Presentation on theme: "Transforming Jakarta: Three Integrated Ideas for Jakarta Baru* Presented by Wisnubroto Sarosa Member of Indonesian Association of Planners Member of Indonesian."— Presentation transcript:
Transforming Jakarta: Three Integrated Ideas for Jakarta Baru* Presented by Wisnubroto Sarosa Member of Indonesian Association of Planners Member of Indonesian Association of Planners Head of Sub-directorat of Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatial Plan Implementation Region I Head of Sub-directorat of Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatial Plan Implementation Region I Directorat General of Spatial Planning and Development The Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia 46 th EAROPH REGIONAL CONFERENCE Iskandar Malaysia 20 th November 2013 1 *Jakarta Baru (New Jakarta) is tagline of the current Jakarta’s Governor – Vice Governor, Joko Widodo – Basuki Tjahja Purnama
Outline The Jakarta’s challenges The impacts What have been done? The ideas for better solution 2
The Challenges 3
Jakarta which is always the centre of developmentt in Indonesia along the country’s history is becoming one of the top ten largest cities in the world. 4 The Importance of Jakarta
Urban Sprawl Development & Administrative Division Uncontrolled and sprawl development as well as administrative division change have been happening in the Greater Jakarta (JABODETABEK) for last three decades
Significant Increase of Population For 40 years, population has been increasing signifcantly in the region of JABODETABEK Total: 28 million
The Impacts 7
Increasing Commuters Phenomena Source: Commuter Survey JUTPI, 2010 DKI Jakarta City of Tangerang City of Tangsel Regency of Tangerang City of Bekasi Regency of Bekasi City of Depok City of Bogor Regency of Bogor (2002) 234 (2010) 338 (in 1,000 unit car/day) (2002) 247 (2010) 344 (2002) 262 (2010) 423 BODETABEK DKI Jakarta (2002) 743 (2010) 1,105 Prediction 2013: almost 2 million cars enter Jakarta a day BODETABEK DKI Jakarta (2002) 743 (2010) 1,105 Prediction 2013: almost 2 million cars enter Jakarta a day Increase 40%Increase 61% Increase 44% Increase 49%
Impact: Traffic Congestions 9 Severe traffic congestions everywhere and everytime cause everyone to be used spending hours on the road every single day. A prediction: Jakarta’s traffic will be stuck in 2014
Significant Increase of Private Transportation 10 The absence of adequate public transportation increase excessively the number of cars dan motorcycles Source: Commuter Survey JUTPI, 2010
More Frequent Floods 11 The area, the frequency and the duration of floods are increasing from year to year.
Spreading Slum Areas 12 Slum areas are spreading along the rivers and the coastal areas.
Impact: Reducing the Area of Green Open Spaces 13 1985 37,2% 2000 25,85 % 2010 13,94 % The fast urban development in the past has radically reduced traditional green open spaces in the city. The Spatial Planning Law No. 26/2007) suggest that the city should provide minimum 30% GOS of the area.
What Have Been Done? 14
The Existing Public Transportation For years, to serve commuters who work in Jakarta, there have been small number of railway networks which is inheritance from the colonial era. 15 Nowadays, there are 10 lanes, out of 15 lanes in the plan, of busway which serve around Jakarta, besides dozen traditional buses or minibuses managed by private company or individual.
The Plan of Transportation Network The Government and the Provincial Goverment of Jakarta plan to build: Six more toll-road enter to the city (creating big debat) Two lanes of monorail (the construction already started after six years pending) A lane of MRT from the southern part to the city center. 16
The Existing and Planned Floodways For managing the flood, the Central Government and the Provincial Government of Jakarta (DKI) have been developing and managing several canal floodways as well as waduks/ponds/reservoirs throughout the area. 17 Blue: managed and developed by the Government Orange: managed and developed by the DKI
The Ideas for Better Solution 18
Lessons from Other Megapolitans 19 Megapolitans around the world are deserved by dozens of railway system Paris Tokyo New York London Moscow Berlin
20 Our Neighbourhood Already Started New Delhi Singapore Manila Kuala Lumpur Bangkok
Idea One: Revitalisation of River Banks 21 Creating more green open space on the river banks by moving the people on the slum areas into the social housings build set back from the river banks. Due to the limited space, it is needed to build temporarily housing over the river, during the construction of social housings.
Idea One: the Resources 22 Target 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Social Housing (Menpera) to build 650 twin-block (68,180 units) of Rusunawa (rental apartement) and 200 tower (160,000 units) have only reached 20% today. The Ministry of Public Works allocates Rp 5 Trilion (USD 500 million) 2010-2014 for normalisation project of Ciliwung River. It does not include Rp 3.4 Trillion (USD 340 million) of the Ministry and the DKI Jakarta 2012 budget for normalisation project of 13 rivers in Jakarta for anticipating floods. In fact, there are a lot of budget for building the social housing and developing the rivers. The general problems are usually coming from the aquisition of lands.
Idea Two: Building Elevated Train 23 There are 13 rivers and canals, small and larger, neat and dirty, flow through Jakarta. Those are one of network of public space that can be used without acquiring the land. The other networks are the median of toll roads and the high-voltage transmission which pass trough the middle of the city. The grid need to be modified in order to be able to build the railway
Idea Two: Examples of Elevated Train Abroad 24
25 Among the 13 rivers/canals, it just takes 3 or 4 to build the elevated train/monorail network. Those networks are to service especially the comutters from the southern part of Jakarta (Depok, Bogor) While the train/monorail over the toll road are provided especially for the commuters from eastern and western parts of Jakarta (Tangerang and Bekasi) Monorail/train over the river Monorail/train over the toll road Idea Two: Elevated Train Networks in Jakarta
26 Idea Three: Building ‘the Man behind the Gun’ Kampoengveerbetaring 1934 1969 - 1984 1985 - 19891990 - 1999 MHT I: KIP/JUDP MHT II: ‘DAS’ MHT III: ‘Tribina’ 1980: Aga Khan Award 1999 WB’s Cities Alliances: “Global Best Practices” P2KP: Penang- gulangan Kemis- kinan PNPM Perkotaan 1999 - 2005 2006 - Today Due to more market oriented of the urban development since two-three decades ago, issuing permit by Local Government for private investors to build malls, apartements and city superblocks has been more dominant rather than improving the urban kampongs. Change the Mindset
27 Idea Three: Building ‘the Man behind the Gun’ Such development has been creating the processes of ‘gentrification’ as well as ‘marginalisation’ of the urban poor to suburb.
28 Idea Three: Building Concensus and Cooperation among the Stakeholders Directorat General of Spatial Planning (DJPR-PU) Directorat General of Human Settlements (DJCK –PU) Directorat General of Water Resources (SDA-PU) Provincial Government of Jakarta (DKI) Ministry of Social Housing (Kemenpera) Land Certification Agency (BPN) Directorat General of Human Settlements (DJCK –PU) Start from intitutions in the Government
29 Idea Three: Creating a Multistakeholder Cooperation Government Institutions Zakat-based Trust Fund Civil Society Organisations Quasi-public Organisation Managing the Projects Facilitating the community to include the projects Managing funding from the people of Jakarta Zakat-based Trust Fund Private Sectors Contributing and investing in certain parts of the projects Contributing in the project depending on their own role
30 Conclusion For transforming Jakarta into a more livable city it is required to have an integrated strategy which is using all potential resources (spacial, social and financial). The strategy should be implemented in a fast way and a short period in order to not creating other excessive impacts related to social and economic matters. The proposed integrated ideas could hopefully overcome three big issues in Jakarta today: traffic congestions, slum areas and green open spaces.
31 Thank You See you in Jakarta at EAROPH World Congress 2014