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Multi-wavelength Observations of Composite Supernova Remnants Collaborators: Patrick Slane (CfA) Eli Dwek (GSFC) George Sonneborn (GSFC) Richard Arendt.

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Presentation on theme: "Multi-wavelength Observations of Composite Supernova Remnants Collaborators: Patrick Slane (CfA) Eli Dwek (GSFC) George Sonneborn (GSFC) Richard Arendt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multi-wavelength Observations of Composite Supernova Remnants Collaborators: Patrick Slane (CfA) Eli Dwek (GSFC) George Sonneborn (GSFC) Richard Arendt (GSFC) Yosi Gelfand (NYU Abu Dhabi) Paul Plucinsky (CfA) Daniel Castro (MIT)

2 Gaensler & Slane 2006 Evolution of PWNe inside SNRs Early Evolution: SNR is in the free expansion stage PWN expands supersonically inside the SNR and is bounded by a strong shock The PWN shocks the inner SN ejecta that have not been re-heated by the reverse shock Late Evolution: The reverse shock heats the inner SN ejecta and crushes the expanding PWN PWN expansion becomes unstable and reverberates PWN continues to expand subsonically through SNR

3 Reverse shock encounters one side of PWN first and disrupts the nebula – moving pulsar or a density gradient in the ISM After passage of the reverse shock relic PWN remains (typically observed in the radio) and a new PWN forms around the pulsar van der Swaluw et al t SNR = 1000 yr t SNR = 1800 yr t SNR = 3000 yr t SNR = yr When pulsar’s motion becomes supersonic, new PWN deforms into a bow shock - occurs when a pulsar has traveled 0.67R SNR (van der Swaluw 2004) Bow Shock Nebula NASA/CXC/M.Weiss Asymmetric Reverse Shock Interaction

4 Herschel 70  m,Chandra X-ray VLJHK (Mignani et al. 2012) B Chandra X-ray image G [Fe II] Zajczyk et al G Crab Nebula Kes 75 Early Evolution – SN Dust and Ejecta 3C 58 Slane et al. 2004

5 Dust radiatively heated by the PWN  broadband spectrum of the heating source well known Hester 2008 Information about grain properties can provide clues on the progenitor type Dust surrounding PWNe is ejecta dust, not mixed with the ISM material Dust not been processed by the reverse shock, no dust destruction Dust around PWNe

6 Dust formation in SN ejecta: Theoretical Predictions (Kozasa et al. 1989, 1991; Clayton et al. 1999, 2001; Todini and Ferrara 2001; Nozawa et al. 2003; Bianchi and Schneider 2007; Kozasa et al. 2009, Cherchneff and Dwek 2010) Mass dominated by grains: > 0.03 μm in Type IIP SNe < μm in Type IIb SNe (Kozasa,Nozawa et al. 2009) Kozasa et al Type IIP Type IIb High amount of can form in dense cooling SN ejecta within the first 600–1000 days - consists primarily of the most abundant refractory elements (e.g., C, Mg, Si, S, and Fe) Total dust masses range between 0.1 – 1 M  with 2-20% surviving the reverse shock Forms in the He envelope where density is high and velocity low – grain properties depend on mass of the hydrogen envelope

7 H H Heating rate Cooling rate L  non-thermal spectrum of the PWN Hester 2008 Temim & Dwek 2013 Crab Nebula: Dust Heating Model Power-law grain size distributions F(a) = a -  a min =  ma max =  m  = Distance = pc (location of the ejecta filaments in 3D models of Cadez et al. 2004) Q abs  silicates, carbon (Zubko et al. 2004), carbon (Rouleau & Martin 1991)

8 Silicates:Carbon:  = 3.5  = 4.0 a max > 0.6  m a max > 0.1  m Best-fit parameters:  2 Contours (a max vs.  ) Temim & Dwek 2013 Size distribution index of and larger grain size cut-offs are favored Larger grains are consistent with a Type IIP SN – Mass dominated by grains with radii larger than 0.03 μm in Type IIP, and less than μm in Type IIb SNe (Kozasa,Nozawa et al. 2009) M d = / M  for silicates M d = / M  for carbon

9 Late Evolution – Interaction with the Reverse Shock

10 Composite SNR with a shell and an off-center pulsar wind nebula Complex morphology likely produced by a combination of an asymmetric reverse shock and the pulsar’s motion Temim et al MOST Radio, ATCA Radio, Chandra SNR Shell Radio PWN Neutron Star X-ray PWN Outflow – bubble? Reverse Shock Interaction: G Sedov model (for d = 9 kpc): R = 22 pcn 0 = 0.12 cm -3 t = 1.8 x 10 4 yrM tot = 31 M sol T = 0.3 keVv s = 500 km/s

11 A compact core is embedded in a cometary PWN Prong-like structures originate from the vicinity of the core and extend to the NW – outflow from the pulsar wind? 350 ks Chandra observation Gaensler et al Prongs Cometary PWN Compact PWN Trail Compact PWN is more extended than a point source G : X-ray Morphology Two possible scenarios may give rise to cometary structure: 1.Asymmetric passage of the reverse shock from the NW – PWN expanding subsonically 2.Bow shock formation due to pulsar’s motion in the NW direction  pulsar velocity ~ 770 km/s Temim et al. 2009, 2014 (in prep)

12 RS Interaction: MSH X-ray, Radio Chandra X-ray XMM 3-color image Temim et al Sedov model (for d = 4 kpc): R = 21 pcn 0 = 0.1 cm -3 t = 16.5 kyr M tot = 100 M sol T = 0.3 keVv s = 500 km/s Pulsar velocity = 410 km/s

13 Composite SNRs serve as unique laboratories for the study of SNR/PWN evolution Interaction of the PWN with the SNR and surroundings Properties of progenitor, pulsar, SN ejecta, freshly formed SN dust Nature and evolution of energetic particles in PWNe Evolution can be divided into three stages Expansion of the PWN into cold SN ejecta (ejecta and dust properties, mass, dynamics, progenitor type) Interaction with the SNR reverse shock (complex morphologies and mixing of PWN with ejecta) Post-reverse shock, subsonic expansion (bow shock formation if pulsar is moving at a high velocity) Summary Collaborators: Patrick Slane (CfA) Eli Dwek (GSFC) George Sonneborn (GSFC) Richard Arendt (GSFC) Yosi Gelfand (NYU Abu Dhabi) Paul Plucinsky (CfA) Daniel Castro (MIT)

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