Interpretation Gutenberg´s galaxy Ing. Jiří Šnajdar 2013
3 Under pressure of inner conflicts and nations´ migration comes in the year 476 to disintegration of Western Roman empire. In Europe comes to new division of labour, trade production is developing, comes to towns´ urbanisation, formation of society on national principles and formation of new power centres.
4 Informal McLuhan comments this break on his own - medially : Speeding up with help of wheel, road and papyrus in constantly more homogenous and uniform Roman area enabled to use potential of Roman technologies. But typography provided the road and wheel with far considerable speed and overcame orders of Roman world. Gutenberg´s uniform continual and infinitely repeated products enabled to transfer any kind of complicated space to simple, flat and rational space.
5 Together with significantly raised media speed accelerates also society progress in medieval Europe, from citizens arises bourgeoisie, pre-industrial production comes in useful, arise new social classes, expands also trade with overseas countries, comes to discovery journeys and beginning of colonialism. This produces new power relations and social stress, that results gradually in bourgeoisie revolution. We are on the threshold of new era.
6 Predecessors of periodical press : First written records in China, acta diurni, scribers in monasteries Written information for aristocracy and tradesmen – information as goods Written newspapers of town patriciate and tradesmen, first recorded are from Fugger´s bank house in Augsburg
7 Transportation system – enclosures to private letters, foot-couriers, post as source of information and means of distribution. In Austria-Hungary and consequently in Bohemia started regular posts in 1527 in management of aristocratic family of Taxis.
8 Beginnings of commercial press : At the beginning of 15 th century is in Europe circa 1000 presses From beginning of the 17 th century started printers in the Netherlands, France, England publishing of popular books, songbooks, calendars.
9 Newe Zeitung – in 16 th century begins to appear among press products also disposable prints (notifications, leaflet newspapers and newspaper leaflets). Mostly included news about war fights, natural phenomenon, accidents, executions, overseas discoveries etc. Are assigned for wide public and issue during the whole 17 th century.
10 Beginning of periodical press Relation in 1605 in Strasbourg first newspaper with weekly periodicity From the second half of 17 th century issue first journals – in England The Daily Courant, in Germany Einkommende Zeitung, from beginning of the 18 th century issue first magazines - D. Defoe issues The Review and J Swift The Examiner.
11 Titelblatt der Relation von Johann Carolus (1609), der ersten Zeitung der Welt.Johann Carolus
12 The Daily Courant, first published on 11 March 1702, was the first British daily newspaper. It was produced by Elizabeth Mallet at her premises next to the Kings Arms tavern at Fleet Bridge in London. The paper consisted of a single page, with advertisements on the reverse side. Mallet advertised that she intended to publish only foreign news and would not add any comments of her own, supposing her readers to have "sense enough to make reflections for themselves."
15 Beginning of the 18 th century – commercial periodical press (conditions for its formation – news correspondence for private customers, state administration, post, fairs, about the year 1700 issue 1 st newspapers in Northern America in Boston. When Franklin established himself in Philadelphia, shortly before 1730, he established „The Pennsylvania Gazette.“
16 First newspapers: quarto format A4 extent 4-8 pages front page decorated with engravings edition 250 – 400 pieces, propagation by reading newspapers were prepaid, local, weekly
17 mainly political, diplomatic and army events information from far, local news did not exist simple groups of news without further segmentation according to importance or themes factual neutral news without further editorial
18 In Bohemia: first leaflet : Jindřichohradecké noviny (Noviny léta Božieho 1495), Newspapers God Summer 1495 from year 1495 16 th century : leaflets with different themes : wartime, travelogue, sensations, politics, Bílá hora, White Mountain 1620 – repercussion in so called municipal state, periodical press in German.
19 In our country – in Czech crown – part of Habsburg monarchy, is after White Mountain in the year 1618 complicated progression and the country as a whole passed through hard epoch : counter-reformation efforts and germanisation, exit of Czech intellectual elite in emigration, gradual German dominance in all parts of social life. It is presented that in the Czech crown countries was retardation against advanced Europe up to 100 years.
20 1686 - 1687 Ordinari postzeitung (German) 1719 -1772 first Czech periodical newspapers Prague newspaper The Mail - Karel František Rosenmüller 1785 takes the concession Jan Ferdinand from Schönfeld 1786 se becomes the editor of Schönfeld newspaper V. M. Kramerius 1789 Kramerius starts his own newspapers – Krameriusovy c. k. patriotic newspaper From 1848 start issue magazines
21 Print technique, Polygraphy: Manual graphic techniques Wood print Wood engraving, copperplate, lino cut, lithography Nature of typography device are movable letters Mechanical hot composition - linotype
22 The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China and are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty (before 220 A.D.), and the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate, and when paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints were produced in very large numbers from about 1425 onward.
24 Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images, usually carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.These were all short heavily illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460
25 History of Printing Woodblock printingWoodblock printing (200) Movable type (1040)Movable type Printing press (1454)Printing press Etching (ca. 1500)Etching Mezzotint (1642)Mezzotint Aquatint (1768)Aquatint Lithography (1796)Lithography
26 History of Printing Chromolithography (1837)Chromolithography Rotary press (1843)Rotary press Hectograph (1869)Hectograph Offset printing (1875)Offset printing Hot metal typesetting (1886)Hot metal typesetting Mimeograph (1890)Mimeograph Screen printing (1907)Screen printing Spirit duplicator (1923)Spirit duplicator Inkjet printing (1956)Inkjet printing Dye-sublimation (1957)Dye-sublimation Phototypesetting (1960s)Phototypesetting Dot matrix printer (1964)Dot matrix printer Laser printing (1969)Laser printing Thermal printing (ca. 1972)Thermal printing 3D printing (1984)3D printing Digital press (1993)Digital press
28 The linotype machine is a "line casting" machine used in printing. Along with letterpress printing linotype was the industry standard for newspapers, magazines and posters from the late 19th century to the 1960s and 70s, when it was largely replaced by offset lithography printing and computer typesetting. The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over the previous industry standard, i.e., manual, letter-by-letter typesetting using a composing stick and drawers of letters.
29 The machine revolutionized typesetting and with it especially newspaper publishing, making it possible for a relatively small number of operators toset type for many pages on a daily basis. Before Mergenthaler's invention of the linotype in 1884, no newspaper in the world had more than eight pages.
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