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Chapter 4: Europe. World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 The European Map.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Europe. World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 The European Map."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: Europe

2 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 The European Map

3 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Peninsula of Peninsulas Westward projecting peninsular section of Eurasia Four larger peninsulas 1.Scandinavian 2.Iberian 3.Italian 4.Balkan Mountain ranges Southern ranges are a result of plate tectonics. Alps Pyrenees Dinaric Carpathians Fertile valleys, basins, and tablelands Hungarian Basin Po River valley Meseta

4 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 More on the European Subcontinent Great European Plain Lowland that dominates northern Europe Atlantic coast of France to the top of Russia and into Eurasia Highly fertile soils Sizeable agriculture Hill lands Celtic refuge Two basic locations 1.Atlantic coasts of Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, and Britain 2.Central European zone

5 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 The European Subcontinent

6 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Landforms and Soils of Europe

7 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Summer in the Italian Alps & Mt. Etna, Sicily

8 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Agriculture of the Paris Basin & Rolling Hills of Western Ireland

9 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Climate Marine west coast Westerlies Prevailing winds from Atlantic Ocean via North Atlantic Drift Provides a very moist and cloudy climate Extends eastward halfway across Europe Cool summers Rare heat waves Humid continental climate Eastern Europe Moist climate Bitter cold winters Summers similar to marine west coast Mediterranean climate Southern peninsulas–Iberian, Italian, and Balkan Winter precipitation Exceptionally dry summers

10 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Climate Regions of Europe

11 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Hydrogeography Water is very important. Movement of people Major port cities Rotterdam Amsterdam Hamburg Rivers and canals to enhance transport

12 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 The Importance of Water: The Rhine River’s Economic and Cultural Significance Most important waterway of western Europe Busiest inland river in the world Delivers goods to some of the most densely populated areas of the world

13 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Mineral Resources Less abundant However, coal in very high quality North Sea Petroleum Natural gas

14 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Mineral and Forest Resources of Europe

15 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 Environmental Modifications/Problems Modifications Forest clearance Terrain and weather modifications Terracing–Stair-stepped hillsides Urban heat islands Urban temperatures higher than in neighboring rural areas Air pollution is a significant problem. The problem of acid rain Release of substances, such as sulfur and carbon, into the air Comes back with rainfall Creates death of forests Result of industrial production and heavy use of fossil fuels European Union has sought to coordinate standardized policies.

16 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 European Cultural & Economic Environment Human phenomenon Twelve basic traits 1.80% Christian 2.80%+ Indo-European speech 3.90%+ Caucasian 4.Low infant mortality 5.Educated population 6.Highly urbanized 7.Dense population 8.Wealthy population 9.Stabilized or declining population growth 10.Densely-built public transit and road network 11.Less than 10% in agriculture 12.Well-established tradition of democratic governance

17 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Core-Periphery Pattern The most purely European areas lie in the center. Germany France Peripheral areas exhibit fewer defining traits. Cultural borders are rarely sharp.

18 World Regional Geography (Clawson et al.) - Ch. 11 Europe: Culture, Society, Economy18 Mackinder’s Heartland Theory, 1904 Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world

19 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 Religious Regions Western church split in Roman Catholicism Eastern Orthodox Still the most fundamental religious border in Europe Protestant reformation (1519–1559) Further split the western church Added a north–south aspect to the religious map of Europe North Europe predominantly Protestant (90 million) Southern Europe predominantly Roman Catholic (250 million)

20 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Europe and Non-Europe

21 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 21 Major Religions of Europe

22 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 Language Patterns Similar to the religious map Three major subdivisions 1.East–Western and southern Slavic languages 2.South–Romance languages 3.North–Germanic languages Some smaller groupings Celts Greeks Latvians Lithuanians Two major alphabet traditions 1.Latin/English 2.Cyrillic Generally follows the eastern boundary of Europe.

23 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 Principal Languages of Europe

24 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 24 Demographics Population 535 million people within the continent Four countries with populations of over 50 million Center of Europe is most dense. “European zone of continuous settlement” Fueled by emigration from peripheries to the core Natural rate of increase has ceased. Entirely due to immigration Some predictions of demographic collapse Older population Better health conditions Zero population growth Other indicators Low fertility rates Low infant mortality–Lowest of any sizable part of the world

25 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 25 Population Density of Europe

26 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 Declining Fertility European fertility rates have stabilized or have been negative of replacement rates. Combined with an older population leads to a more expensive welfare state

27 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 27 Infant Mortality Rates The best indicator of level of living Generally mid to high, but not as high as world standards

28 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 28 Immigration Contentious issue in some countries Several major migration flows Associated with colonial legacies Legal and by invitation Britain–Asian Indians, Pakistanis, and West Indians Germany–Turks France–North Africa and the Caribbean

29 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 29 European Urbanization 74% urbanized Some counterurbanization taking place European cities differ from American cities. Far more compact Less suburban sprawl More tendency to flats as basic living standard Much more likely to use mass transit

30 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 30 Europe: Distribution of Metro Areas & Predominantly Rural Areas

31 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 31 Structure of European Urbanization Preindustrial core–medieval nucleus Narrow streets Marketplaces Prestigious to live Inner ring (preindustrial suburb) Began as a lower-class settlement zone outside city walls Remains predominantly residential Middle ring Result of the industrial revolution Factories Worker apartment (flat) blocks Wound up dwarfing the older core and inner ring Outer ring (postindustrial suburb) Single-family, detached dwellings High-tech factories and info/data gathering/processing

32 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 32 Primary & Secondary Industries Primary industries–Those involved in extracting resources from Earth and seas Secondary industries–Involved in the processing stage (typically called manufacturing) Deindustrialization after 1950 Industrial rejuvenation System and geography differed from the old order. Shift to focus on labor-intensive operations, producing items of high value

33 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 33 Service Industries Postindustrial economy; emphasis on services Government Transportation Banking Retailing Tourism Producer services Banking Accounting Legal services Research and development Insurance Marketing and wholesaling Real estate brokerage Various types of consulting Processing and provision of knowledge of information

34 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 34 Shifting Pattern of Primary & Secondary Industry

35 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 35 Centers of European-Producer Service Industries

36 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 36 Types of European Agriculture

37 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 37 European Union (EU) Political and Geographical Context European map has changed in the last century. Start of 20 th century–22 independent states Start of 21 st century–44 independent states Newer states are ministates–small and hard to discern on a political map. Separatism Trends within existing countries Ethnic minorities seek to establish their own state. More likely to arise in heterogeneous societies Territorial by nature and can lead to nationalism

38 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 38 Political Separatism Movements in Europe

39 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 39 Germany Current government Federal Republic Power is vested in the provinces (Länder). Unitary government has dominated history. Second Reich Third Reich Locational dynamics South–Predominantly Roman Catholic North–Predominantly Protestant North–South divide is very ancient– Going back 2,000 years.

40 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 40 The Demise of the Berlin Wall Vestige of the cold war Symbol of the Post-World War II East/West divide Began the process of the dissolution of the USSR and client states Brought major economic, political, and social challenges for a unified Germany

41 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 41 France Two challenges involving cultural regionalism 1.United a Germanized North with a Mediterranean South 2.Results of annexation of peripheral lands inhabited by ethnic minorities Result has been an historic unitary state

42 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 42 Paris A global city Center of French society and government Rich culture Suburbs are home to Muslim immigrants, typically from former colonial lands. Area of increasing instability Poverty Unemployment

43 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 43 Switzerland and Belgium Switzerland Success in joining linguistic and religious groups Multinational country 73% speak German 21% speak French 4.3% speak Italian Alps divide the state. Originally a confederation Belgium Dates from 1830 Predominantly Catholic Broke away from Protestant Netherlands Tension between French Walloons and Dutch Flemings

44 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 44 Yugoslavia: Balkan Tragedy Formed during World War I Straddled human fault lines Shards of former empires Roman Byzantium Turkish Austrian Hungarian Three mutually antagonistic faiths 1.Catholicism 2.Orthodoxy 3.Islam Two alphabets–Latin & Cyrillic Ancient legacies of hatred

45 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 45 Yugoslavia: Balkan Tragedy (Continued) Serb domination Major economic disparities Prosperous Slovenia Croatia Not so prosperous Macedonia Parts of Serbia Memories of medieval independence harbored by Croatia and Bosnia- Herzegovina Break up 1991 Four provinces seceded. 1992–Remaining parts renamed Serbia and Montenegro. Put many people on the “wrong” side of borders War, mass murder, and ethnic cleansing follow. 2006–Montenegro declares independence.

46 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 46 The United Kingdom Creation of Germanic tribes Saxons Angles Normans Formed in the SE lowlands Expansion brings challenges. Hilly lands on North and West conquered and annexed. Celts never fully, culturally absorbed. Scots and Welsh seek “home rule”. Further western conquering into the island of Ireland. Began Protestant–Catholic tension that remains to this day. British rule Northern Ireland. Republic of Ireland (1920s)

47 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 47 Italy State that rests upon memory of ancient greatness North Location of the Renaissance (North) More prosperous South Mezzogiorno Feudalistic, poor, traditional, corrupt, and provincial Long-time political fragmentation until 19 th century Unification originated in the North Unifying factors Italian language (fragmented into many dialects) Natural framework

48 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 48 Rome Major city Home to Vatican City–Seat of the Roman Catholic Church

49 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 49 Spain Origins date to merger of Castile and Aragon in Greater part of Iberian Peninsula Excluding Portugal Castilians built and ruled Spain– Dominated ethnic minorities. Basques Catalans Galicians Strong separatist movements remain with Basques and Catalans. Cultural tensions in 1930s lead to fascist dictatorship (Franco).

50 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 50 Poland Historically, a target of other powerful empires Germany Russia Austria Reborn after World War I Invaded/occupied by Germany to precipitate World War II Emerged with a Communist dictatorship 1989–Emerged as a free, democratic country Core-periphery problems remain. West More prosperous and urbanized Industrialized European East Deeply rural Impoverished

51 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 51 Romania History of domination Included Moldavia early 20 th century Communist state after World War II led by dictator (Ceausescu) Strengths Language stems from Roman empire 90% of population speaks Romanian. Sizable Hungarian-speaking minority Most belong to their own branch of Eastern Orthodox Church Weaknesses Fertile plains/agriculture remains unmodernized and underproductive Widespread poverty and low living standards At the very edge of Europe

52 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 52 The European Union Need to create economic union after WW II European Economic Community Common Market Six states originally Now an expansive political and economic union Renamed EU in 1993 Governmental structure European Commission Council of Ministers European Parliament European Court of Justice Euro is the currency.

53 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 53 The Growth of the European Union

54 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 54 Challenges to European Union Resistance Some countries have rejected the EU Constitution. Euro and EU dictates are seen by some as intrusions against local culture and identity. EU membership now “by invitation only” New states have to prove their worth. Some criticism of cultural imperialism Turkey an especially controversial decision No EU military NATO is de facto. Trends toward separatism in EU states

55 World Regional Geography, Tenth EditionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 55 EU: Economic Powerhouse One of the most powerful economies in the world 41.7% of world exports in 2006 Leading SE Asia and US in nine of 20 different product categories Second in six of the remaining eleven Two parallel trends–Europeanization and globalization Free labor mobility within the EU Controversial issue– “Guest workers”


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