Presentation on theme: "The Expansion of Europe: 1492-1815. 1492 (and before) Portuguese- Azores (1431) Spain- North Africa Christopher Columbus’s first voyage (1492) Ottoman."— Presentation transcript:
The Expansion of Europe: 1492-1815
1492 (and before) Portuguese- Azores (1431) Spain- North Africa Christopher Columbus’s first voyage (1492) Ottoman Empire- Vienna, N. Africa--Morocco
China 1368: Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang 1421: Perking (Capital) Agriculture rose Inventions/ Innovations: Silk/ Cotton Industries 1551- Forbidden
By Mid 18 th C….. British = Power
SUPER QUIZ PART I PG. 11-16
Put an end to the first French colonial empire Was responsible for a decisive turn in power relations in the New World THE SEVEN YEARS WAR 1756-63
Industrial Superiority + Large Merchant Marine and Navy = Foundations for British Domination of the World.
COLONIAL OPPOSITION BEGAN IN 1808 WHEN NAPOLEON MADE HIS BROTHER JOSEPH KING OF SPAIN (CONTINUED AFTER THE RESTORATION) King Joseph did not intend to make any concessions to the colonists. Principle of the Congress of Vienna Spain = lost empire forever Portugal= loss of Brazil America = Monroe Doctrine 1815 = the first phase of European expansion ended.
BY 1815….. America had everything behind it: Exploration and exploitation Colonization and decolonization And was politically independent from Europe
The English came late to American colonization. Only when the French and the Dutch established settlements in North America and Caribbean did Englishmen feel compelled to join in rather than get left behind by their rivals.
The first colonists hoped to strike gold, but instead founded successful colonization with Tobacco Sugar Cattle worked by enslaved Indians
TREATY OF TORDESILLAS
Why not the new world? 1. Too busy with: Securing Tudor dynasty after war of Asserting monarchial authority Domestic + European issues 1527 His divorce with Catherine of Argon His divorce inspired religious reformation Henry VIII 2. Edward VI (1547-1533) reign too short for colonization. (Henry’s son) 3. Queen Mary’s counter reformation. (1547-1533) 4. Elizabeth had to deal with religious chaos, Mary of Scots, war with Spain. This was followed by: harvest failure +famine.
Empires start at home Then: Empire = territorial expansion 1533: The Act of Restrain of Appeals of 1533 - no more papal justice - “England is an empire of itself” Empire begin with 3 Kingdoms : England Scotland+ Ireland Wales
Wales: 1382 :Conquest: English Welsh 1485 :Accession part Welsh Henry VII 1536+1543 :2 acts of union Wales under English legal + political authority Scotland: 1469 Scottish Parliament claim full Jurisdiction of Empire 1533 England make same claims in Act in Restraint of Appeals (UHHH OHH!!!!!) 1559-1560 English intervention help Scottish Reformation 1707 Act of Union – Scotland give up is own legislation (fought English during the Civil Wars) 1541 Irish Parliament declare Henry VII not just lord but “KING OF IRELAND”
Ireland Blueprint for American Colonization Catholics holding land: 1641: 59% of land 1660: 22% of land 1776: 5% of land All but loyal natives who would bring English/Scottish tenants to be removed, disposed, or killed English, Scottish, Welsh in Ireland: 1600: 2% 1660: 18% 18 th century: 30% Irish Population: 1600: 1,400,000 1641: 2,100,000 1680’s: 2,000,000 (war plague famine) Blueprint Because?!? Not one religion dominated over time! A mix of people fled there! Population increased! =
English Atlantic, Trade + Plunder in the 17 th century 1481: Unproven 1st European contact w/ Americas 1490’s: First verifiable trip to North America. King Henry VII tells to conquer all lands not claimed by Christians 1502 KING HENRY VII GIVES UP 1550- lack of wool force English to New World (overseas trade fell 35%) England jealous of Spanish 1562- John Harking begins carrying human cargo 1570-1583: Main interaction with New World through attacking Spanish ships/ Settlements + getting in on Spanish markets
Lost colonies of Roanoke 1584- Queen Elizabeth allows colonization but no fishing Land is claimed from Chesapeake Bay- Carolinas April 1585- Richard Greenville wastes supplies in raid of Spanish August 1585- Greenville return to England for supplies and leaves Ralph Lane in charge of 108 men. runs out of food and asks Indians, end in burning Indian villages June 1586- Francis Drake arrives but all want to leave but 15 who vanished April 1686- John White led 100men but ran out of supplies. Leaves granddaughter, the first child born in colonies
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY EMPIRES Rise of the French and British
HOW THE DYNASTIES BEGAN England and France had -Growing populations -Consumer demands for:
AND: The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Textile Manufacturing Agriculture
NOW LET’S BACKTRACK 1715: Brazil recognized at Peace of Utrecht and Portugal goes on pension (aka retires from active imperialism) Spain attempts to exclude outsiders from its colonial trade in the New World, but they pose NO THREAT Dutch could scarcely compete. BUT WHY??
DECLINE OF THE DUTCH “United Provinces” (the Dutch Netherlands) left weakened by war with Louis XIV Country left stagnant both demographically and politically: -Population failed to rise -7 provincial oligarchies not strong centralized power like to French and British Economy suffered when French and British eliminated maritime middlemen Industry failed to become a competitor Heavy taxes and high wage demands force prices of Dutch products (BAD FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADING)
THE DUTCH SUCCEED Financial institutions provide nation with safer, lucrative business of CREDIT and FINANCE First in West to perfect paper currency, stock market, and central banks Merchant-bankers loaned $$$$$$$$ to private borrowers and foreign nations, thus becoming: FINANCIAL BROKERS NOT TRADERS
AND LET’S FAST FORWARD France and Britain would eventually fight the “Great Wars for Empire” (fought over the world as an expansion of the Seven Years’ War) Britain would eventually win in North America, the Caribbean, and South Asia British rule would extend over India: “THE JEWEL IN THE CROWN” of British imperial domination.
BUT BEFORE THAT HAPPENS
WHERE THE POWER COMES FROM NAVAL AND MILITARY MIGHT
FRENCH COMMERCIAL EMPIRE Only state in Europe with both a large army and navy New France primarily area of trade, not settlement Absolutism fostered centralized structure of control over colonies -Ruled by intendant and military governors
BRITISH COMMERCIAL EMPIRE Rise in domination over the seas 13 American colonies centers of settlement -remained independent of one another and barely controlled by Crown and Parliament (salutary neglect) -royal governor, local assemblies, traditions of self government
BOTH EMPIRES RIVALRY OVER: -West Indies: SUGAR -West Africa: SLAVES -North America: CENTERS OF TRADE AND SETTLEMENT -India and rest of Asia: Powerful companies traded with Asian nations but were not supposed to establish colonies MERCANTILISM!!
MERCANTILISM “regulation of trade by a state in order to increase that state’s power over its neighbors” Practiced by Prussia, England, France Favorable balance of trade signified by influx of gold and silver State’s bullion could only increase at a neighbor’s expense (trade restrictions enforced)
IN THE COLONIES Production of raw materials or staple crops for parent country Protected markets for the parent’s manufactured goods -foreign goods barred through tariffs, high regulations, bounties, or outright prohibitions West Indies farmers, successful merchants, manufacturers, and ship owners accumulated large fortunes Channeling trade thwarted by:
SMUGGLERS AND PIRATES!! Ex. John Hancock made $$$ smuggling food from Boston to French West Indies
DEPENDENCE ON NAVAL POWER BECAUSE: Ships needed protections, rivals needed to be excluded from colonial trade, and regulations had to be enforced Led to the establishment of ports along coasts of Africa, India, and the Caribbean (rivals were denied access of course)
THE WEST INDIES THE IDEAL COLONY -tropical climate -isolation from European society made slavery possible -crops difficult to grow elsewhere prospered (TOBACCO, COTTON, INDIGO, SUGAR) -could produce little else dependent on European manufactured goods Ex. Could not raise supply of food animals or grain to feed slaves, not enough lumber for buildings, could not manufacture luxury goods for planter class
TRIANGULAR TRADE Manufactured goods (paper, knives, pots, blankets, etc.) traveled from England to the shops in the thirteen colonies, then colonial goods (fish, beef, timber) traveled to West Africa for slaves, who would head to the West Indies in exchange for sugar (which would be head to British refineries) OR Rum from the colonies would be shipped to Africa (along with hardware, cloth, and guns), slaves to the Caribbean, and molasses (used to distill even more rum) back up to the northern colonies French and British manufacturers made fortunes refining or finishing colonial products and selling them to other European markets
SLAVERY The entirety of European global economic imperialism depended on slavery Slave trafficking was risky and highly competitive Britain and France originally chartered companies to monopolize slave trade, but they were challenged by merchants who wanted to make their own profits Forts were established on the coast of West Africa Europeans did not capture slaves themselves but rather hostile local groups of the interior did MIDDLE PASSAGE: each slave was jam-packed into a ship and allowed only enough room to lie down. Slaves were chained together, given a minimum of food and hygiene did not exist. Mortality rates: %10-%50
A British Defense of Slavery and the Plantation Economy-Malachy Postlethwayt The British “West Indies and African trades are the most nationally beneficial of any we carry on” “an inexhaustible fund of wealth and naval Power to this nation”
Mounting Colonial Conflicts Population: 1.5 million British colonists: west ward expansion French: more concerned with trade and were thinly spread out French Forts established near the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Gulf British established a fort at Halifax Nova Scotia challenging French penetration of the waterways/fishing of grounds St. Lawrence Gulf
Conflict on the Frontier The French began to push in from the Great Lakes and from the Mississippi British feared that the French would cut off their expansion French feared that the British would lead into their Canadian territory Ohio Territory
Both French and British wanted an alliance with the Native Americans French gained Indian support because the French were traders not settlers (1745)The Ohio Company of Virginia sent an expedition against Fort Duquesne and failed The British government gave military support to its colonies In May(1756) French and British formally declared war French alliance with the Native Americans
The Great War for Empire (1756-63) Seven Years’ War: largest military conflict in Europe before the French Revolution Centered on conflict between Austria and Prussia Russia, France, and Britain were involved too Ended in 1763 restoring the balance of power in Europe
French and Indian war Part of the Great War for Empire, the French and Indian War was taking place in America At first the French had the upper hand French were too thinly spread out British had superior naval power French, British, and Spanish claims
Pitt’s Strategy William Pitt-Britain’s Prime Minister(1758) Utilized British naval superiority 1759-major battles between France and Britain Britain keeps France from accessing their overseas colonies French territories eventually transferred to the British
The Treaty of Paris(1763) Britain was willing to give back certain colonies: several sugar producing islands France ceded Canada
A Decaying Empire 18 th century: Indian sub- continent was broken up British/French merchants - Indian spices, tea, textiles France and Britain competed for territory in India The Indian natives eventually favored the French, throwing off the balance of power
From Trade to Conquest Robert Clive of the East India Company: in charge of 900 Europeans and 1500 native solders Battled the French and natives to gain control of Bengal Dual Government- tyrannical rule of a company
Lord Cornwallis, the man who surrendered to the rebels at York town was the first to be in charge While Britain was about to lose an empire in North America, it was gaining one in South Asia India Act(1784)-British government replaced company rule
The British Raj Cornwallis’s class system to support Britain 2 British magistrates: one to collect tax/superintendent and one to administer justice The British monopolized the salt and opium trade Landlords: collect rent and can evict peasants