13Industrial Superiority + Large Merchant Marine and Navy = Foundations for British Domination of the World.
14Colonial opposition began in 1808 when Napoleon made his brother Joseph King of Spain (continued after the Restoration)King Joseph did not intend to make any concessions to the colonists.Principle of the Congress of ViennaSpain = lost empire foreverPortugal= loss of BrazilAmerica = Monroe Doctrine1815 = the first phase of European expansion ended.
15By 1815….. America had everything behind it: Exploration and exploitationColonization and decolonizationAnd was politically independent from Europe
16The English came late to American colonization The English came late to American colonization. Only when the French and the Dutch established settlements in North America and Caribbean did Englishmen feel compelled to join in rather than get left behind by their rivals.
17The first colonists hoped to strike gold, but instead founded successful colonization with TobaccoSugarCattle worked by enslaved Indians
19Why not the new world? 1. Too busy with: Securing Tudor dynasty after war ofAsserting monarchial authorityDomestic + European issues1527His divorce with Catherine of ArgonHis divorce inspired religious reformationHenry VIII2.Edward VI ( ) reign too short for colonization. (Henry’s son)3.Queen Mary’s counter reformation. ( )Elizabeth had to deal with religious chaos, Mary of Scots, war with Spain. This was followed by: harvest failure +famine.4.
20Empires start at home Then: England Wales Scotland+ Ireland Empire = territorial expansionThen:1533: The Act of Restrain of Appeals of 1533- no more papal justice- “England is an empire of itself”Empire begin with 3 Kingdoms:EnglandWalesScotland+ Ireland
21Wales: Scotland: 1382 :Conquest: English Welsh 1485 :Accession part Welsh Henry VII:2 acts of union Wales under English legal + political authorityWales:1469 Scottish Parliament claim full Jurisdiction of Empire1533 England make same claims in Act in Restraint of Appeals (UHHH OHH!!!!!)English intervention help Scottish Reformation1707 Act of Union – Scotland give up is own legislation (fought English during the Civil Wars)1541 Irish Parliament declare Henry VII not just lord but “KING OF IRELAND”Scotland:
22= Ireland Blueprint for American Colonization All but loyal natives who would bring English/Scottish tenants to be removed, disposed, or killedCatholics holding land:1641: 59% of land1660: 22% of land1776: 5% of landEnglish, Scottish, Welsh in Ireland:1600: 2%1660: 18%18th century: 30%Irish Population:1600: 1,400,0001641: 2,100,0001680’s: 2,000,000 (war plague famine)Blueprint Because?!?Not one religion dominated over time!A mix of people fled there!Population increased!=
23English Atlantic, Trade + Plunder in the 17th century 1481: Unproven 1st European contact w/ Americas1490’s: First verifiable trip to North America. King Henry VII tells to conquer all lands not claimed by Christians1502 KING HENRY VII GIVES UP1550- lack of wool force English to New World(overseas trade fell 35%)England jealous of Spanish1562- John Harking begins carrying human cargo: Main interaction with New World through attacking Spanish ships/ Settlements + getting in on Spanish markets
24Lost colonies of Roanoke 1584- Queen Elizabeth allows colonization but no fishingLand is claimed from Chesapeake Bay- CarolinasApril Richard Greenville wastes supplies in raid of SpanishAugust Greenville return to England for supplies and leaves Ralph Lane incharge of 108 men.runs out of food and asks Indians, end in burning Indian villagesJune Francis Drake arrives but all want to leave but 15 who vanishedApril John White led 100men but ran out of supplies. Leaves granddaughter, the first child born in colonies
25Eighteenth Century empires Rise of the French and British
26How the dynasties began England and France had -Growing populations -Consumer demands for:
27AND: The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Textile Manufacturing Agriculture
28Now Let’s Backtrack1715: Brazil recognized at Peace of Utrecht and Portugal goes on pension (aka retires from active imperialism)Spain attempts to exclude outsiders from its colonial trade in the New World, but they pose NO THREATDutch could scarcely compete. BUT WHY??
29DECLINE OF THE Dutch“United Provinces” (the Dutch Netherlands) left weakened by war with Louis XIVCountry left stagnant both demographically and politically: Population failed to rise provincial oligarchies not strong centralized power like to French and BritishEconomy suffered when French and British eliminated maritime middlemenIndustry failed to become a competitorHeavy taxes and high wage demands force prices of Dutch products (BAD FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADING)
30The Dutch succeedFinancial institutions provide nation with safer, lucrative business of CREDIT and FINANCEFirst in West to perfect paper currency, stock market, and central banksMerchant-bankers loaned $$$$$$$$ to private borrowers and foreign nations, thus becoming: FINANCIAL BROKERS NOT TRADERS
31AND LET’S FAST FORWARDFrance and Britain would eventually fight the “Great Wars for Empire” (fought over the world as an expansion of the Seven Years’ War)Britain would eventually win in North America, the Caribbean, and South Asia British rule would extend over India: “THE JEWEL IN THE CROWN” of British imperial domination.
33Where the power comes from NAVAL AND MILITARY MIGHT
34French commercial empire Only state in Europe with both a large army and navyNew France primarily area of trade, not settlementAbsolutism fostered centralized structure of control over colonies Ruled by intendant and military governors
35British Commercial empire Rise in domination over the seas13 American colonies centers of settlement -remained independent of one another and barely controlled by Crown and Parliament (salutary neglect) royal governor, local assemblies, traditions of self government
36Both EmpiresRIVALRY OVER: -West Indies: SUGAR -West Africa: SLAVES -North America: CENTERS OF TRADE AND SETTLEMENT -India and rest of Asia: Powerful companies traded with Asian nations but were not supposed to establish coloniesMERCANTILISM!!
37Mercantilism“regulation of trade by a state in order to increase that state’s power over its neighbors”Practiced by Prussia, England, FranceFavorable balance of trade signified by influx of gold and silverState’s bullion could only increase at a neighbor’s expense (trade restrictions enforced)
38In the coloniesProduction of raw materials or staple crops for parent countryProtected markets for the parent’s manufactured goods -foreign goods barred through tariffs, high regulations, bounties, or outright prohibitionsWest Indies farmers, successful merchants, manufacturers, and ship owners accumulated large fortunesChanneling trade thwarted by:
39SMUGGLERS AND PIRATES!!Ex. John Hancock made $$$ smuggling food from Boston to French West Indies
40Dependence on Naval Power BECAUSE:Ships needed protections, rivals needed to be excluded from colonial trade, and regulations had to be enforcedLed to the establishment of ports along coasts of Africa, India, and the Caribbean (rivals were denied access of course)
41The west indiesTHE IDEAL COLONY -tropical climate -isolation from European society made slavery possible -crops difficult to grow elsewhere prospered (TOBACCO, COTTON, INDIGO, SUGAR) -could produce little else dependent on European manufactured goods Ex. Could not raise supply of food animals or grain to feed slaves, not enough lumber for buildings, could not manufacture luxury goods for planter class
42Triangular TradeManufactured goods (paper, knives, pots, blankets, etc.) traveled from England to the shops in the thirteen colonies, then colonial goods (fish, beef, timber) traveled to West Africa for slaves, who would head to the West Indies in exchange for sugar (which would be head to British refineries)OR Rum from the colonies would be shipped to Africa (along with hardware, cloth, and guns), slaves to the Caribbean, and molasses (used to distill even more rum) back up to the northern coloniesFrench and British manufacturers made fortunes refining or finishing colonial products and selling them to other European markets
43SlaveryThe entirety of European global economic imperialism depended on slaverySlave trafficking was risky and highly competitiveBritain and France originally chartered companies to monopolize slave trade, but they were challenged by merchants who wanted to make their own profitsForts were established on the coast of West Africa Europeans did not capture slaves themselves but rather hostile local groups of the interior didMIDDLE PASSAGE: each slave was jam-packed into a ship and allowed only enough room to lie down. Slaves were chained together, given a minimum of food and hygiene did not exist. Mortality rates: %10-%50
45A British Defense of Slavery and the Plantation Economy-Malachy Postlethwayt The British “West Indies and African trades are the most nationally beneficial of any we carry on”“an inexhaustible fund of wealth and naval Power to this nation”
46Mounting Colonial Conflicts Population: 1.5 millionBritish colonists: west ward expansionFrench: more concerned with trade and were thinly spread outFrench Forts established near the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence GulfBritish established a fort at Halifax Nova Scotia challenging French penetration of the waterways/fishing of grounds St. Lawrence Gulf
47Conflict on the Frontier The French began to push in from the Great Lakes and from the MississippiBritish feared that the French would cut off their expansionFrench feared that the British would lead into their Canadian territoryOhio Territory
48Both French and British wanted an alliance with the Native Americans French gained Indian support because the French were traders not settlers(1745)The Ohio Company of Virginia sent an expedition against Fort Duquesne and failedThe British government gave military support to its coloniesIn May(1756) French and British formally declared warFrench alliance with the Native Americans
49The Great War for Empire (1756-63) Seven Years’ War: largest military conflict in Europe before the French RevolutionCentered on conflict between Austria and PrussiaRussia, France, and Britain were involved tooEnded in 1763 restoring the balance of power in Europe
50French and Indian warPart of the Great War for Empire, the French and Indian War was taking place in AmericaAt first the French had the upper handFrench were too thinly spread outBritish had superior naval powerFrench, British, and Spanish claims
51Pitt’s Strategy William Pitt-Britain’s Prime Minister(1758) Utilized British naval superiority1759-major battles between France and BritainBritain keeps France from accessing their overseas coloniesFrench territories eventually transferred to the British
52The Treaty of Paris(1763)Britain was willing to give back certain colonies: several sugar producing islandsFrance ceded Canada
53A Decaying Empire 18th century: Indian sub-continent was broken up British/French merchants - Indian spices, tea, textilesFrance and Britain competed for territory in IndiaThe Indian natives eventually favored the French, throwing off the balance of power
54From Trade to ConquestRobert Clive of the East India Company: in charge of 900 Europeans and 1500 native soldersBattled the French and natives to gain control of BengalDual Government-tyrannical rule of a company
55While Britain was about to lose an empire in North America, it was gaining one in South Asia India Act(1784)-British government replaced company ruleLord Cornwallis, the man who surrendered to the rebels at York town was the first to be in charge
56The British Raj Cornwallis’s class system to support Britain Landlords: collect rent and can evict peasants2 British magistrates: one to collect tax/superintendent and one to administer justiceThe British monopolized the salt and opium trade