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Integrating AO3 and AO4 Lesson aim: To effectively integrate AO3/4.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrating AO3 and AO4 Lesson aim: To effectively integrate AO3/4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrating AO3 and AO4 Lesson aim: To effectively integrate AO3/4

2 What connects these?

3 AO

4 Example The central, arguably the only feature of a dystopian world is that there is a drive towards the annihilation of the individual spirit. We can see this in The Handmaid’s Tale where Offred is desperate concerned with her own name as a remnant of her individuality. The name ‘Of-fred’ objectifies her, making her merely a possession of another, instead she longs for the identity of her previous name; “I want to be held and told my name. I want to be valued, in ways that I am not; I want to be more than valuable. I repeat my former name, remind myself of what I once could do, how others saw me. “ The repetition of the personal pronoun ‘I’ reaffirms Offred as an individual with a discreet identity. Atwood distinguishes between the words ‘valued’, to indicate the inherent value as an individual that Offred felt prior to the Gileadean regime, and ‘valuable’, suggesting she is now merely seen as a commodity, only having value in terms of what she can be used for. Ironically by creating a dystopia which is articulated through a 1 st person narrative perspective, Atwood triumphs the importance of the individual in the world, directly undermining the oppression of the Dystopian regime. Atwood was writing a distinctly feminine dystopia in response to the backlash against second wave feminism that was taking place in the USA in the 1980s. She was concerned that the sexual and political freedoms that women had strived to gain during the 70s and 80s were being overpowered by a dominant masculine government that wanted to return to the patriarchal image of the 50s woman; essentially one defined in relation to men. It is this world that Atwood is satirising in The Handmaid’s Tale.

5 Add Some AO4 to this! Ray Bradbury’s dystopian world is also concerned with the importance of the individual, however he explores this idea through the importance of the individual's freedom of thought. By restricting access to literature and overwhelming citizens with light entertainment, the powers-that-be in Bradbury’s novel restrict the freedom of individual thought by removing the very opportunities that create it. Montag slowly realises that the most important thing is to have free will and make decisions as an individual. He says to Faber "I don't want to change sides and just be told what to do. There's no reason to change if I do that." Even though Faber’s point of view is clearly preferred by Bradbury to that of Mildred or Beatty, he is emphasising the necessity for each individual to make his own decisions. Indeed this is the very thing a dystopian novel allows a writer to do, explore ideas and perspectives without enforcing the same oppression of thought on their readers that they are warning against.

6 AO3- Different Perspectives Narratological: Concerns itself with the structure of narrative--how events are constructed and through what point of view. You might ask, "How is the narrative of this work pieced together? Who or what is narrating?" This considers the narrator not necessarily as a person, but more as a window through which one sees a constructed reality. Links to: Gaze Theory. 1 st vs 3 rd person narrative. Objective and subjective viewpoints.

7 AO3- Different Perspectives Psychoanalytic: Such criticism aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconscious. Involves looking for symbolism and repressed meaning, or developing a psychological analysis of a character. Three ideas found in the work of Sigmund Freud are particularly useful: the dominance of the unconscious mind over the conscious, the expression of the unconscious mind through symbols (often in dreams), and sexuality as a powerful force for motivating human behaviour. Links to: Themes of sexual repression. Superego vs. Id (repression of individual impulse)

8 AO3- Different Perspectives Marxism is concerned with labour practices, class, and economics, especially as concerned with the struggles of the poor and oppressed. A Marxist might ask, "How are classes stratified/defined in this text? Does this text reflect an economic ideology? What is the attitude toward labor furthered by this text?“ Links to: Consumption culture in F451 and BNW

9 AO3- Different Perspectives Feminist Criticism examine works by and about women. Gender Criticism evolved out of feminism to address issues of masculinity/femininity as opposites, and differences in sexes. Both are political activities concerned with fair representation and treatment of people. A critic using Feminist Studies or Gender Studies might ask, "How is gender constructed or deconstructed in this text? Is the view of the text gendered or sexist?” Links to: Handmaid’s tale, BNW.

10 AO3- Different Perspectives Philosophical perspective: Engaging with the text from the perspective of the different philosophical perspectives presented in it e.g. Utilitarianism: "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong“(A Fragment on Government, Bentham) Cogito ergo sum (English: "I think, therefore I am") (Rene Descartes Discourse on Method 1637) Independent thought defines existence. Links to: Utopia vs Dystopia

11 AO3- Different Perspectives Christian Religious allegory: The text is interpreted from a Christian perspective. Our world is seen as a fallen version of paradise (Eden). Man is scared with the mark of Cain (symbol of original sin) and it is impossible to attain true paradise on earth. Man was given free will by God which distinguishes him from all of God’s creations, however it was this free will that led to Eve’s disobedience and Man’s banishment from paradise- thus it is both his gift and his curse. Links to- Handmaid’s tale, Dystopia vs Utopia- John Milton (Paradise Lost Satan: “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.”)

12 Where can we add AO3? The central, arguably the only feature of a dystopian world is that there is a drive towards the annihilation of the individual spirit. We can see this in The Handmaid’s Tale where Offred is desperate concerned with her own name as a remnant of her individuality. The name ‘Of- fred’ objectifies her, making her merely a possession of another, instead she longs for the identity of her previous name; “I want to be held and told my name. I want to be valued, in ways that I am not; I want to be more than valuable. I repeat my former name, remind myself of what I once could do, how others saw me. “ The repetition of the personal pronoun ‘I’ reaffirms Offred as an individual with a discreet identity. Atwood distinguishes between the words ‘valued’, to indicate the inherent value as an individual that Offred felt prior to the Gileadean regime, and ‘valuable’, suggesting she is now merely seen as a commodity, only having value in terms of what she can be used for. Ironically by creating a dystopia which is articulated through a 1 st person narrative perspective, Atwood triumphs the importance of the individual in the world, directly undermining the oppression of the Dystopian regime.

13 The central, arguably the only feature of a dystopian world is that there is a drive towards the annihilation of the individual spirit. We can see this in The Handmaid’s Tale where Offred is desperate concerned with her own name as a remnant of her individuality. The name ‘Of- fred’ objectifies her, making her merely a possession of another, instead she longs for the identity of her previous name; “I want to be held and told my name. I want to be valued, in ways that I am not; I want to be more than valuable. I repeat my former name, remind myself of what I once could do, how others saw me. “ The repetition of the personal pronoun ‘I’ reaffirms Offred as an individual with a discreet identity. Atwood distinguishes between the words ‘valued’, to indicate the inherent value as an individual that Offred felt prior to the Gileadean regime, and ‘valuable’, suggesting she is now merely seen as a commodity, only having value in terms of what she can be used for. Ironically by creating a dystopia which is articulated through a 1 st person narrative perspective, Atwood triumphs the importance of the individual in the world, directly undermining the oppression of the Dystopian regime. From a Feminist Critical perspective it is clear that the Gileadean regime is a harsh satire on the patriarchal oppression of women in contemporary society, where they are seen as ‘objects’ defined by their relationship to a dominant masculine ideology. Furthermore, from a Marxist perspective the differentiation between ‘valued’ and ‘valuable’ reflects the oppression of capitalist (masculine) ideology where individuals are purely defined by their economic or social capital, as means of production (or in this case reproduction) rather than valued individuals. From a Narratalogical critical perspective it is clear that Atwood is overtly challenging the patriarchal, capitalist hegemony by using a female narrative perspective to portray her dystopia. Ironically, Offred has the most power in the fictional world of Gilead as she is our sole means of access to it. According to Gaze theory the perspective from which we view events holds the Narratalogical and ideological power as they interpret the world in order to shape our understanding of it. Thus while within the context of the dystopian world Offred is objectified, she is actually the creator of meaning for the reader. A bit too much I know but its to illustrate a point.

14 AO3 Links between texts What links these texts? The genre of dystopian literature!

15 Continuous linking In Huxley’s dystopia genetic modification and eugenics has reached the point that members of society are limited in their actions from the moment they are born. A combination of genetic determinism and conditioning means that people are incapable of independence. When Lenina is asked “But wouldn't you like to be free to be happy in some other way, Lenina? In your own way, for example; not in everybody else's way.“ her response is “I don’t know what you mean”. Huxley is questioning whether being happy in ‘everybody else’s way is true happiness, or, in fact, we need to be happy in our own, individual way. Huxley questions what the true definition of happiness is and the unanimous conclusion seems to be that happiness is something that we choose as an individual rather than something that is imposed on us.

16 Continuous linking Unlike in The Handmaid’s Tale where genetic conditioning involves the State’s manipulation of the process of reproduction, In Huxley’s dystopia genetic modification and eugenics has reached the point that the state can limit members of society in their actions from the moment they are born. A combination of genetic determinism and conditioning means that people are incapable of independence. When Lenina is asked “But wouldn't you like to be free to be happy in some other way, Lenina? In your own way, for example; not in everybody else's way.“ her response is “I don’t know what you mean”. Huxley is questioning whether being happy in ‘everybody else’s way is true happiness, or, in fact, we need to be happy in our own, individual way. A similar point is raised by Bradbury when Montag realises that he must make his own decisions on what to believe “"I don't want to change sides and just be told what to do. There's no reason to change if I do that.” Both Bradbury and Huxley question what the true definition of happiness is and the unanimous conclusion seems to be that happiness is something that we choose as an individual rather than something that is imposed on us.

17 What do you need to do? Think about your own work and try to use some of the techniques we have discussed today. 3 rd draft due next Thursday.


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