We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published bySonny Ballon
Modified over 2 years ago
Chapter 5 Sources of RevenueThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
The Taxation System Taxation - most successful for diverting funds to public institution attitude of citizens determines financial well-being of public institutions Taxation - function of three variables tax base assessment practices followed tax levy education-financed by government problem-equitable school programs and equitable tax burdens using property tax system rate bills are obsolete taxes often unpopular Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Characteristics of a Good Tax Systemtax systems should be coordinated and balanced (local, state, federal) all citizens who receive benefits or stand to receive them should owe taxes tax burden distributed among all citizens equitably progressive income tax most equitable single tax cannot be fair to all taxation theory requires diversification with broad tax base maintenance of economic neutrality must not be disturbed adequacy of yield-taxes applied to productive sources progressive versus regressive taxes—at best progressive tax erosion should be minimized or eliminated Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
taxpayer convenience important direct fairness and courtesy demonstrated low collection and administrative costs visible taxes and services tax shifting minimized minimal earmarking of taxes tax structure should avoid restrictions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Criteria for Evaluating Tax StructureMcCann and Delon emphasized evaluation criteria efficiency in fiscal administration equity in treatment of citizens adequacy in providing funds adaptability related to economic conditions, social demands and significant changes in education Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Property Tax levied against owner of real or personal propertyreal property not readily movable (lands, buildings, and improvements) personal property movable (tangibles or intangibles) first kinds of school taxes constitute almost all local tax revenue for schools usually expressed in mills per dollar of assessed valuation or dollars per hundred dollars of assessed valuation some states use a tax rate on market value historically used for local school revenue Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
regulated and controlled by local boards of education within state lawdesirable traits direct tax easily collected regulated and controlled by local boards of education within state law impossible to avoid paying highly productive highly visible assessment practices unequal assessment practices exist foundation program created underassessment assessment practices vary widely problems due to political system Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
unfairness of property tax somewhat regressive when surplus earnings invested in personal property urban centers-eroded tax base urban centers-high cost students to education municipal overburden partial property ownership, but payment of full taxes on property other criticisms of property tax state-imposed tax rate restrictions court decisions resulting in adverse opinions of tax failed referenda state legislative actions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
protects certain classes of individuals from excessive property taxcircuit breakers protects certain classes of individuals from excessive property tax plans vary by state personal property taxes remains backbone of school finance problem with getting property assessed measure of wealth and taxpaying ability minimized as source of revenue Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Income Tax progressive tax levied on yearly incomeused to lesser degree by nearly all states should include taxes on personal and corporation incomes personal income tax erases regressive effects of property and sales taxes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Sales Tax levy imposed on sale value of certain goods and servicesno tax exclusion on necessities overburdens low income families growth of e-commerce-cause for sales tax changes e-commerce-currently taxed by federal, state and local government e-commerce results in revenue loss for state budgets/local education agencies Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Sumptuary Tax imposed by government to regulate or control a certain activity or practice not deemed in the public interest example—federal taxes on tobacco products Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Severance Tax taxes imposed on removal of natural products from land or water measured by value or quantity of projects removed or sold examples—oil, gas, timber, fish, etc. tax imposed at time of extraction of product levies for privilege of removing product from ground or water levies-production, conservation or mining taxes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Potential New Taxes site-value taxes-land tax on actual value of the land, whether improved or not value-added tax (VAT)-tax on value of goods at each transaction from productive to consumption (multiple sales tax) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Lotteries lays taxes on the willingregressive-greater share comes from poor players’ income generated revue for schools varies by state from 2%-5% Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Private Foundations reaches out to the private sector issues raisedrole of school officials in foundation and determining how money should be spent successful foundations will result in reduced state aid gap will widen in the quality of education in rich and poor communities Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
School-Business Partnershipsclosely related to foundation movement types of partnerships special services classroom professional development management systematic educational improvement policy partnership concept-all striving for same goal—produce students prepared for the future Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Finance in Education Chapter 5. The Taxation System A good tax system should include the following features: – There should be coordination among al levels.
Chapter 6 Eroding Local Control
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 13 Finance This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Patterns for School Finance Systems
Financing Education Equitably
Education: A State Function
McGraw-Hill Education Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of.
Financing Education in a Climate of Change 10th edition
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice Privatization §This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
The Design of the Tax System
Chapter 16 The Road Ahead in School Finance This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by.
Unit 7 Macroeconomics: Taxes, Fiscal, and Monetary Policies Chapters 14.1 Economics Mr. Biggs.
Chapter 12 The Design of the Tax System. Objectives 2.) Understand the efficiency cost of taxation. 3.) Learn the criteria for evaluating the equity of.
The Design of the Tax System Chapter 12. “ In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes. ”... Benjamin Franklin Taxes paid.
© 2007 Thomson South-Western. “In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes.”... Benjamin Franklin Taxes paid in Ben Franklin’s.
The Tax System Most people agree that taxes should impose as small a cost on society as possible. The tax system should be efficient and equitable.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice Inequality §This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license.
Finance and Fiscal Policy Chapter 13. Learning Objectives 13.1 Assess the fairness of Texas’s budgeting and taxing policies. 13.2Describe the sources.
©2011 Cengage Learning. Chapter 12 ©2011 Cengage Learning THE ECONOMICS OF REAL PROPERTY TAXATION.
Chapter 2 Policy Standards for a Good Tax McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice Immigration §This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
Excise Taxes, Unit Taxes, Ad Valorem Taxes
Slide 1-1 Chapter 1 Introduction. Slide 1-2 Areas of Opportunity in Finance Financial Services: –Banking –Personal financial planning –Investments –Real.
Mixed economies = government + private sector What is the best mix???
In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions:
Section 3.6 I.B. Economics Taxation Descriptive Overview: Students will describe the most common types of taxes levied by the government. Students.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 8 Teacher Freedoms This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.
Copyright©2004 South-Western 12 The Design of the Tax System.
Chapter 2 Tax Policy Issues: Standards for a Good Tax.
Introduction One of the Ten Principles from Chapter 1: A government can sometimes improve market outcomes. providing public goods regulating use of.
Rano. Z.ZAkhriddinova Taxation. Types of taxation: regressive tax progressive tax proportional tax.
(c) 2008 The McGraw ‑ Hill Companies 1 The Public Finance Context.
Types of Taxes. Impact of Taxes How do taxes affect the decisions you make? Resource Allocation- Whenever a tax is placed on a good or service, it raises.
ECON chapter 9 1. __________ affect the factors of production & therefore, resource allocation.
Chapter 1 Legal Framework Affecting Public Schools
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 CHAPTER 3: RECRUITMENT Ronald W. Rebore This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The.
Principles of Tax Policy
What is a budget surplus and a budget deficit? A budget surplus is when extra money is left over in a budget after expenses are paid. A budget deficit.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 11 The Instructional Program This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
5. Creating a Positive Learning Climate Positive Student Control The School as a Culture The Development of a Positive Program The Development of a Positive.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Power and Politics In Conflict and Order: Understanding Society, 11 th edition This multimedia product and.
Unit 4: Economics of the Public Sector
13. Fiscal Accounting, Budgeting, and Building Management Where Does the Money Come From? The Building and Grounds The Planning and Budgeting Process This.
Taxes and Government Spending Chapter 14, Section 1.
Public Goods and Tax Policy
14. Technology Applications for School Management How to Get Started Technology Plans Technology Applications for a School Office Word Processing Desktop.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.