Presentation on theme: "Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity – St. Sergius Monastery."— Presentation transcript:
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity – St. Sergius Monastery
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Adjectives, describing the view of the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius WonderfulЧудесный MagnificentВеликолепный SuperbПревосходный SumptuousРоскошный BlessedБлагословенный PiousБлагочестивый DivineБожественный ImpressiveВпечатляющий Picturesqueживописный
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 AncientДревний Good-lookingБлагообразный Incomparable Ни с чем не сравнимый OrthodoxПравославный NativeРодной HeavenlyРайский VenerableПочтенный CharmingОчаровательный
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 St. Sergius, the founder of the Holy Trinity Lavra St. Sergius was born of wealthy Rostov boyars on May 3, 1314. In 1337 he and his elder brother Stefan decided to leave for the desert. The life of a hermit was very difficult and Stefan preferred life in an urban monastery and left Sergius for Moscow.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 For about two years Sergius remained alone in the desert, and prayer he prepared himself for his monastic vows. Later farmer and city dwellers used to come from all over for St. Sergius blessing and advice and then settled in the area of the monastery. Having become abbot of the monastery, St. Sergius did not change anything in his life and continued to work for all. Numerous miracles took place and many people were cured by St. Sergius players.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 “In the land of Moscow and all over the world there is no other monastery equal to this one…” Archdeacon Paul of Aleppa
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The monuments on the territory of the Lavra 1.The Trinity Cathedral 2.The Church of the Holy Ghost 3.The Dormition Cathedral 4.The Refectory with the Church of the St. Sergius 5.The Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist 6.Tsar’s Chambers with the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin 7.The Bell Tower 8.The Pyatnitskaya Tower 9.The Krasnaya Tower 10.The Drying Tower 11.The Duck Tower 12.The Zvonkovaya Tower 13.The Pilgrim Tower 14.The Carpenter Tower 15.The Cellarer Tower 16.The Beer Tower 17.The Water Tower 18.The Onion Tower The Fortress Tower
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Red Tower To stress the significance of the Krasnaya Tower constructed over the main gate it was faced with white stone. The Tower was considerably reconstructed in the 19 century and subsequently lost its defensive character. A figured portal and superstructure were added.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Pilgrim Tower The Tower is situated at the break of two parts of the fortress wall. It was constructed to the design of I. Zhukov and I. Yakovlev in classical style as a gala entrance after the Monastery lost its defensive significance. The up-diminishing tiers are crowned with a tent covered with tiles, a lantern and a weather- vane.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Inside there is a spiral staircase with 159 steps and five observation grounds for tourists. From them one can enjoy a nice view of the architectural ensemble and of the town stretching on the small picturesque hills.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Duck Tower In the north-eastern corner of the Monastery there was a granary yard which gave the name to the corner Granary Tower. Later it was called the Duck Tower. The Tower is crowned with a high red and white open-work structure consisting of four originally decorated tiers. The Tower combines power and impregnability with gala decorativeness. The proper correlation of the bottom and top fine proportions and light silhouette make the Tower an outstanding monument of the 17 th century architecture.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Tower is crowned with a small drum with a stone duck on a high steeple. According to the legend Peter I liked to shoot at ducks at the White Pond. In the course of a hundred years the Duck Tower was used as a water tower and only in 1962 the water-pipe was opened.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Pyatnitskaya Tower The Pyatnitskaya Tower. One of the most powerful towers was called after the neighbouring Pyatnitskaya Monastery. It was constructed to replace the tower blown during the siege of the Monastery. The Tower has 6 tiers. Originally it was crowned with a tent- type roof and a watch tower. The Tower is massive, austere and impregnable.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Cellarer Tower Each tier of the Tower is a vaulted chamber with a powerful pillar in the middle.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Onion Tower The Tower was named after the neighbouring onion kitchen-garden. It was constructed as a defensive tower. In the 19 century the upper part of the fortress wall between the Water and Onion Towers was arranged as a gallery, and the upper tier Onion Tower was reconstructed into a pavilion providing a good view of the surrounding area.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Bell Tower The first plan of the Bell Tower, worked out by the court architect I. Shchumakher, presented a three-tier structure. The construction was supervised by Moscow I.F. Michurin. In the process of construction it became clear that the height of the Bell Tower was not sufficient. In 1753 the new project of Michurin’s pupil D.V. Ukhtomsky adding two more tiers was adopted.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Bell Tower is built of brick and plastered, the details – cartouches, columns – are of white stone.42 bells are suspended in the tiers of the Bell Tower. The largest bell weighing 64 tons was cast in the Lavra. The Bell Tower with a cupola is 88 meters high. (The Bell Tower of the new Maiden Nunnery is 72 and the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great is 81 meter high.)
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Drying Tower The drying tower, like all non-corner towers, is rectangular in plan. It is divided in three tiers by the stone vaults. The high tent with and weathervane give an idea of the original tops of other towers of the Trinity Monastery.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Beer Tower The Towers stands on the slope of the steep hill protruding out of the fortress wall. In the Tower were the Beer and Kvas Chambers and mead was prepared. The deep stone cellars where supplies were stored were attached to the Tower from the inner yard. The household function determined the name of the tower.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Zvonkovaya Tower Originally it was called Forger Tower as it was situated near the forge where from the noise of the anvil was constantly heard. The Tower is decorated with pilasters, arches ornamental details.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Water Tower The Tower was named after behind which in the 17 century the cabbage kitchen-garden subsequently turning to the Monastery garden was located.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Trinity Cathedral The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, much smaller than the Cathedral of the Dormition, is the spiritual and historical centre of the monastery. The present day cathedral, built by St. Sergius’s successor, Nicon, became the place where the holy relics of St. Sergius are kept. It is also the place associated in believers’ notions with another Russian saint, the great artist Andrei Rublev.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 St. Nicon implored Rublev and his friend Daniel Chorny to start painting of the cathedral. The fact that such outstanding masters were responsible for the painted décor of the interiors and that the world-famous icon The Trinity was painted for this iconostasis determined an exclusive role of the cathedral in national culture.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Dormition Cathedral In the reign of the tsar Ivan IV, who had a particular veneration for St. Sergius, the monastery was surrounded by a stone enclosure topped by 12 towers. The walls, the pillars and the vaults are covered with frescoes on the subject of Church History.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The magnificent frescoes of the Cathedral were created in 1684 by 35 painters in a 100 days. The frescoes cover the area of 500 square metres. The 5-tier iconostasis consists of 76 icons dated back to the 16-17 centuries. The celebrated seventeenth- century painter Simon Ushakov, the royal isographer, took part in the creation of the iconostasis.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 In the Dormition Cathedral there are two shrines with the holy relics of ST. Filaret and St. Innokenty, Metropolitans of Moscow. By the western wall, to the right of the entrance, you can see the tomb of Makarius, one of Moscow Metropolitans, who created many outstanding works on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church and on dogmatic theology.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles In 1476, on the site of the wooden Trinity Church constructed in 1412 by St. Nikon. The Church of the Holy Spirit and the Trinity Cathedral form an ensemble. In the church there are two shrines with the holy relics of St. Maximus the Greek and St. Anthony of Radonezh.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 St. Maximus the Greek was one of the most erudite men of his period. He died in the monastery in 1556 and was buried here. In 1988 he was canonised. St. Anthony was canonised in 1996. From 1770, the Metropolitans of the Moscow were abbots of the monastery. St. Anthony was the monastery’s vicar in 1831-1877.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 The Church of Intercession of the Holy Virgin The Tsar’s Chambers were erected at the end of the 17 century. The pious Empress Elisabeth, who often visited the Trinity Monastery, founded the Seminary in the Chambers in 1742.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 In 1814 the Theological Academy was transferred from Moscow to the Lavra, and a new complex of buildings for the needs of the Schools appeared. The Church Archaeological Museum and the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin are situated in the Tsar’s Chambers. The wall paintings were created in 1987-1988 by the iconographers of the local Icon Painting School.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Chronicle 1345. Sergius of Radonezh founds the Holy Trinity Monastery which becomes the great cultural and spiritual center of the principality of Moscow. Nearby villages and settlements appear (Kokuyevo, Klementievo). 1380. Sergius of Radonezh blesses Dmitri, the prince of Moscow, for the struggle with the Golden Horde. Peresvet and Oslyablya, monks of the Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, take part in the Kulikov battle which began with a single combat of Peresvet and the Tartar warrior Chelubey.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 1392. Death of St. Sergius Radonezh, founder of the Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius. 1408. The Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius is reduced to ashes by the troops of Yedigey-khan. 1422. St. Sergius of Radonezh, founder of The Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, is canonized. The first stone temple of the monastery, the Holy Trinity Cathedral, is built. It contains a reliquary with the mortal remains of St. Sergius. 1540. Building of the first stone monastery wall is launched. 1608. The monastery sustains the siege laid by the troops of Sapega and Lisovsky during the Polish- Lithuanian intervention. The Monastery supports the people’s volunteer corps of Minin and Pozharsky.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 1610. The Pushkarskaya and Streletskaya settlements are established. The Iconnaya, Povarskaya, and Konyushennaya settlements are built. Construction is launched on the monastery grounds. 1682. Young Peter I with his brother Ivan and Tsarina Sophia hide in the monastery during the revolt of strelets. 1689. Peter escapes from his sister Sophia to the monastery. Then his loyal Poteshnye troops come to his rescue, along with the Sukharevsky regiment of strelets. In the Monastery Peter deals with Sophia’s supporters. He organizes a public execution in the square facing the monastery. From here Peter, now the single rules, returns to Moscow. 1742. Ecclesiastical Seminary opens in the monastery. 1744. The monastery gets the title of Lavra. Head of the Russian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan of Moscow, becomes the holy archimandrite of the Lavra.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 1782. Settlements shaped on the outskirts of the monastery merge into a merchant quarter called Sergiev Posad. 1792. Plan of regular construction of the town is adopted. 1814. Ecclesiastical Academy opens in the Lavra. 1862. Railroad from Moscow to the Lavra is built. 1918. Russian government makes a decision to close down The Lavra. 1919. Relics of St. Sergius are blasphemously opened. 1920. Museum is organized on the monastery ground. 1946. Stalin allows to open the Lavra and the ecclesiastical schools. From that moment the Lavra becomes the largest active monastery of the Russian Orthodox Church. 1988. Sessions of the Provincial Council of the Orthodox Church honor of the 1000 th anniversary of the adaption of Christianity in Russia are held in the Refectory Chamber of the Holy Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Список религиозных терминов Бог (God)- это Святая Троица. Мы молимся Отцу, и Сыну, и Святому духу. Христос-это сын божий, один из Святой Троицы. Башня (Tower)- оборонное сооружение. Там хранились продукты на случай осады, были оружейные склады. Библия (Bible)- священное откровение. Герб (Coat of arms)- опознавательный знак земель, городов или знатных родов. Герб получали в дар от властей. Душа (Soul)- совокупность человеческих желаний, чувств, мыслей. Тело (Body)- дом души. Жертва (Sacrifice)- высший подвиг, высшая доблесть, которая соединяет нас с Богом. Житие (Life)- повествует о пути нравственного, духовного совершенствования человека, дает образец такого пути. Это проповедь христианского учения на конкретном примере жизни Святого.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Икона (Icon)- проникновение в мир сверхъестественного, через материального мира. Иконостас (Iconostasis)- это преграда, отделяющая алтарь от основного помещения храма. Колокольня (Belfry)- храм «иже под колоколы». «Храм, который под колоколами.» Купол (Cupola)- это свод, крыша. Над ними луковичная маковка с крестом. Крест (Cross)- главный знак христиан. Это символ спасения. Крест творит жизнь, оживляет нашу душу. Молитва (Pray)- это наш разговор с Богом, мы проверяем Ему наши заботы, мысли, просим о помощи, благодарим за милость. Монах (Monk)- переводиться с греческого, как «живущий уединенно». Посад (Posad)- поселения людей вокруг крепостных стен.
Средняя общеобразовательная школа №4 Свеча (Candle)- жертва Богу, свеча усиливает молитву. Святые (Saint)- это не какой-то особый род людей, по словам апостола Павла, все мы призваны к святости. Святость (Holiness, sanctity)- это настоящая любовь к Богу, которая поселяется в сердце, и тогда человек стремиться не к исполнению своих желаний, а всегда ищет воли Божией. Собор (Cathedral)- сбор- собирание. Соборная площадь «собрала все Россию».