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Chapter 1 Legal Framework Affecting Public SchoolsThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008The Bill of Rights represents a primary source of individual rights and freedoms under the U.S. Constitution. The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are viewed as fundamental liberties of free people because they place restrictions on the government’s powers to intrude on the fundamental rights of all citizens. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008These restrictions simply mean that the government cannot exercise certain powers in relationship to free people. For example, the government cannot pass laws prohibiting the freedom of speech. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
The Federal ConstitutionThe Constitution of the United States is the basic law of the land. It provides a framework of law in which orderly governmental processes operate. The Constitution thus becomes the primary source of law. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008All statutes enacted at the federal, state and local levels as well as state constitutions and local regulations and ordinances are subordinate to the Constitution. The Federal Constitution is distinguishable in its provision to protect fundamental rights of all citizens of the United States. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Inherent among these rights are those involving personal, property and political freedoms. Although the Constitution does not make a reference to education, it does impact the operation and management of schools, particularly with respect to amendments, which protect the individual rights of students, faculty and staff. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008State Constitutions Based on the Tenth Amendment of the federal Constitution, powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008State constitutions represent the basic source of law for individual states and generally require legislative bodies to perform various functions including establishing systems of public education. They prescribe funding and operational schemes for public schools. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008State constitutions may exceed coverage granted by the Federal Constitution but may not fail to meet the basic requirements of the Constitution or contradict it in any manner. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Statutes Statutes represent an act of the legislative branch of government. Statutes are the most abundant source of law affecting public schools. School district policy, rules and regulations are generally based on statutory law. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Statutes represent the most effective means of developing new law or changing old laws. State legislators grant local school boards the authority to adopt and enforce reasonable rules and regulations necessary for the operation and management of schools. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Court or Case Law Case law is generally reflected in judge-made or common law, as distinguished from statutory law. Common law consists of the judgments, opinions and decisions of courts adopting and enforcing preceding usages and customs called precedents. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008The U.S. System of Courts The judicial system consists of federal and state courts. The organization of the courts at both levels is essentially the same: trial courts, intermediate courts of appeal and the highest court or Supreme Court. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Federal Courts Federal courts typically deal with cases involving federal or constitutional issues (“federal questions”) or cases in which the parties are residents of different states (“diversity of citizenship”). The Federal Court System includes District Courts, Appellate Courts and the Supreme Court. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008There are 95 federal district courts in the United States. At least one federal court is found in each state. Larger states such as New York and California have as many as four federal courts. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Federal courts usually hear cases between citizens of different states and cases involving litigation of federal statutes. Federal Appellate Courts are represented by Circuit Courts of Appeal. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008There are 13 federal circuit courts including 11 with geographic jurisdiction over a number of states and territories, one for the District of Columbia and another involves three specialized federal courts. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008The primary function of the Appellate Court is to review the proceedings of lower courts to determine if errors of law (as opposed to facts) were committed, such as procedural irregularities, constitutional misinterpretations or inappropriate application of rules of evidence. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008State Courts State courts are a part of each state’s judicial system with the responsibility of hearing cases involving issues related to state constitutional law, state statutes, and common law. Many education cases are heard in state courts, because they do not involve a federal question. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Courts of General JurisdictionCourts of general jurisdiction are often referred to as district or circuit courts. Their jurisdiction covers most cases except those held for special courts. In many instances, decisions may be appealed from these courts to intermediate appellate courts or even to the state supreme court. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Courts of Special JurisdictionCourts of special jurisdiction were established to hear legal disputes in special matter areas. They are generally referred to as trial courts with limited jurisdiction and may be called municipal, justice of the peace, probate, small claims, and traffic courts. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Intermediate Appellate CourtsIntermediate appellate courts have emerged over the past three decades to hear appeals from trial courts or certain state agencies. Their primary role involves reviewing proceedings from trial courts to determine if substantive or procedural errors occurred in applying the law. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008The Supreme Court The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land. Unlike lower courts, there is no appeal beyond the decision of this court. The Supreme Court’s ruling can only be overturned by an amendment to the Federal Constitution. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Nine justices, including a Chief Justice comprise the High Court. To avoid political infringement, they are appointed to life terms. Cases reach the Supreme Court primarily in two ways—on appeal and by writ of certiorari. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
The Court System Lessons CHAPTER 4
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 8 Teacher Freedoms This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.
State Judicial System.
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Chapter 4 – The Court System This chapter presents dispute resolution & the courts, along with the state & federal court systems.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 13 Finance This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
The Supreme Court/ The Supreme Court at Work
History, Structure and Function of the American Legal System
Chapter 12 The Judiciary Cases and the Law: Types of Law Common law - Rule of Precedent Constitutional law Statutory law Administrative law Case law.
Chapter 11 The Federal Court System
Chapter 5 – A Dual Court System
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