Presentation on theme: "The Classical Period of Greece (480-323 BC) A period of great optimism and prosperity, especially in Athens Triggered by the defeat of the Persians in."— Presentation transcript:
The Classical Period of Greece (480-323 BC) A period of great optimism and prosperity, especially in Athens Triggered by the defeat of the Persians in 480 BC Ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC Statues of this time showed naturalism, motion Art and architecture emphasized order, balance, and reason
What does “Classic” or “Classical” mean to us today?
The Golden Age of Athens (480-404 BC) Time during the Classical Period when Athens dominated politically and culturally Triggered by defeat of the Persians in 480 BC Ended in 404 BC when Athens and her allies were defeated by the Spartans during the Peloponnesian War Age of Pericles and the Parthenon
Some Illustrations of Humanism The belief that humans can control and understand their world (by striving for sophrosyne, kalokagathia, and areté) Emphasis on the naturalistic human figure (nude sculptures) Anthropomorphizing of the gods (giving the gods human image and behavior—in a sense, bringing the gods down to the level of mortals)
Greek Values ARETE' (AH-REH-TEA) Translated as "virtue," areté actually means something closer to "being the best you can be," or "reaching your highest human potential." The man or woman of areté is a person of the highest effectiveness; they use all their faculties: strength, bravery, wit, and deceptiveness, to achieve real results. In the Greek world, especially the Greece of Homer’s time, areté involves all of the abilities and potentialities available to humans.
KALOKAGATHIA (KAH-LOH-KAH-GA-THEE-A) Kalokagathia is a philosophical belief that man should live on the point of balance between pairs of dialectics present in the universe. These pairs of dialectics are pairs of opposites such as: the well-being of the body vs. the well-being of the mind; individual needs vs. civic duties; and man's desires vs. the gods' commands. It is the task of each individual to constantly strive to maintain his point of balance.
SOPHROSYNE (SEH-FROS-EH-KNEE) The Greek value which emphasizes that the individual should practice moderation, restraint and self-control is sophrosyne. This practice extends to the exercise of discretion, rational consideration of alternatives and temperance— the avoidance of excess. According to the Greeks, this practice was necessary to human happiness for it was the practice of sophrosyne which made the achievement of kalokagathia and areté possible.