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“They say we have been here for 40,000 years, but it has been much longer than that… …We have been here since time began.”

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Presentation on theme: "“They say we have been here for 40,000 years, but it has been much longer than that… …We have been here since time began.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “They say we have been here for 40,000 years, but it has been much longer than that… …We have been here since time began.”

2 Hunters and GatherersHorticulture  Smaller number of people in a given group (40)‏  10 percent of these societies were found to have permanent settlements  There was no specialization found within occupations  Minimal belief in god  Larger number of people depending on advancement (1,000- 5,000)‏  94 percent of these societies have permanent settlements  1-7% had specialization  Minimal belief in god

3 The rate of population is low (scholars estimate that % of births end in infanticide)‏ Nomadic people (usually return to a former campsite)‏ Based around kinship ties (in fact, particularly for Australian aboriginal groups, a man can define his relations to every person with anyone he has social dealings with)‏ Two types of groups: nuclear and extended families, which is important when a family is having trouble providing food Usually have a headman and a shaman (medicine man), but other than that no occupational specialties Minimal inequality in power and privilege, because differences in wealth are very minor (almost egalitarian), personal characteristics are very important

4  Arrernte People are a group of tribes residing in Central Australia  Several sub-groups: Eastern, Western, Southern, Northern, and North-eastern  Hunter and Gathers

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7  Lived in the same area for 40,000 years  1880’s first contact with White Settlers  1890’s displaced 120 km West of Alice Springs  Throughout 1960’s and 1970’s slowly regained traditional lands, recognition, and rights from the government

8 Currently Arrernte Tribal numbers are in flux and estimates vary Reside in family groups of called bands Territories are fixed, and tribes have never encroached on each other Relatively high infant mortality rate, compared to Western Cultures Lower standard of living and life expectancy relative to Industrialized countries

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10  In Indigenous Australian groups, the family encompasses many people  All adults care for and educate all children  Children learn to understand their social and natural environment through stories  Adult aborigines use every opportunity to teach all of the tribe’s children about their history and how to behave

11  Men were the hunters of “Hunter- gatherers”, bringing in 20-40% of food  Boys began initiation into manhood at ~7- 8 through education, independence, pain endurance  Boys followed older males to learn their roles in the society

12  Women gathered % of the tribes’ food  Women took primary care of all children  No initiation for girls; married at puberty and moved into husband’s family  Women taught girls through ceremonies: ritual bathing, temporary separation from the tribe, and food taboos.

13  Like most ATSI groups, the Arrernte were nomadic, and lived in bands   No permanent home (temporary huts)‏   No (official) stratification of society   Informal laws, came from Dreamtime   Semi-“Egalitarian” organization: informal leadership/decision-making process   Elders were respected and obeyed

14  It is the history, culture, religion, and identity of Indigenous Australians  Stories about creation, animal spirits who created the land, history of ATSI people  Belief in magical potions, spells  Deep attachment to their land, which was created for them during the Dreamtime  Death was mourned elaborately, then deceased was never mentioned again

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16  Used to educate children  Oral illustrations of the Dreamtime  Performed in religious ceremonies with song and dance

17  Men hunted large animals  Women and children gathered fruits and plants  Bush tucker  Moved around to prevent over hunting and harvesting  Very diverse diet  High knowledge of plants, animals, and seasons

18  Ground mosaics  Rock engravings  Extensive use of symbols

19  Instruments include the Didgeridoo, clapping sticks, and rattlesDidgeridoo  Traditional ceremonial songs handed down through generations  Depict events from the Dreamtime  Songs often used to overcome language barriers

20 Arrernte is part of the Arandic group of the Pama-Nyungan languages, and is spoken by about 3,000 people in central Australia, particularly in Alice Springs (2). One of the strongest surviving Aboriginal languages as a result of the isolation of the Arrernte-speaking areas (1). One of the most common misconceptions about the Arrernte language is that its seen as “primitive” when in fact, the grammatical systems are far more complex than in English (4). The main vocabulary reflects the cultural interests of the social group which speaks it (2). Greater number of words in everyday use to describe kinship terms and aspects of the natural world (5). Highly diversified vocabulary in specialized areas such as parts of animals, noises, seed types, various stages of development, and other natural phenomena (5).

21  Before the arrival of European settlers, the presence of the Arrernte language was strongly felt on the Austrailian continent (3).  Assimilation of native cultures lead to the slow decline of Arrernte as well as hundreds of other Aboriginal languages (3).  As the Arrernte language dies out, so do irreplaceable parts of their culture and folklore (5).  Many who live in areas such as Alice Springs struggle to keep their language alive as little aid is delivered by the Austrailian government (3). ◦ Arrernte is the first language learned by those in the Alice Springs area. English is often the second learned language (4). ◦ Arrernte is also required in the workplace to cater the native speakers in Alice Springs (4).

22  Federation 1901  The Stolen Generation (the removal ended at this stage)‏ ◦ In 1937 the commonwealth conference on ‘native welfare’ adopts assimilation as the national policy; “The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth and it therefore recommends that all efforts be directed by that end” ◦ Due to the removal of these half-caste children, many grew up without the knowledge of the Aboriginal culture ◦ Voting ◦ Rabbit Proof Fence ◦ You Tube ‘The Stolen Generation’ and ‘Stolen Generation’

23 The Stolen Generation

24 People of the Stolen Generation, today These people are now receiving payouts from the Australian Government to acknowledge the past

25  Adoption, new laws in relation to adopting Aboriginal children  The Northern Territory Intervention - Alcohol, new laws in relation to Aboriginal people  Above the law - T.J Hickey riots fueled by anger and alcohol  Education  An Apology, Wednesday 13th Feb 2008 new Australian Government will apologize to the Stolen Generation

26 "Today we honour the Indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest continuing cultures in human history. We reflect on their past mistreatment. We reflect in particular on the mistreatment of those who were Stolen Generations - this blemished chapter in our nation's history. The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in Australia's history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving forward with confidence to the future. We apologise for the laws and policies of successive Parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians. We apologise especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, their communities and their country. For the pain, suffering and hurt of these Stolen Generations, their descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry. To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry. And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people and a proud culture, we say sorry. We the Parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the healing of the nation. For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the history of our great continent can now be written. We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying claim to a future that embraces all Australians. A future where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again. A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life expectancy, educational achievement and economic opportunity. A future where we embrace the possibility of new solutions to enduring problems where old approaches have failed. A future based on mutual respect, mutual resolve and mutual responsibility. A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in shaping the next chapter in the history of this great country, Australia." Kevin Rudd’s Apology

27 Many white Australians are extremely disappointed in the Prime Minister and the fact that he apologized. This apology has opened a new can of worms. Due to the fact that the apology was 2 days ago the repercussions and the fact that I am here I do not know the full impact of the apology on white Australian people but what I do know is that white Australians are upset, hurt and offended by the apology, they feel wronged by the government. Does any of the information from our presentation sound familiar?

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29  What is the best explanation for the high rate of abortion/infanticide in these groups? A. Unable to tolerate kids B. Feel that it is a sacrifice to the spirits of the earth C. Hope to release good karma among the group D. Are unable to have 2 children at a time due to the survival skills of a child

30 Which statement best describes the Indigenous Australian Arrernte tribal and family structure? A. Arrernte families consisted only of a husband, wife, and their children. B. Arrernte couples lived with their children and extended families, but adults were expected to treat all tribe children as their own. C. The Arrernte enforced a strict division of genders, where the men lived in one group and the women lived separately with the children. D. The Dreamtime dictated that the Arrernte should live in one collective, except for the sick who lived in separate tents.

31 Traditionally, children are taught the Arrernte way of life through A - Schooling with other children B - Imitating their parents C - Storytelling D – Ancient written documents

32 The Arrernte language is slowly dying out in Australia. All of the following can be linked to its slow decline except… A. European settlement B. Geographic location C. English as national language of Australia D. Slow suppression of Arrernte folklore and tradition by increased settlement and urbanization

33 What did Kevin Rudd do on the 8 th of February 2008? A - Gave Australian Aboriginal people a chance to speak B - Held a memorial for Australian Aboriginal people that were killed C - Apologized to the Australian Aboriginal people D - Asked the Australian Aboriginal people for a second chance

34 Lee, Richard B. and Daly, Richard. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gathers Cambridge University Press, England Kita, Sotaro. Pointing: Where Language, Culture, and Cognition Meet. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. copyright 2003 [p ] Guns, Germs, and Steel Human Societies


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