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Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Day 8550: 23.41 years since outburst How old were you when this.

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Presentation on theme: "Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Day 8550: 23.41 years since outburst How old were you when this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Day 8550: years since outburst How old were you when this issue appeared?  NASA/ADS: 2435 (~2 /week) refereed papers, c. (since 1987) Crab : 2511 (23658 c.) since 1892 Cass A: 239 (2596 c.) since 1948

2 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Supernova SN 1987A - The birth of a Remnant – P. Bouchet & J. Danziger Collaborators: mid-IR: Eli Dwek, Rick Arendt, James de Buizer mid-IR: Eli Dwek, Rick Arendt, James de Buizer X-rays : Sangwook Park X-rays : Sangwook Park HST : SAINTS Team (R. Kirshner, PI) HST : SAINTS Team (R. Kirshner, PI) CSM : Ben Sugerman, Arlin Crotts, Steve Lawrence CSM : Ben Sugerman, Arlin Crotts, Steve Lawrence Five Years of Mid-Infrared Evolution of the Remnant of SN 1987A: The Encounter Between the Blast Wave and the Dusty Equatorial Ring: Dwek, E. et al., 2010, ApJ in press Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope, France, K., et al., 2010, Science, in press Infrared and X-Ray Evidence for Circumstellar Grain Destruction by the Blast Wave of Supernova 1987A: Dwek, E., et al., 2008, ApJ, 676, 1029 SN 1987A after 18 Years: Mid-Infrared Gemini and Spitzer Observations of the Remnant: Bouchet, P., et al., 2006, ApJ, 650, 212 High-Resolution Mid-infrared Imaging of SN 1987A: Bouchet, P., et al., 2004, ApJ, 611, 394 Evolution and Geometry of Hot Spots in Supernova Remnant 1987A: Sugerman, B., et al., 2002, ApJ, 572, 209

3 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) CSM : EQ ring 1.34 lt-yr; i = 45°, produced by a mass loss event that occurred ~ 20,000 before explosion SAINTS Collaboration

4 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e X-ray Imaging N E ROSAT/HRI (5” pixels) HEASARC/SkyView 1 arcsecond ACIS ( ): Burrows et al Green-Blue: ACIS Red: HST Contour: ATCA Park, 2007

5 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e mid-IR Imaging

6 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e ATCA 9 GHz super-resolved (0.5 arcsec) Radio Imaging Limb brightened Bright lobes to east and west Eastern lobe brighter than western lobe, & brightening faster  Same as X-rays ATCA 9 GHz diffraction limited (0.9 arcsec) ATNF, Gaensler, 2007

7 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Chandra (0.5 – 2 keV) Chandra (3 – 10 keV) ATCA ROSAT Similar rates of hard X-ray and radio ACIS 3-8 keV ACIS 3-8 keV Contours: ATCA 9GHz X-ray Flux ( ergs/cm 2 /s) keV 3-10 keV “Fast” shock keV fractional flux ROSAT (Hasinger et al. 1996) Chandra/ACIS X-ray (2005-7) vs. Optical (2005-4) d ~ 6200 ACIS keV: Park et al., 2008 Contours: HST (Peter Challis) Radio: Gaensler & Staveley-Smith, 2007 Park et al., 2006; Zhekov et al., 2009  2-shocks model 1.Soft X-Ray = Decelerated, slow ( kms -1 ); kT= 0.3 – 0.6 keV 2.Hard X-Ray = High-speed (3700±900 kms -1 ); kT= 2 – 5 keV X-ray and Radio Light Curves Density and Temperature of the soft X-ray emitting gas have not significantly changed during the > 5 years period. ACIS keV Contours: ATCA 9GHz

8 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Cf. Michael et al EQUATORIAL RING HOT « FINGERS » SHOCK WAVE HOT GAS REVERSE SW COOL EJECTA NS/BH ? Optical/Soft X-rays IR?? IR?? Hard X-rays Radio (Bouchet et al., 2006)(Challis, μm (Bouchet et al., 2006) and HST (Challis, 2006) McCray, 2007 Low speed oblique radiative shock: optical/UV Slower shock in high-density knot: soft X-rays High speed shock: radio, hard X-ray

9 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Mid-IR observations of the Circumstellar Dust , Qa 7241/6067, N T-ReCS, Gemini VISIR, VLT ~ The silicate emission increased as t 0.87, consistent with X-ray observations, suggesting the blast wave has transitioned from a free expansion to the Sedov phase (now expanding into the main body of the ER).

10 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Overlay of HST (Dec2006) (black) with VISIR (red-yellow) shows correlation far from 100 percent! Other comparisons show dust annulus possibly (?) thicker than visual HST annulus. HST vs VISIR (VLT) Where is the dust? 1.In the X-ray emitting gas? 2.In the denser UVO emitting knots? What heats the dust? 1.Collisional heating? 2.Radiative heating?

11 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Origin of the mid-IR emission? T-ReCS/HST ACIS/11.7  m ACIS/18.3  m ATNF/11.7  m ATNF/18.3  m

12 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Observations with SPITZER Silicates Silicates + Black body  A clue to binarity of progenitor ? Mystery contributor: much higher T, grain radii or IR emissivity smaller, significantly shorter sputtering time, distinct evolution: No temporal change of spectral shape and in the mass ratio?:  A clue to binarity of progenitor ? Grain absorption coeffs.  n e = (2 – 4) x 10 4 cm -3 n e (cm -3 ) Dwek et al., 2010

13 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e IRX: the IR to X-ray Flux ratio  (Te) erg cm 3 s -1 T e (K)  (T e ): Equilibrium atomic cooling rate for a plasma with ER abundances  d (T): Gas cooling rate via dust –gas collisions  Dust cooling dominates the cooling via atomic transitions at T ≥ 10 6 K IRX = =  (T) Cooling rate via atomic processes  d (T) Cooling rate via dust-gas collisions ≈ 2.5  a ≥ 0.30  m Dwek et al., , ApJ 320 SN 1987A The cooling of the shocked gas is dominated by IR emission from the collisionally-heated dust with radii > 0.3  m, and a significant fraction of the refractory elements in the ER is depleted onto dust (Dwek et al., 2010)

14 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Mass of radiating dust in ring = ~10 -6 M Sun No obvious dust destruction yet No cooling of the shocked gas yet IRX vs. Dust Destruction Te (K) IRX IRX Constant  IRX  a ≥ 0.30  m Dwek et al., 2008   (Si grains) = 4 – 15 yr,  (C dust) = 0.4 – 1 yr  Gas cooling time for the shocked gas = 12 – 20 yr  grain destruction may become important only at day ≈ 9200  the X-ray emission may not be affected until t ≈ 30 yr

15 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Last Results (January 31 st., 2010): Ly and H lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. Evidence for resonant scattering (within the source) of Ly photons from hotspots on the equatorial ring (to blueshifts ∼ −12,000 km s −1 ). Emission to the red of Ly attributed to N V 1239,1243Å Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope The SAINTS team (PI: R.P. Kirshner) monitors SN 1987A with HST since it was launched. The recent repair of STIS allows us to compare observations in 2004, just before its demise, with those in The young remnant of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) offers an unprecedented glimpse into the hydrodynamics and kinetics of fast astrophysical shocks France et al., 2010

16 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e dust in ejecta blocks far side receding (France et al., 2010). Central part (debris) shows blue (approaching) extends to ~4000 – 6000 km/s. Red extension not apparent because dust in ejecta blocks far side receding (France et al., 2010).

17 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Ly  2010 – 2004 difference image (black indicates similar intensities): 1.Ly  emission has increased in brightness by factor 1.6 – 2.4  increased flux of H atoms into the shock region 2.The maximum Doppler shift in the northern blueshifted emission is decreasing as a function of time emitted by the hotspots If the Ly  photons produced by the same mechanism as the H  photons  Ly  :H  should be the same for all velocities  a sufficient number of Ly  photons are emitted by the hotspots and the neutral H layer in the expanding envelope scatters Ly  photons by ~ 6000 kms -1 Ly  :H  for a Balmer- dominated shock  (France et al., 2010)

18 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e Slit in geocoronal Ly   N V lines are detectable because, unlike hydrogen atoms, N4+ ions emit hundreds of photons before they are ionized.  The profiles of the N V lines differ markedly from that of H  scattering of N4+ ions by magnetic fields in the ionized plasma(?)  N V emission provides a unique probe of the isotropization zone of the collisionless shock  H atoms are excited by collisions without significant deflection  N atoms become ionized and gyrate about a magnetic field that is parallel to the shock and moving with the fluid velocity of the shocked plasma. (France et al., 2010)

19 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e G IR shell – gas and dust condensed from SN debris and then heated by stars in cluster. Expanding pulsar wind also heats dust.

20 Patrice Bouchet – DSM/IRFU/Sap CEA-Saclay – COSPAR 2010 IRFU/ Service d’Astrophysiqu e THE END….. (Thank you!)


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