2Protection: 1890s - 1920 What is it? Protection policies were introduced to spare Aboriginal peoples from the effects of “White” culture; alcohol, disease and social inequality.It was a paternalistic policy that treated the Aboriginal people as children who needed looking afterTo protect the Aboriginals from white colonies and things that might hurt them
3Protection Why was it introduced? Early colonial governments saw the Aboriginal race as a ‘dying’ one. Protection was all about ensuring the Aboriginal race had a ‘smooth pillow’ to die on.Hardships experienced by Aboriginal peoples in white society saw them suffer from the effects of alcohol, disease, dispossession of traditional lands and impoverished communities. This policy aimed at protecting Aboriginals from this.Focused on the idea that Aboriginals were suffering and this was protecting themThe Whites were helping them with the knowledge that the population was dying out
4Protection Impact on Aboriginal Peoples Areas of land were put aside or ‘reserved’ for Aboriginal protection. These reserves were located outside the view of white Australian society, usually in outback regions, and were controlled by the government or Christian churches.Government ‘Protection Boards’ and Church missions became legal guardians of the Aboriginal peoples giving them complete power and control over their lives.Church missions aimed at converting Aboriginals to Christianity to ‘civilise’ Aboriginal groupsMain role was to civilise the Aboriginals
6Protection in practice – reserve life On the reserves Aboriginals were forbidden to speak their native languages, practice their culture or religious beliefs.Instead the English language, culture, lifestyle and religious beliefs of the whites were enforcedFood was limited resulting in illness and death especially among infantsReserve managers (called Protectors) were appointed to the reserves without qualification or trainingThey controlled the ‘comings and goings’ of the Aboriginals on the reserves including where they worked, any money obtain and marriages.
7Assimilation: 1920 - 1960 What is it? Assimilation was a government policy designed to absorb Aboriginal people into white Australian societyAssimilation was aimed to make Aboriginal peoples ‘similar’ to white Australians.This would extend to their language, culture, beliefs, clothing and manner of livingThis was created because they knew that the population was not dying out
8Assimilation Why was it introduced? The belief that the Aboriginal race was ‘dying out’ and doomed to extinction did not eventuateIt became essential to find a new solution to the so-called ‘Aboriginal problem’The overall aim of assimilation was for the Aboriginal race to be culturally mixed into white society and ultimately to be genetically ‘bred out’ as a race.
9Assimilation Impact on Aboriginal peoples This policy meant the loss of their culture, beliefs, language and ultimately the destruction of family ties.To make this policy successful the government targeted Aboriginal children that were of mixed blood, commonly referred to as ‘half-castes’.The government believed that these children would more readily learn and adapt to white culture. To achieve this they were removed from their families on the reserves and missions and sent to special ‘training’ schools, then fostered out to white families and homes.In this way they were not exposed to Aboriginal culture and engulfed in white waysThese children are collectively known as the ‘Stolen Generations’
10In training homes like this girls were taught skills to be domestic servants of white families
11Integration: 1960 - 1972 What was it? Integration was a policy that attempted to incorporate Aboriginals into Australian society as Aboriginal people.This enabled the Aboriginals to retain their own culture, language, religion and identity.However they still had significant restrictions on their lives
12Integration Why was it introduced? Integration was adopted due to the failure of the assimilation policy.The government also wanted to sell off the ‘valuable’ mineral rich reserve land to mining companiesAll to retain their international image. Around the time of the Vietnam war when people were greatly questioning the actions of the government. This was their attempt to embrace them
13Integration Impact on Aboriginal peoples Aboriginals were given an identity and the practice of removing children from their families stopped.With the selling of the reserve lands, the Aboriginals were once again dispossessed, this time moving to low cost housing in the suburbs with little health and education facilities.Aboriginal reserve populations were scattered to not upset the local white communities.The aboriginals were not happy with this as they wanted to be close to their families and the land they had called home for many decadesAs a result many returned to reserve sites living in abandoned cars and making tents, once again becoming fringe dwellers
14Aboriginal fringe dwellers displaced by integration
15Self Determination What is it? After years of protesting and struggling for recognition, the policy of Self Determination was introduced by Prime Minister Gouge Whitlam in 1972This policy gave Aboriginals the right to choose their own way of life.Equal human rights and privileges were granted to Aboriginals
16Self Determination Why was it introduced? This policy was created to allow aboriginals a say in their future after years of it being controlled by various governments and institutionsThe rights and freedoms granted to Aboriginals at this time reflected international moral standards
17Self Determination Impact on Aboriginal peoples Overall self determination granted the Aboriginal people the right to choose their own destiny and lifestyleThis led to the creation of representative bodies such as ATSIC, that gave Aboriginals a greater ability to cater for the needs of their own people.
18PAIST PROTECTION ASSIMILATION INTEGRATION SELF DETERMINATION TOWARDS RECONCILIATION