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Urban Behaviour. What Is Urban Behaviour? Actions of individuals that reside in cities Characteristics of Urban Behaviour  Minimize expressions  Minimize.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban Behaviour. What Is Urban Behaviour? Actions of individuals that reside in cities Characteristics of Urban Behaviour  Minimize expressions  Minimize."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban Behaviour

2 What Is Urban Behaviour? Actions of individuals that reside in cities Characteristics of Urban Behaviour  Minimize expressions  Minimize body contact  Look before you sit  Minimize eye contact  When in doubt – flee or disattend Lofland, L. H. (1973). A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books

3 Minimize Expressions One’s facial expression should be blank Avoid laughter & tears unless in an appropriate environment One should not sing or talk to themselves One’s clothing should not stand out as odd or different Conversation amongst one or two other people should not be audible to strangers in the environment Lofland, L. H. (1973). A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books

4 Minimize Body Contact Avoid bumping, brushing, stepping or colliding with any strangers One should be alert to the speed with which others are at as a guide for their own actions Follow the rule of staying to the right Lofland, L. H. (1973). A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books

5 Look Before You Sit Keep oneself apart from the rest  Avoid seating in such a way to suggest to a stranger that you wish to interact Lofland, L. H. (1973). A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books

6 Minimize Eye Contact Keep one’s eyes to oneself Avoid accidental contact  If in a seated or waiting situation, have or look at a prop (i.e. book or cell phone)  Look at inanimate objects  Wear sunglasses Lofland, L. H. (1973). A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books

7 When In Doubt – Flee or Disattend Keep oneself protected Avoid coming close to others who look or behave oddly If one cannot flee, one should not behave in a way that suggests to the other that their behaviour is odd Lofland, L. H. (1973). A world of strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York: Basic Books

8 Eye Contact with Strangers in City, Suburb, and Small Town (Newan & McCauley) To make eye-contact with another individual is associated with intimacy, affect, cooperation & liking Signal for synchronizing speech & listening between two persons in conversation Newman, J., & McCauley, C. (1977). Eye contact with strangers in city, suburb, and small town. Environment and Behavior, 9(4), Retrieved from

9 Method Eye contact was measured with an experimenter in three settings in Philadelphia:  City, suburb & rural small town Two locations:  US post office and a nearby large store At each of the 6 locations studied, eye contact was measured on two different days by a different experimenter Newman, J., & McCauley, C. (1977). Eye contact with strangers in city, suburb, and small town. Environment and Behavior, 9(4), Retrieved from

10 Procedure The experimenter would stand 1 meter from the door of the store or post office When a person got within 3 meters of the door, the experimenter began to look the subject in the eye Experimenter recorded whether:  Eye contact was made  Subject spoke to experimenter  Subject's sex  Estimate of the subject's age Experimenter were instructed to smile & nod but say nothing if the subject was to make eye contact If asked, experimenters said they were waiting for someone Newman, J., & McCauley, C. (1977). Eye contact with strangers in city, suburb, and small town. Environment and Behavior, 9(4), Retrieved from

11 Result Urban setting had the least eye contact Rural setting the most Female experimenter averaged 43% eye contact Male experimenter averaged 35% eye contact  Sex of the passers-by did not interact with the sex of the experimenter Newman, J., & McCauley, C. (1977). Eye contact with strangers in city, suburb, and small town. Environment and Behavior, 9(4), Retrieved from

12 Violinist in Metro Station In 2007, Josh Bell posed as a street musician in Washington D.C to see how many people would stop and listen Stop and Hear the Music:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnOPu0_YWhw Weingarten,G. (2007, April 8). Pearls Before Breakfast: Can one of our nation’s great musicians cut through the fog of a D.C. rush hour?. Washington Post. Retrieved from hour-lets-find-out/2014/09/23/8a6d46da e4-b47c-f5889e061e5f_story.html

13 System Overload Theory (Milgram) Individual is unable to process all the inputs being received from the environment as there are too many How to cope?  Input A may be processed first while B is kept in the background  Input A or B may be ignored all together Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

14 Environmental Annoyances In Urban Settings (Robin et al.,) Robin, M., Matheau-Police, A., & Couty, C. (2007). Development of a scale of perceived environmental annoyances in urban settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(1), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /j.jenvp

15 Bystander Effect Individuals are less likely to help when there are other bystanders  The larger the number of bystanders, the less the likelihood that someone will intervene in an emergency The Death of Kitty Genovese  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BdpdUbW8vbw Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167(3924), Retrieved from

16 Helping & Gender Differences (Reysen & Ganz) (2006)  Hypotheses:  Women received more help than men & men helped more than women  Men will help more than women when an audience is present  Participants:  324 persons who were walking alone and older than 17  Blind selection procedure First person to step over a line  Design & Procedure:  Male or female experimenter would walk toward an individual and “accidently” drop a pen and not notice it Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2006). Gender differences in helping in six U.S. cities. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(1), Retrieved from

17 Responses were scored on a 5 point ordinal scale  1 – did not notice the pen drop  2 – noticed but did not offer help  3 – did not pick up pen but called back to the experimenter  4 – picked up pen and gave back to the experimenter  5 – picked up pen & caught up to the experimenter to give it back Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2006). Gender differences in helping in six U.S. cities. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(1), Retrieved from

18 Results  There was no relationship between sex of helper & helping behaviour  No relationship between sex of experimenter dropping the pen & helping behaviour Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2006). Gender differences in helping in six U.S. cities. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(1), Retrieved from

19 Kindness of Strangers – 24 US Cities (Levine et al.,) Predictors of help: 1. Population Size 2. Population Density 3. Population Stability 4. Economic Well-Being 5. Pace of Life 6. Crime Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

20 Population Size & Density Hypothesis:  Based on the system overload theory & the bystander effect, population size and density would be related negatively to helping Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

21 Population Stability Hypothesis:  Communities experiencing rapid population growth have a lack of social connectedness and therefore less likely to enter into helping relationships with others in public Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

22 Economic Stability Linksy and Strauss (1986):  Communities with a poor economy are more likely to engage in criminal behaviour Are people in economically healthy communities more likely to engage in pro-social behaviours? Hypothesis:  Economic well-being has a positive relationship to helping behaviour Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

23 Pace of Life A rapid pace of life decreases the likelihood of one taking time to engage in non-essential social responsibilities Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

24 Crime High crime rates lead to social disorganization and instils fear and distrust amongst those in the community Hypothesis:  Crime rates would be negatively related to helping behaviour Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

25 Main goals of the study: 1. Examine the relationship of changes over time ( to 2005) between community-level characteristics  Population size variables, economic indicators, crime and pace of life 2. Provide updated social indicators of the quality of the helping environment in individual cities 3. Examine the 6 predictors in helping behaviour Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

26 Method Subjects:  Individuals from 24 US cities and their surrounding areas were studied Northeast:  Boston, MA, New York, NY, Providence, RI, Rochester, NY, Springfield, MA, Worcester, MA Midwest:  Chicago, IL, Detroit, MI, Indianapolis, IN, Kansas City, MO-KS, Lansing, MI, Youngstown, OH South:  Atlanta, GA, Dallas, TX, Louisville, KY, Nashville, TN, Chattanooga, TN, Knoxville, TN West:  Los Angeles, CA, San Francisco, CA, Sacramento, CA, San Jose, CA, Bakersfield, CA, Fresno, CA Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

27 Measures of Helping 1. The type of help offered  Direct vs. indirect  Planned vs. formal  Serious vs. non-serious 2. Social setting in which help is offered 3. Degree of need of the recipient Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

28 Procedure Data was collected in two or more locations in main downtown areas, during main business hours and on clear days Only individuals walking alone were sampled as they crossed a pre-determined line  15 males & females were approached for helping  35 males & females were observed for pace of life Children, handicapped, seniors or those with heavy packages were excluded Experimenter was a 24 year-old male college student Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

29 Experiment 1. Dropped Pen  Experimenter walked toward a pedestrian passing in opposite direction  When feet from the subject, the experimenter would drop the pen by “accident”  Subjects were scored as:  Called back to the experimenter that they dropped the pen  Picked up the pen & brought it back to the experimenter Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

30 2. Hurt Leg  Experimenter would be walking with a heavy limp & wearing a visible leg brace & accidently drop and unsuccessful reach for a pile of magazines  Subjects were scored as:  Offering to help  Beginning to help without first offering Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

31 3. Change for a quarter  Experimenter would walk up to pedestrian and ask if they can make change for a quarter  Subjects were scored as:  Having checked their pocket for change Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

32 Pace of life:  Measured by measuring one’s walking speed over a distance of 60 feet Community variables  US Bureau of the Census Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

33 Results Overall helping index:  Measures of helping were positively intercorrelated Changes in helping:  Overall helping has shown a small but significant decrease over the past decade & a half  Population size & density showed negative correlations on all measures of helping  Economic stability showed positive correlations with overall helping Pace of life:  Cities with slower walkers tend to be more helpful Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85(3), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /s

34 Increasing Helping Be aware & take action  Just learning about the bystander effect should increase intervention Reduce ambiguity  Speak your mind Increase (take) responsibility Seeing pro-social models Moral inclusion  Regarding others ("out-group members") as within one's circle of moral concern Myers, D. G., Spencer, S. J, & Jordan, C. H. (2012). Social Psychology (Fifth Canadian Edition). Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

35 Urban City Experience ”People didn’t seem to care about each other at all.” - Milgram Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167(3924), Retrieved from

36 Characteristics of Urban City’s Large number of people Big city is attractive, more people live here Higher population density Increased population = limitation of space Heterogeneity of population Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167(3924), Retrieved from

37 Density vs. Crowding Density: A physical condition involving the limitation of space. Bigger city, less recreational and personal space Crowding: Experiential Limited space as perceived by the individual in relation to themselves Stokols, D., Rall, M., Pinner, P., Schopler, J. (1973). Physical, Social, and Personal Determinants of the Perception of Crowding. Environment and Behavior, 5(1),

38 Results of Crowding Increased stress Hostility towards others Anxiety Dissatisfaction with situation Stokols, D., Rall, M., Pinner, P., Schopler, J. (1973). Physical, Social, and Personal Determinants of the Perception of Crowding. Environment and Behavior, 5(1),

39 Big city’s are attractive but expensive. Cost of living is higher so inhabitants cut costs where they can E.g. taking public transit instead of paying to maintain a vehicle Taking public transportation one of the most common places to experience crowding and its effects Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167(3924), Retrieved from

40 Toronnipeg (2014). Nuit Blanche TTC Complaint Dept. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otmhkhhdhwI

41 Where Would You Sit?

42 Crowding and Personal Space Invasion on the Train: Please Don’t Make Me Sit in the Middle Evans and Wener (2007)  Hypotheses:  The closer people sat next to each other, the more adverse reactions (stress)  Participants:  Followed 139 train commuters during rush hour in New York  Participants were on the same commuting route for an average of 82 months with a 12 month minimum  Average commuting time – 83 mins Evans, G.W. & Wener, R.E. (2007). Crowding and personal space invasion on the train: Please don’t make me sit in the middle. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27,

43  Design & Procedure:  Salivary cortisol was taken at the end of each morning trip to work and same time of day on weekend  Motivation was assessed by a proof reading task, detecting the percent number of errors in an except  Mood was assessed during commute on a 5 point scare (carefree – frustrated)  Results:  Significant difference in stress level of participants who were sitting with an increased number of individuals in the same row Evans, G.W. & Wener, R.E. (2007). Crowding and personal space invasion on the train: Please don’t make me sit in the middle. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27,

44  Conclusion  Passengers commuting on transit experience greater social interaction than desired.  Middle seats double likelihood of increased interaction and is therefore avoided unless standing space becomes too crowded  Invasion of personal space by strangers causes negative physiological and psychological effects  Frequency of space intrusion may also be a contributing factor Evans, G.W. & Wener, R.E. (2007). Crowding and personal space invasion on the train: Please don’t make me sit in the middle. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27,

45 Suggestions  Break seating in trains up into smaller groups  E.g. seating can be in two’s instead of 3’s and 4’s  Dividers such as rails or arm rests  Provide bigger areas to stand  Open concepts for train cars  TTC’s open concept for new trains  Increase number of available trains during rush hour Evans, G.W. & Wener, R.E. (2007). Crowding and personal space invasion on the train: Please don’t make me sit in the middle. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27,

46 Pace of Life Larger cities have residents with higher wages, higher cost of living Increased value for time Economizing time = need to get things done faster including walking Sensory overload leads to rapid motor action Reduced social interaction plays a role in pace Stokols, D., Rall, M., Pinner, P., Schopler, J. (1973). Physical, Social, and Personal Determinants of the Perception of Crowding. Environment and Behavior, 5(1), Retrieved from: https://webfiles.uci.edu/dstokols/Pubs/Crowding%20E-B% pdf

47 The Pace of Life in 31 Countries Levine & Norenzayan (1999)  Studied pace of life in 31 countries  Focused on largest city in each country  Fastest in Japan and Europe and slowest in developing countries  Faster pace in colder climate, places with higher economic production and individualistic cultures  Faster pace = increased chance of death from heart disease  Population size significantly related to both walking speed and measure of work speed compared to small towns in Guinea Levine, R. V., & Norenzayan, A. (1999). The Pace of Life in 31 Countries. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 30,

48  Population increase drives up cost of goods and land  Economic demand and time efficiency. Time more valuable and pace more valuable  Sense of urgency has similar effect as anger/ hostility in body (also a predictor of CHD) Levine, R. V., & Norenzayan, A. (1999). The Pace of Life in 31 Countries. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 30,

49 Speed – One of the most salient characteristics of life in the 19 th century –Levine & Norenzayan Levine, R. V., & Norenzayan, A. (1999). The pace of life in 31 countries. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 30,

50  The need for speed is everywhere  Required to become a leader  E.g. launching a new product. Apple was first company to develop and mass market their mp3 player the Ipod, dominated global market  Efficiency means money saved and revenue earned more quickly  Culture has been transformed into a “synchronous society” which is nationally and globally integrated.  Prime directive is to keep up with the change Hassan, R. (2008). The Information Society: Cyber Dreams and Digital Nightmares. Polity Press,

51  Lose touch with deeper connections  Moving too fast to make deep friendships/ relationships  Time a precious commodity  Pack more activities into work and leisure time Becoming indistinct Hassan, R. (2008). The Information Society: Cyber Dreams and Digital Nightmares. Polity Press, The Ellen Show (2013). The Challenges of Multitasking. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q45cUHfvMZU

52 The Effect of Multitasking on the Grade Performance of Business Students Ellis, Daniels & Jauregui (2010) Hypothesis: To see if there was a difference in performance in students grades if they are distracted while learning Experiment: Evaluate the mean testing scores of a cohort of 62 undergraduate accounting students in a Principles of Accounting Course of which half of the students text during lecture Ellis, Y., Daniels, W. and Jauregui, A. (2010). The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 8

53 Procedure: The cohort was divided into two groups – the texting group and non-texting group.  Texting group was allowed to send and receive text messages at anytime throughout course  Non-texting group had to have phones off during lecture A quiz would be administered at the end of the course to see if there was a difference in learning Results: There was a significant difference in test scores between the two groups  Individuals who were not allowed to have their phones on scored much better on their quiz than the cohort in the texting group Ellis, Y., Daniels, W. and Jauregui, A. (2010). The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 8

54 Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading Bowman, Levine, Waite & Dendron (2010) Hypothesis: Doing more than one task at a time increases the amount of time it takes to complete original task Experiment: A class of students taking an undergraduate psychology course was asked to read a 3,828 word passage where some students use instant messaging while reading. Procedure: 3 groups:  Use instant messaging prior to reading passage  Use instant messaging while reading passage  No use of instant messaging whatsoever Time to complete reading would be compared across each group Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M. and Dendron, M. (2010). Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54,

55 Results: Experiment found that those who used instant messaging during the time they read the passage took 22-59% longer to complete passage  This is even after subtracting out the time spent instant messaging Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M. and Dendron, M. (2010). Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54,

56 Advances in technology especially in urban areas have us doing things faster than every before Demand to do more in shorter amounts of time without any real progress being made Result of living life at such a fast pace with has physiological effects:  Insomnia  Migraine  Hypertension  Asthma  Gastrointestinal trouble Children are becoming more stressed out and anxious Hassan, R. (2008). The Information Society: Cyber Dreams and Digital Nightmares. Polity Press,

57 Suggestions  Focus on one task at a time  Maximizes knowledge acquired or work completed  Develop strategy to filter information  Focus on quality of data vs. quantity of tasks completed  Plan ahead  Plan out schedule for day/ week, etc. so that enough time per task can be given  Take breaks  Ensure that leisure time isn’t blurred with work time Hassan, R. (2008). The Information Society: Cyber Dreams and Digital Nightmares. Polity Press,

58 Construction of Urban Behaviour Observation is the starting point of constructing urban theory Wirth’s theoretical variables - larger numbers of people -high population density -heterogeneity of population * These variables are not psychological “The Experience of Living in Cities” from Science, Vol.167, American Association for the Advancement of Science, © March 1970, Reproduced with the permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Course kit)

59 Linking Individual Experience with demographic situations Overload - the inability to process inputs because there are so many inputs coming in at a fast pace Adaptation - has to set priorities and make choices “The Experience of Living in Cities” from Science, Vol.167, American Association for the Advancement of Science, © March 1970, Reproduced with the permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Course kit)

60 Adaptive responses to Overload Allow less time to each input Eliminate unimportant inputs Create boundaries between social transactions Block off certain inputs from entering Decrease the intensity of the inputs by filtering Specialized institutions are created to absorb inputs “The Experience of Living in Cities” from Science, Vol.167, American Association for the Advancement of Science, © March 1970, Reproduced with the permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Course kit)

61 Anonymity

62 Result of Overload on Cognitive Capacities Spectrum ranging from total anonymity and full acquaintance Conditions of complete anonymity include: -alienation -detachment -freedom “The Experience of Living in Cities” from Science, Vol.167, American Association for the Advancement of Science, © March 1970, Reproduced with the permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Course kit)

63 Anonymity Philip Zimbardo did empirical work to prove whether social anonymity and impersonality in New York would encourage greater vandalism than in Palo Alto A car was left at the New York University campus and at Stanford University for 64 hours “The Experience of Living in Cities” from Science, Vol.167, American Association for the Advancement of Science, © March 1970, Reproduced with the permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Course kit)

64 Anonymity Within the first 24 hours the car left in New York was stripped of all movable parts Occurred during daylight hours Vandalism was mostly done by well-dresses, white adults The car in Palo Alto remained untouched “The Experience of Living in Cities” from Science, Vol.167, American Association for the Advancement of Science, © March 1970, Reproduced with the permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Course kit)

65 PHILIP ZIMBARDO: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EVIL

66 The Quality-of-life approach

67 Ben-Chieh Liu of the Midwest Research Institute conducted the broad research on quality of life in cities 120 variables from five areas that he believed relevant to the lives of urban people E. Krupat. “Urban Characteristics: City Versus City and City Versus Town” from People in Cities, Cambridge University Press, © 1985, Reproduced with the permission of Erlbaum and Associates. (Course kit)

68 Areas of quality-of-life 1) The economic approach Personal income and wealth Community economic health 2) The political component Professionalism and performance of local government Citizen participation in the politics of the community 3) The environmental component Air quality, noise, water, and pollution Outdoor recreational facilities E. Krupat. “Urban Characteristics: City Versus City and City Versus Town” from People in Cities, Cambridge University Press, © 1985, Reproduced with the permission of Erlbaum and Associates. (Course kit )

69 Areas of quality-of-life 4) The health and education component Infant mortality and death rate used to indicate individual health Community health protection measured through availability of medical care 5) The social component Income and employment differences between racial and gender groups – indicator of discrimination Cost of living, crime rates, housing quality Sports and cultural opportunities E. Krupat. “Urban Characteristics: City Versus City and City Versus Town” from People in Cities, Cambridge University Press, © 1985, Reproduced with the permission of Erlbaum and Associates. (Course kit )

70 Liu’s Findings in 1970 Only one urban place in the United States go straight As in all areas, Portland, Oregon. Only one city, Birmingham, Alabama got straight failing grades Cities such as Cincinnati and Dallas varied across the five areas E. Krupat. “Urban Characteristics: City Versus City and City Versus Town” from People in Cities, Cambridge University Press, © 1985, Reproduced with the permission of Erlbaum and Associates. (Course kit)

71 What city in Canada do you think is the highest in quality of life? rank-high-in-north-american-quality-of-life-survey

72 What would you do?

73 Scenario 1: It’s 8:30am and you’re running late to an important meeting that’s going to decide whether you move up in the company or stay where you are, which starts at 9:00am. You’re running through the streets and as you’re passing an alley you hear a woman scream. Do you stop in your pace and pay further attention to the surrounding situation? Keep in mind that if you continue on your way it’ll take you 30 mins to get to work.

74 Scenario 2: You’re walking pass a booth selling chargers for laptops. The person running the booth isn’t there and you notice almost every person that walks pass takes a charger without paying. You forgot your charger at home, your laptop only has 4% left of battery life, and you have paper that needs to be finished and uploaded in 15 mins. Do you take the charger? If so, did the people who stole the chargers before you have influence on your decision?

75 Scenario 3: After a long day of classes all you want is a peaceful and relaxing bus ride home. You sit in your favourite spot and plug in music. When you glance around you notice an elder woman standing. You know what you should do, but just so tired. You start to think that you wouldn’t come off as a bad person because it looks like you’re not paying attention due to the music. Do you let yourself zone out to the music?

76 Reading Questions Levine, R.V. The pace of life. American Scientist, September/October 1990, pp Levine, R. V., & Norenzayan, A. (1999). The pace of life in 31 countries. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 30, Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: A comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85, What additional variables/measures could be examined to study the pace of life? 2. How might pace of life research be applied? 3. What can reasonably be concluded about the variables influencing helping behaviour across American cities?

77 Reading Questions Milgram, S. The experience of living in cities. Science, 1970, 167, Is a city experienced in the same manner for its inhabitants, or do children’s perceptions differ from adults, immigrants from the native born, the rich from the poor, families from singles? What sort of research would you propose to answer these questions? Are different cities similar in their psychological effects, or do they differ from each other? Is merely examining density sufficient for an explanation? How is Paris different from Toronto, Toronto from Seattle, Vancouver from Montreal? How could these differences be explored in research? What methodologies might be useful in answering these questions?

78 Reading questions 1) To what uses might one apply quality of urban life research? 2) Frequently newspapers and magazines describe a ranking of cities according to some quality of life measure (e.g. a few years ago the Globe and Mail business magazine described Kingston, Ontario as its top city). What are some problems with ranking cities in quality of life research? 3) What measures would you propose for urban quality of life research that might have been overlooked in previous research? E. Krupat. “Urban Characteristics: City Versus City and City Versus Town” from People in Cities, Cambridge University Press, © 1985, Reproduced with the permission of Erlbaum and Associates. (Course kit)


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