2 INTRODUCTIONEvery organization should therefore be a well-knit collection of processes so as to practice TQM and be competitive successful.This concept is also advocated by the IOS9001:2000 standard.Process approach in the organization is essential to make continuous improvement, get ISO9000 certification as well as practicing TQM. To reduce costs and increase profits.
3 Product and Service Quality Depend on Processes Manufacturing and service organization were measuring, confirming and analyzing quality with reference to the final product alone.
4 Process orientation should be adopted for Total Quality Management (TQM). Process orientation is the right strategy to be adopted for practicing quality as well as management of organizations so that the producer can be certain about the quality of the products or services even before the final inspection.
5 Process Orientation Helps in Finding Defects Early Quality should be built into the product or service right from the early stages. If a defect cannot be corrected early in the process, it cannot be removed at the final stages. Therefore, the defects are to be found early. In the product orientation, the defects are found only at the final stages, whereas in the process orientation, defects could be prevented totally by eliminating the cause of failure in the process.
6 MODEL FOR PROCESS DEFINITION Input/s to the processOutput/s of the processThe process or task
7 Input of the process The various inputs required for any process are: Bill of materialsSpecification or each materialRequirements for inspection for the incoming materialsProcedure for receipt of materials.
8 Output of the process The output of process consists of the following: The products or service to be deliveredDocuments to be deliveredThe specifications for all the aboveMethod of measurements for verifying conformance to the specificationsCriteria for acceptance / rejection
9 Value Addition in the process Every organization attains profit only through value addition to its processes. Therefore, the primary goal of the organization is value addition. It, in turn, applies to every process in the organization.NEXT
10 The process may need machinery, infrastructure or techniques for achieving the desired value addition as per the goals and objectives of the process.The process owners and the other employees attached to the process for carrying out the assigned tasks should be clearly identified and documented, along with their authority and responsibility.PREVIOUSNEXT
11 ETX MODEL ENTRY TASK EXIT The most popular process model is ETX as shown in figure.ENTRYTASKEXITINPUTOUTPUTEXT MODELEXT stands for Entry, Task and Exit. The value adding process is called Task. The new items in the diagram are Entry and ExitPREVIOUSNEXT
12 Entry – Conditions to be satisfied before the task is undertaken Entry – Conditions to be satisfied before the task is undertaken. Exit - Conditions to be fulfilled before the task is considered as completed.PREVIOUSNEXT
13 Training for Process Orientation The most important requirement for transforming the employee from product orientation to process orientation is training and coaching.It should also be helped to identify their customers and suppliers and coached as how to conduct themselves in the roles of customers as well as suppliers.PREVIOUSNEXT
14 Measure ProcessBefore giving a go ahead for normal production, the process parameters should be studied, statistical analysis made and only then the process should be authorized for normal deployment.This should repeated at regular intervals.PREVIOUSNEXT
15 Improve Process Continuously In line with the TQM philosophy, the processes should be improved continuously. Efforts should be put in for continuous process improvement.PREVIOUSNEXT
16 SUBBURAJ’s 6s MODEL FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Since 1991, the author has been heading ETDC, Chennai which is a testing and calibration service provider, offering services to more than 700 organization in a year.PREVIOUSNEXT
17 Subburaj’s 6s for Process Improvement StudyStrengthenStreamlineProcessImprovementSimplifySynergizeStandardizePREVIOUSNEXT
18 6’S MODEL FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT StudyStreamlineSimplifyStandardizeSynergizeStrengthen
19 STUDYThe current performance level of the process triggers improvement. It could be the defects found (both internal and external), cycle time achieved, customer feedback/complaint, employee feedback, customer waiting time, hassles of the employees or customers, etc.
20 STREAMLINEThe process should offer the least resistance to motion in the organization.For instance, before embarking on TQM, the CEO of the organization was formally issuing the test and calibration reports under his signature.
21 SIMPLIFYOne has to formulate a simplified procedure for carrying out the task without increasing the cost and compromising on quality.
22 STANDARDIZEpermits performing the process in the same way by every employee at all times.
23 SYNERGIZENo process is a stand-alone activity in any organization. A process may interact with at least two other processes – customers and supplier processes.
24 STRENGTHENEducating and convincing the process owners, customers and suppliersPeriodic counseling and assuring that the newprocess will perform better than the old processMonitoring the result s and confirming that the process transition has occurredNEXT
25 CUSTOMER SUPPLIER CHAINS Increased Inspection Adds Cost, not ValueIdentify Internal Customers and SuppliersCustomer-supplier ChainsEducateCustomer Orientation Includes Internal CustomersAdvantage of Customer-Supplier Chains
26 Increased Inspection Adds Cost, not Value Customer supplier chains have to be established for building quality into the products and services.increased expenditure in increased inspections is not worth it. It only adds to the increased cost of the product or service, without adding value.This can be achieved through establishing customer supplier chains in the organization.NEXT
27 Identify Internal Customers and Suppliers “divide and conquer” approach is advocated in customer-supplier chains which is suitable for solving quality problem or for that matter any scientific problem.NEXT
28 Customer-supplier Chains Each sub-process has an owner, who actually is responsible for giving an output to internal customers after receiving the right inputs from internal suppliers and adding value.Some sub-processes would terminate at the internal customer. Some sub- processes would have external suppliers.NEXT
29 EducateThe employees should also be educated about the customer supplier chain to treat the internal customers and suppliers, as the organization would like to treat the external customers and suppliers.The management’s task is only to make the customers supplier chain work for the successful implementation of TQM.
30 Customer Orientation Includes Internal Customers Customer orientation should be equality applicable to the internal customers in addition to the external customers. The process owners who are customers should not only inspect, but also spend time in educating the internal suppliers for improving the quality of the incoming products.
31 Advantage of Customer-Supplier Chains It improves communications within the organization.It reduces communication gap.It helps in documenting the process flow.It helps in defining the specifications not for the overall input and output, but also for the entire process.It helps in finalizing verification methodology throughout the process with clear accept/reject criteria.NEXT
32 f) It facilitates immediate feedback from colleagues rather than time lapsed feedback from customers through the channel of hierarchy. g) The management can easily identify problem areas clearly, easily and deal with them specifically, instead of going for global solution across the organization.PREVIOUSNEXT
33 h) It helps in building quality throughout the organization. It enables the management to have absolute control over quality with optimal expenditure.j) Above all, it helps the management to understand its own organization and operations better, leading to effective planning, management and improvement.PREVIOUSNEXT
34 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT -is the series of links and shared processes that exist between the suppliers and customers.PREVIOUSNEXT
35 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT(SCM) a task of optimizing all activities throughout the supply chain, so that the products and services are supplied in the right quantity, right quality, to the right customer, at the right time and at the optimal cost.PREVIOUSNEXT
37 DEMAND PLANNINGA planning process to predict the demand of products and services based on forecasts.Forecasting customer demands improves customer service while decreasing costs by reducing demand uncertainty.
38 MANUFACTURING PLANNING AND SCHEDULING A planning process that optimally schedules manufacturing orders with production capacity. This is performed by combining Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) to create optimized and constrained production plans.
39 SUPPLY PLANNINGSupply planning process that meets customers demand based on available inventory and transportation resources. This includes Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP), which determines the need to replenish inventory at branch warehouse.
40 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING A planning process to optimally schedule, load, and deliver shipments to customers while considering constraints, such as delivery date, mode of transportation, carrier, etc.NEXT
41 JUST-IN-TIME (JIT) MANUFACTURING The products should be made to order, just in time for immediate delivery to the customers. The materials, which go into the product or service, should also arrive on just time, before manufacturing starts.
42 OBJECTIVES OF JUST-IN-TIME Development of optimal process and be competitiveStreamlining of operations and eliminating unwanted processesContinuous improvementReducing the levels of wasted materials, time and effortIncreasing efficiency of production process
43 BENEFITS OF JUST-IN-TIME Reduction of wastesReduction of Work-In-Progress(WIP)Establishing proper customer-supplier relationshipReduction in lead-timeLess-inventory of raw materialsImprovement in flexibilityLower cost and high productivity
44 Enhanced customer satisfaction due to lower price owing to elimination of wastes Improved employee morale owing to a perfect system without waitingImproved satisfaction of shareholders due to high profitReduced space requirements on total elimination of WIP and buffer stock of materials, sub-assemblies and productsImproved productivity and improved quality
45 LEAN MANUFACTURINGThe International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP) was created at MIT, USA to study the techniques used in automobile production around the world. IMVP researcher John Krafcik commented that the Toyota System was lean.
46 Major Tenets of Lean Manufacturing Quick Changeover/ Set-up ReductionPull/Kanban SystemWorkplace Organization 5S SystemValue Stream AnalysisTotal ProductiveMaintenance (TPM)Cellular Manufacturing
47 SUPPORTING STRATEGIES AND CONCEPTS One Piece FlowVisual Controls TAKT TimeTeam Building Balanced FlowQuality at the sourceEmployee InvolvementStabilized OperationsStandardizedContinuous ImprovementEquipment Replacement
48 TENETS AND CONCEPTS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING Kanban SystemsCellular ManufacturingOne Piece Flow
49 KANBAN SYSTEMSThe Kanban System was developed by Mr. Taiichi Ohno, Vice President of Toyota, to achieve objectives that included:Reducing costs by eliminating waste/scrapTry to create work sites that can respond to changes quicklyFacilitate the methods of achieving and assuring quality controlDesign work sites according to human dignity, mutual trust and support and allowing workers reach their maximum potential.NEXT
50 TWO MOST COMMON TYPES OF KANBANS USED: Withdrawal Kanban- Is to pass the authorization for the movement of parts from one stage to another.ii. Production Kanban- The main function of the production Kanban is to release an order to the preceding stage to build the lot size indicated on the card.PREVIOUSNEXT
51 KANBAN PROCESS FEATURES Parts travel from one process to the next processParts are received from the preceding process as per details in kanban such as the type and time when requiredKanban must always be attached to the partsThe parts should be produced according to the information on KanbanPREVIOUSNEXT
52 No extra pieces are produced The quantity produced should match the requirement of the subsequent processNo extra pieces are producedIf no Kanban is attached to a product, no manufacturing should be madeIn case if defective items are produced, they should not be transferred to the subsequent process.It should be ensure that the parts are placed in the container should be defect freeThe kanban can be used to respond to changes in demand by increasing or decreasing the number of units to be produced.NEXTPREVIOUS
53 ADVANTAGES OF KANBAN PROCESS Simple and understandable processProvides quick and precise informationLow costs associated with the transfer of informationProvides quick response to changesAvoids overproductionMinimizes wasteControl can be maintainedDelegates responsibility to line workers
54 CELLULAR MANUFACTURING A cell is configured normally for speed and material handling and can reap substantial benefits in cost saving, time compression and inventory reduction.Cellular manufacturing and work cells are at the heart of lean manufacturing. Their benefits are many and varied. They increase productivity and quality. Cells simplify material flow, management and accounting systems.
55 Improvement in efficiency cell build vs. batch build ResourcesBatch BuildCell BuildImprovemntDirect Labour11 hours10 hours9%Floor space12,000 sq. ft.3000 sq. ft.42%Lead time12 weeks2 weeks83%Inventory$ 564,000$ 279,00051%Scrap and network$ 23,040$ 12,03048%
56 SINGLE PIECE FLOWCellular manufacturing demands single piece flow methodology. This is also called one-piece flow or continuous flow manufacturing. It is a technique used to manufacture components in a cellular environment.The goals of one piece however are: to make one part at a time correctly all the time without lengthy queue.
57 FLOW MANUFACTURING vs. BATCH PRODUCTION The opposite of one-piece flow is large-lot production. Although, many companies produce goods in large lots or batches, it builds delays into the process. No items can move on to the next process, until all the items in the lot have been processed.PREVIOUSNEXT
58 Single Piece Flow Diagram ProcessAProcessBProcessC10 minutes10 minutes10 minutesLead Time: 30 + minutes for total order21 + minutes for first piecesA. Batch and Queue ProcessingPREVIOUSNEXT
59 Single Piece Flow Diagram ProcessAProcessBProcessC12 min, for total order3 min, for first partB. Continuous Flow ProcessingPREVIOUSNEXT
60 Table: Single Piece Flow WasIsChangeGoalPeople/Parts Travel (feet)1690430-75%-60%Increase in Floor Space (sq. ft.)1559222943%30%Non-Value Added Work (minutes)43330-93%-50%PREVIOUSNEXT
61 ZERO DEFECTSPerformance standard should be zero defect and not Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)Is it Possible to Achieve Zero Defect?Determination RequiredRight Mindset RequiredDo not Accept Work from Others Which is not up to the StandardDo not Pass on the Work to Others Saying that will be Good Enough
62 Do not Put Off Till Later Do not Put the Blame on Others Perfect System RequiredCultural Change RequiredNever Ending Enthusiasm RequiredTraining RequiredManagement Commitment Required