT SUPPORT TO PROVE THE TOPIC SENTENCE Ask These Questions Do I have enough evidence to support this paragraph's idea? Do I have too much evidence? (In other words, will the reader be lost in a morass of details, unable to see the argument as a whole?) Does this evidence clearly support the assertion I am making in this paragraph, or am I stretching it? If I am stretching it, what can I do to persuade the reader that this stretch is worth making? Am I repeating myself in this paragraph? Have I defined all of the paragraph's important terms? Can I say, in a nutshell, what the purpose of this paragraph is? Has the topic sentence in the paragraph fulfilled that purpose?
9 Sentences in an essay UNITY - Every sentence directly or indirectly supporting the topic sentence ORDER - Statement in some logical order - Body paragraphs in some logical order CONCRETE SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT - Specific statements of fact - Detailed reasons - Concrete examples - Quotations from authorities (with citations)
10 Sentences in an essay CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH - Brief statement of summary - Reference to statements) in introduction - Application of thesis to the future, to other people to something broader than the - examples in the essay
11 Biased language Gender-Specific Pronouns “A student planning to graduate this spring should see his advisor at once.” Sexist Terminology "I need to see a doctor." "She's busy right now." "No, I said a doctor." A college is a corner of men's hearts where hope has not died. Here the prison house has not closed; here no battle is yet quite lost. Here, we assert, endow, and defend as final reality the best of our dream as men. Here lies our sense of community. Howard Lowry
12 Avoid Use Instead Avoid actressactormale nursenurse anchormananchorman (meaning any human being) person, people all forms of alumnus/a managers and their wives managers and their spouses alumni/aealum/gradmankindhumanity, people alums/gradspoetesspoet businessmanbusinesspersonpolicemanpolice officer chairmanchairperson, chairsalesmansales representative, coedstudentstewardessflight attendant forefathersancestorswaiter/waitressserver
13 10 tips of writing sentences in an essay 1.Use active verbs 2.Keep your sentence length under control 3.Use simple words 4.Avoid jargon 5.Avoid abstract terms
14 10 tips of writing sentences in an essay 6.Keep abbreviations under control 7.Use topic sentences 8.Link your ideas and paragraphs 9.Use examples to explain difficult points 10.Use quotations in your writing