2 Journal Reflection: Illegal substances 1 Know students and how they learn.1.1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of physical, social, and intellectual development and characteristics of students and how these may affect learning.Journal Reflection: intellectual, social development - Relationship building and positive reinforcement.27/08/14I worked with an individual Year 12 student, with a history of behavioral problems and first tried to engage with him by talking, and questioning him. This worked very well. Once I had established a non-threatening, and friendly manner, I helped him to focus on his sources, by reading and highlighting important information relevant to his topic of ‘legalizing marijuana’. I then used questioning to help focus on particular points, and this prompted his writing. I also helped correct grammatical errors , and by the end of the session, the student had completed a draft .When reading through this students work, I also made a point of reinforcing good work where I saw it, if there was a spelling mistake , I read the word aloud and broke it down, e.g. Wed-nes-day, and once correct, I remarked, “good.”Mentor Statement“This is a positive area of personal development as a teacher, because the approach to a student with behavioral problems is different and isolated to the individual. “Relationship building and positive reinforcement is a considered approach, as opposed to issuing harsh, negative punishment for misbehavior/lack of work.Journal Reflection: Illegal substancesI suspected a student of using marijuana, and reported this to my mentor teacher, and senior staff. I chose to speak with this student individually after class. Myself, my mentor teacher and the Year 11 Coordinator decided to have the school constable have a question and answer session about the use of illegal substances in school, and what the ramifications were for students both in and out of school, as well as in later life.
3 1.2 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of research into how students learn and the implications for teaching.Visual/Auditory/kinesthetic learningHow students best learn needs to be identified by the teacher through the creation of a Learning Management Plan (LMP).Learning objectives/learning outcomesJournal ReflectionAssessment tasks: Focus on Backward DesignCasuarina Senior College works with the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE), for Stage 1 and 2 English.Backward Design focuses on outlining what the task is, so the learning objectives and outcomes are suggested at the beginning of an assessment task.Year 11 ESL were given the assessment task of a written report. I supplied the task sheet, with a rubric of assessment criteria on the back of the sheet, and I outlined what was expected of them in the first lesson, as well as providing a prepared power-point presentation for the students to observe how a written report must be structured, (title page, contents, numbered headings, references)
4 1.3 Demonstrate knowledge of teaching strategies that are responsive to the learning strengths and needs of students from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds.Journal Reflection:Working with a Literacy Engagement class, students need some incentive to motivate their learning.Positive Reinforcement of Learning GoalsIn class discussion was low, despite providing a range of stimulus to develop engagement to the task. Therefore a strategy of ‘stickers and sweets’, was implemented. After a student answered three or more questions; they were awarded a sticker.In creating a Learning Management Plan (LMP), or a Learning and Assessment Plan (LAP), a description of the cohort posits the student background and student needs at the forefront of the plan.Consideration of the student needs is then addressed within the assessment outline.
5 1.4 Demonstrate broad knowledge and understanding of the impact of culture, cultural identity and linguistic background on the education of students from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds.Semester 1: Monday, Week 10Year 11: Literacy EngagementA Torres Strait Islander student disengagement led to misbehaviour in class, and failure to submit assessment tasks which resulted in a meeting between teachers, parent, and student.All areas of concern were addressed to the student, and following the meeting, a marked improvement took place in this student’s attitude; and therefore improvement in classroom activity, and completion of assessment tasks.Despite this students lack of motivation, through formally addressing his isolated issues in a respectful manner, i.e. having both teachers and parent present in a discussion brought about this students awareness of the problems through reflection, and a positive change in this students attitude and behaviour towards education.Mentor Statement: “Ms Butcher works co-operatively and respectfully with students from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds. She engages students in a collegial approach, in order to lead them to new experiences and learning.”Websites for Indigenous Culture, History & Education
6 1.5 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of strategies for differentiating teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities.LESSON PLANNING:COMMUNICATION AND ENGAGEMENT‘Who Killed the Electric Car?’The Literacy Engagement class needed discussion of the topic of an electric car, before the documentary was shown. Background information of electric cars, ‘what an electric car is and does?’, ‘Why is it important?’ This information was scaffolded, throughout the viewing of the doc, through the use of prior questioning, and in class discussion.MENTOR TEACHER QUOTE“Ms Butcher fluently adjusts her approach to students according to their needs with a given task. Once a student understands the task at hand, Rebecca allows him or her to express themselves.”
7 1.6 Demonstrate broad knowledge and understanding of legislative requirements and teaching strategies that support participation and learning of students with disability.According to the Australian Curriculum, and the Disability Discrimination Act 1992, students with disabilities are to be given the same rights as all other students , including the right to education ‘on the same basis’ as students without disability. I have read and understood the educational guidelines and requirements to support inclusive learning for all students, as stated on the Australian Government Educational website. Mentor Comment: “Ms Butcher worked on a one-to-one basis with a Year 12 ESL student who, at a previous school had shown signs of distress, but with her helpful support and encouragement, this student has successfully completed Stage 2 requirements ahead of time at a B grade level.”
8 2 Know the Content and How to Teach it 2.1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concepts, substance and structure of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching areaESL Journal Reflection26/8/14My mentor teacher is a great ESL teacher, with an invaluable source of content about the subject.Phrasal verbs are common in the English language. If students can master many of these phrasal verbs, they can greater understand the English language.Dictionary work‘Parts of speech’, verbs, nouns, pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, are all identifiable using the dictionary. I modelled homework task-sheets, and class work on English grammar.E.g. On the whiteboard I would write examples; then prepare sentences with blank spaces for them to answer.The passengers prepared for ‘take off’.The teacher asked the student to ‘take off’ his hat.OFFOVERINTAKEWITHONOUT
9 2.2 Organize content into an effective learning and teaching sequence Lesson Plan: Literacy Engagement Focus: ‘All My Sons’ by Arthur MillerYear Session 4 & 5Step 1: Class discussion/scaffolding of the play. (5/10mins)Step 2: Choose students to read from selected extracts of the play. (10/15mins)Step 3: Class discussion of selected scene(s). (5/10mins)Step 4: Students watch selected scenes of the play on overhead projector. (10/15mins)ESL HOMEWORK TASK: Phrasal VerbsContent of parts of speech in prior lessons led to the discussion of phrasal verbs, which was taught in class, using board-work and class discussion in an active learning environment.I therefore created a task-sheet which covered content in class (dictionary work on looking up phrasal verbs), to be completed at home, before the next lesson, where I would check in class and score students accordingly.
10 2.3 Use curriculum, assessment and reporting knowledge to design learning sequences and lesson plans Through using the SACE documents on the English or ESL outline, assessment requirements are explicit to students with the rubric attached at the back of the assessment task.Backward Design implements the task at the beginning of an assignment.A single lesson will discuss the assessment task, and also model/scaffold the final product.A series of lessons will then teach the criteria; e.g. I depicted the documentary techniques in the documentary – ‘who killed the electric car?’ Once a technique was described, I selected a scene to model discussion of the technique, and used informed questions to open this up for class discussion. Written work then followed spoken interaction.
11 2.4 Demonstrate broad knowledge of, understanding of and respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures and languages.SACE demonstrates the need for historical, cultural and language consideration of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in its subject outline.The Little Red Yellow Black website is also accompanied by a book. It is one of many invaluable resources into Indigenous culture, history, and education.
12 2.5 Know and understand literacy and numeracy teaching strategies and their application in teaching areas.SACE provides a unit outline for English, ESL and other variants of the subject. Within each unit outline, Literacy and Numeracy are considered aspects of students learning.Literacy is considered both formally and informally, and can be noted by the teacher through the use of anecdotal records as well as assessment tasks.Numeracy is considered through the use of statistics when students create arguments for assessment tasks using newspaper articles/reports. Statistics provide evidence to support claims.Scoring quizzes and tests, and asking students to change scores into percentages or fractions is also another numerical consideration.
13 2.6 Implement teaching strategies for using ICT to expand curriculum learning opportunities for students.Year 11 produced an individual social advocacy website, supporting or negating a topical issue.Part of the assessment considered students knowledge and understanding of how a website works; layout & design, use of jpg files, you-tube clips, links, and interactivity.Year 12 had three components: produce a website, a written response that supported the website, and a power-point presentation based upon the website.Year 12 were expected to focus on a target audience, and then analyse how well they were able to reach that target group through the content of their website.Yea 11 ESL students had to research a recent topic or issue in the news.They used as a starting point, and then investigated newspaper websites themselves; or used search engines to discover more about their topic, as long as the articles were factual, trusted sources.
14 3 Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning 3.1 Set learning goals that provide achievable challenges for students of varying abilities and characteristics.Journal Reflection : Establishing challenging goals.22/08/14Short-term goalsI asked a female student in a Year 11 Literacy Engagement class to create a case study of 'dangerous drinking', which was the topic of her social advocacy website. I scaffolded the idea for her by suggesting she were playing the role of a young, teenage girl/boy and how this person had a particularly bad experience at a party which involved binge drinking. (The effects of this negative experience allows others to reflect on their own behaviour, making a case study a persuasive device.) The student created her own story during this lesson, using both pathos and logos; the use of both emotion, and logical reasoning, to promote her 'dangerous drinking' social advocacy website.- This was an achievable goal for this student to undertake inside one lesson. The scaffold of the idea was necessary for her to develop the idea on her own, and some cajoling was necessary to keep this student motivated.Long-term goals – Positive enforcement of students abilityI identified a student in a Year 11 Communications class, who was often distracted and unengaged.I consistently commented on this behaviour, in a negative manner, and used other students who had completed work as ideals for this student to strive for.When marking an assessment task, I reinforced my position in my comment; “I can see that you have sufficient knowledge of the subject, but am also aware that you are capable of a higher grade. If you only put greater effort into the task – you would achieve better grades.”His second assessment task was better developed I felt; showing improvement.
15 3.2 Plan lesson sequences using knowledge of student learning, content and effective teaching strategies.
16 3.3 Include a range of teaching strategies Socratic questioning: developing engagement through use of prior knowledge.Peer learning/group work.Overhead projector of power-point presentationsDifferentiation through scaffolding:Overhead projector of documentary ‘Who Killed the Electric Car?’/Films – ‘They’re a Weird Mob’, Play; stage production of ‘All My Sons’/you-tube clips. All resources used to scaffold information to students.
17 3.4 Demonstrate knowledge of a range of resources, including ICT, that engage students in their learning.
18 3.5 Demonstrate a range of verbal and non-verbal communication strategies to support student engagement.VERBALRaising my voice, and asking for quiet.Asking for phones/earphones to be put away.Identifying students who are talking, and questioning them about the topic.Journal ReflectionIn the ESL class, one student began singing, so I asked for him to stop, explaining that his voice was a distraction to others. He stopped briefly and then continued. I was helping another student at the time, who then shouted at the other student to “stop singing!” as she was frustrated at not being able to discuss her difficulty to me.I then re-iterated what I had said- “no-one can concentrate or engage with their work whilst you continue to distract them. It is unfair of you.”NON-VERBALWaiting for silence. Placing my forefinger on my lips for quiet.Placing my hands on my hips with a stern expression on my face.Shaking my head at students if they are laughing inappropriately.Miming taking earphones out of my ears.Observing students, and intercepting inappropriate behaviour.
19 3.6 Demonstrate broad knowledge of strategies that can be used to evaluate teaching programs to improve student learning.Collegial AdviceDiscussing with other teachers/senior staff the non-effective aspects of a teaching program, and asking for their advice or support. This works in the opposite way also.Contacts on the SACE website about curriculum structure/assessment tasks.
20 3.7 Describe a broad range of strategies for involving parents/carers in the educative process. AT RISK FORMSStudents who are at risk, that is, they have not submitted assignments by the deadline, and also have not discussed with the teacher possible reasons for this, leads to an AT RISK form being sent to parents/carers.PHONE CALLSTeachers have a responsibility as to the welfare of their students. Phone calls to parents may be formal/informal depending on the subject at hand.REPORT CARDSStudents receive report cards near the end of term, providing a brief summary of individual students behaviour and motivation, as well as a grade for their ability.PARENT/TEACHER MEETINGSThese meetings occur halfway through the first semester and are a way to monitor students progress, but also provides a chance for parents to have some personal interaction with subject teachers, in a safe, supportive environment at the school.
21 4 Create and maintain supportive learning environments. 4.1 Identify strategies to support inclusive student participation and engagement in classroom activities.MENTOR COMMENT:“Ms Butcher developed a strategy to encourage inclusive participation in her literacy engagement class whereby she identified, and won over, one particularly disengaged but influential student, with the result that when the student took part in the reading of a play, other students found it easy to participate and follow suit.”This scoreboard helped Year 12 students identify what work had been completed, and what needed completing. Each time they received a sticker, they also received a chocolate, as a congratulatory present.The scoreboard helped instil a sense of purpose and of achievement.
22 4.2 Demonstrate the capacity to organise classroom activities and provide clear directions. Indicating deadline for assessment task clearly written on the whiteboard.Deadlines for the essay on the electric car.“Draft deadline, due by 15/09/14Final deadline, due by 22/09/14”Please send to:Lesson Plan Extract‘Who Killed the Electric Car?’Documentary techniquesStep 1: Interview scene shown on overhead projectorStep 2: Class discussion of what has been seen. E.g.Who is being interviewed?What is his/her position?Supportive/Unsupportive of the EV1?Why are we being shown this?
23 4.3 Demonstrate knowledge of practical approaches to manage challenging behaviour Journal Reflection19/9/14Questioning student’s behaviour with the intention of creating the room for student’s own personal reflection. E.g.“Why do you think I moved you to the front of the class?”Student response: “Because I was talking too much.”“Why is that a problem?”Student response: “Because I am not doing my work.”“Which affects? Your learning as well as other students. You are at an age where you must become responsible for your own learning.”Journal Reflection18/9/14Ignoring abusive or negative comments, renders them useless.Negative criticism of a single student toward myself – I chose to ignore the remarks made, rather than address the student with an emotional reaction.
24 4.4 Describe strategies that support students’ wellbeing and safety working within school and/or system, curriculum and legislative requirementsTEACHER RESPONSIBILITYSCHOOL ENVIRONMENTDUTY OF CARE:Teacher’s responsibility to maintain safe and supportive learning environments, both within lessons, and within the school structure.SCHOOL COUNCILLOR:Students can book appointments with the school councillor if they are experiencing difficulties within or outside of school; to help support their emotional wellbeing.SAMS:This is the student register system, part of a teacher’s legislative requirements dealing with children/adolescents’ safety and wellbeing, in documenting their attendance.SCHOOL CONSTABLE:Nicole … is the school policewoman, able to offer advice and support about legal and illegal activity, as well as help to maintain a safe, non-threatening environment for learning within the school grounds.YARD DUTY:Patrolling school grounds at recess and lunch times to monitor students behaviour, and maintain a safe environment.
25 4.5 Demonstrate an understanding of the relevant issues and the strategies available to support the safe, responsible and ethical use of ICT in learning and teaching.Journal ReflectionYear 1215/09/14I discussed the use of ‘reliable’ sources with a year 12 student, who seemed intent only on gathering information, without knowledge of its source.I asked him “do you know the difference between a blog, and a journal article?” He replied, “Yes”, but without further comment. So, I informed him of the importance of factual information for academic writing. “Blogs are only opinions, they cannot provide evidence as a publishable source can.”In slide 3.4, I showcased a variety of learning resources.However, these resources have to be monitored, there is a safety net at CSC that does not allow you-tube to be used by students, nor social networking sites.Teachers have a separate domain from students, providing us with the opportunity of using these resources for educational purposes.
26 5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning 5.1 Demonstrate understanding of assessment strategies, including informal and formal, diagnostic, formative and summative approaches to assess student learning.Journal Reflection 13/09/14Informal assessment may be questioning in class discussion, as well as one-to-one questioning. Originally I started by saying “Do you understand?” to students, whereby I received a non-committal blank stare. I had to readjust my approach, whereby I now ask “Can you repeat back to me, or explain yourself, what it is that I have asked you to do?”Formative and diagnostic are more commonly used for leading up to an assessment task. E.g.Drafts of an essay, I check for spelling mistakes, grammar, and provide support through questions or prompts – “what other documentary techniques can you define?” “who else is to blame?” (study of documentary on the electric car)Summative assessment occurs at the end of a unit of work, or assessment task, whereby a rubric ofKnowledge and understandingAnalysisApplicationCommunicationAre defined, and the performance standards are defined under these four headings graded from A to E.At the end of a semester the grades are collected for each individual assessment; and a final grade is calculated.
27 5.2 Demonstrate an understanding of the purpose of providing timely and appropriate feedback to students about their learning.Journal Reflection19/10/14Knowledge can be lost, if not reinforced through assessment.Literacy Engagement class struggle to hand things in by a deadline. I had to keep hold of their classwork, so that it would not be lost, and could be worked on again during the following lesson. That is, if they came to class.The topic/or assessment has to continue, however, otherwise the material learnt starts to fade. Feedback has to be given to the students, so that they can then improve on what has not been so successful.Journal Reflection15/09/14Students had one week to correct workThis date was a Friday, the deadline for the draft of the ‘electric car’ essay, which described how documentary, filmic and literary techniques were used by the filmmaker to persuade the audience of the guilt of certain suspects to the destruction of the electric car.This meant that I had the weekend to mark the essays, and the students would then have one more week to correct changes, develop their work, or simply complete the final version for the following Friday – 22/09/14.
28 5.3 Demonstrate understanding of assessment moderation and its application to support consistent and comparable judgements of student learning.Journal Reflection25/09/14When assessing students work, I grade the class as a whole, and set aside time to achieve this.It is necessary to evaluate students work through the use of the rubric, I circle the area’s the student has achieved, and always provide written feedback, as well as their grade, to provide constructive criticism to help them achieve greater success, and possibly higher grades in their next assessment.Journal Reflection10/10/14Plagiarism of another students workI had a student who had copied heavily from another students work. I was only able to identify this because I had marked the other students work as a draft.I spoke with my mentor teacher, and he pulled the student aside to reprimand him. He was told he would receive an ‘E grade’ if he did not re-write the entire assignment.A week later, he provided a final copy, which I graded as a C+.
29 5.4 Demonstrate the capacity to interpret student assessment data to evaluate student learning and modify teaching practice.Journal Reflection 21/10/14Having assessed the Year 11 ESL class before, I was aware of particular difficulties that they have – over use of plurals, placement of ‘is’ where it is not needed. Mainly grammatical errors.A lesson followed this assessment task with a booklet on ‘perfecting your sentences’, a booklet with tasks which I could swiftly run through, and help students familiarise themselves further with grammar, with me as their aid.Journal Reflection26/10/14Having assessed the Year 11 Communications class with their essay on documentary techniques, I was aware that the cohort was at quite a high level. I was able to identify which students needed greater scaffolding from me for the next assessment, and so made an anecdotal record of these students; of which there were six. I was able to give these students greater individual help.
30 5.5 Demonstrate understanding of a range of strategies for reporting to students and parents/carers and the purpose of keeping accurate and reliable records of student achievement.Parent MeetingsParents expect to see evidence of their child’s achievements when meeting subject teachers, so reliable and up-to-date records are extremely important.External AssessmentIf a student’s work is being assessed by an external moderator, it must be accurately recorded by the teacher what grades they have given.If an external moderator then queries it, there is evidence to support the grade given to the student by the teacher.MENTOR TEACHER QUOTE:“It is extremely important to keep reliable records, I keep a record of any phone calls I make with parents.”This is to have written evidence to support the attempted contact between teacher and parent/carer.
31 6 Engage in professional learning 6.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the role of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in identifying professional learning needs.PlanIt is necessary for any professional to adapt their practice; teachers understand that education is an ever-evolving field, subject to political, economic, social, and environmental changes, of which, teachers have little, or no control of.Therefore, re-evaluation of teaching practice is within the individual’s control, and develops positive practice, and highlights any negative areas for improvement. See Fig 1.Fig.1.ImproveImplementReviewThis is also known as action research which is used to help refine teaching practice.
32 6.2 Understand the relevant and appropriate sources of professional learning for teachers. Legislative SourcesAITSL StandardsProfessional Development SeminarsEducational Resources of academic writing:Books,Journals,WebsitesProfessional Development Training‘Restorative Justice’Single day session exploring techniques and approaches to manage challenging behaviour – from a policeman – a professional in a different field.Both Formal and Informal;Collegial Advice:StudentsTeaching staff/colleaguesMentor teacherAssistant PrincipalPrincipal
33 6.3 Seek and apply constructive feedback from supervisors and teachers to improve teaching practices.Mentor Teacher Feedback27/08/14Communications class –Pace of class – too slowBe aware of mobile phones (reprimand students)Discussion lasted too long; must develop discussion into something more concrete; but unable to do so because of time.Need to question students, don’t tell them the answers.Improvement of teaching practiceJournal Reflection 29/08/14Communications class –Awareness of the clock – discussion time 15/20 minutes maximumUsing prior questioning more confidently; patience and coaxing answers, yielded better results, built up further discussion.Development of discussion into group work – 15 minutes or so – then report back to the class your findings.“What techniques does the filmmaker use to persuade the audience of these ideas?” Final discussion point – then 5 mins recapping learning outcomes.
34 6.4 Demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for continued professional learning and the implications for improved student learning.Mentor Quote“Ms Butcher attended all PD sessions available to staff at CSC, and discussed with me, not only the content of the PD but also the rationale for continuing development.”Attending all Professional Development sessions provides the opportunity to reflect on teaching practice, and this reflective ability is the grounding blocks of good teaching practice.It means, however, that students may see changes in your approach, but as long as the positive relationship is maintained, this will continue positive teaching development.
35 7 Engage professionally with colleagues, parents/carers and the community 7.1 Understand and apply the key principles described in codes of ethics and conduct for the teaching profession.An extract of my Teaching PhilosophyThe values that underpin my Teaching Philosophy are based upon personal values such as respect for oneself and others, honesty, reliability, empathy and understanding.
36 7.2 Understand the relevant legislative, administrative and organisational policies and processes required for teachers according to school stage.I have read and understood the ‘Protective Practices’ legislative document.Staff Meetings/Assessment ModerationI attended Staff meetings, and an assessment moderation between the English Faculty for Year 12.DUTY OF CAREWithin the classroom teachers have a ‘duty of care’, maintaining safe and supportive learning environments for students.Professional RoleMaintaining a professional, positive relationship with students both within school and outside of school settings, (Darwin being a small community means that teachers may see students outside of the usual school boundaries.)MANDATORY REPORTING:Under the ‘Care and Protection of Children Act NT’, teachers are required to report a belief that a child has suffered harm or exploitation, or is a victim to a sexual offence.
37 7.3 Understand strategies for working effectively, sensitively and confidentially with parents/carers.Meetings with Parents/CarersKeeping student records is important, so the teacher can provide evidence of the students behaviour.Journal Reflection: September 1st, Week 10Meeting with student and parent, year co-ordinator and English teacher, student was un-cooperative, disengaged and not producing work. The student was also at age 17, past compulsory school age.Student was questioned, sensitively by staff and his parent, until the student could see his mistakes, and was then able to describe the correct expected behaviour, and course of action to take when uncertain/unmotivated. Year 11 Co-Ordinator “You need to take responsibility for your own actions.”Phone calls to Parents/CarersWhen ringing parents, being sensitive toward timing, no phone calls after 7.p.m. to respect parents right to privacy.However, to effectively engage a disengaged student, all areas of the students social system need to be operating together toward the same goal.(Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory: Mesosystem; immediate family/school/neighbourhood groups)
38 7.4 Understand the role of external professionals and community representatives in broadening teachers’ professional knowledge and practice.Barry JonsbergHe is both a teacher at Casuarina Senior College and an author, therefore occupying two respected professions.His involvement as teacher and writer within the school provides an invaluable insight and access to a variety of literary knowledge for both students and teachers alike.Professional Development CoursesRestorative Justice session, taught by a policeman.As professionals in the public sector, the community plays an integral role within society, as what behaviour is deemed acceptable or otherwise also relates heavily to outside the school’s domain, as well as within it.Once again Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory depicts the separate systems that interrelate- microsystem-mesosystem-exosystem and macrosystem.A policeman is part of both exosystem, as his work protects the community, he is also part of the macrosystem as he upholds the law.
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