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Administrative Reminder: upcoming deadlines (email is fine) –Optional: 1-Page describing game proposal: (Deadline: September 25 th ) 3 groups so far. Not.

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Presentation on theme: "Administrative Reminder: upcoming deadlines (email is fine) –Optional: 1-Page describing game proposal: (Deadline: September 25 th ) 3 groups so far. Not."— Presentation transcript:

1 Administrative Reminder: upcoming deadlines (email is fine) –Optional: 1-Page describing game proposal: (Deadline: September 25 th ) 3 groups so far. Not a contract. Final exam exemption –Mandatory: design analysis (1) name of the game and (2) group members (deadline: September 30th) – Test # 1: Monday September 30 th. –Covers: all of Unit 1 in the book (including details and topics not discussed in class) –All material covered in class (including topics not covered in the book)

2 Definition of Game and History of Games Dr. Héctor Muñoz-Avila Assigned readings: Chapters 7 (Rules of Play Book) Sources : Wikipedia my own

3 Play and Game Game as a subset of play –Considering all activities that we can play –Tag is a game and it is also play –Swing can be seen as play but it is not a game Play as a subset of game –Play as one aspect (the experiential system) of a game Awareness on the distinction between play and game “juego un juego” “ich speile ein Spiel”

4 Some Definitions of Game (Parlett) A formal game structure based on ends and means (Abt) an activity among two or more decision-makers seeking to achieve their objective –Example of a game not meeting this definition? (Avedo and Sutton-Smith) a voluntary control system, contest between powers, confined by rules, outcome Book has 8 definitions (read them!) with some common elements (see Table!): –following rules is the most common requirement –Having a goal is also common

5 Definition of Game Elements: A game is a system In which players engaged in an artificial conflict defined by rules That results in a quantifiable outcome Game design: process of creating a game from which meaningful play emerges when experienced by a player Are virtual environments games? Examples of games fitting this definition: Chess Tekken

6 History of Video Games By: Héctor Muñoz-Avila Sources : Wikipedia my own

7 Introduction: A Long Journey Some ideas in the 1948 First video game:First video game –Tennis game in an Oscilloscope –Space game on DEC-1 Current videogames: –Crysis 3Crysis In between: –Space Invaders:

8 Chess Origins 6 AD: Believed to come from India Came to Western through Persia 1769 Fake chess machine 1952 Turing design a chess algorithm 1956 Maniac versus Human

9 Origins of Some Companies 1889 company create card game: 1932 COLECO (short for Connecticut Leather Company) 1947 Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Company: 1954 David Rosen makes machines for GI’s in Japan Sony (Service Games) SEGA Nintendo (“leave luck to heaven”) Hiroshi Yamauchi credited for transformation Gunpei Yokoi created the game boy

10 Other Origins 1951 Ralph Baer (@Loral) suggest adding game to TV –May be considered the inventor of video games – Only until 1967 he realized his dream of an “interactive television” 1952 A.S.Douglas (@Cambridge): Interactive Tic Tac Toe 1958 Willy Higinbotham (@Brookhaven National Laboratory): Oscilloscope

11 Other Origins (II) 1961 Steve Russell (@MIT) creates Spacewar! “ If I hadn't done it, someone would've done something equally exciting if not better in the next six months. I just happened to get there first.” - Steve Russell

12 Spacewar! Legacy 1971 Bill Pitts and Hugh Tuck formed Computer Recreations Galaxy Game Cost: $20K Play cost: 10 cent Built: dozens 1972 Noland Bushnell and Ted Dabney (@Nutting Associates) Galaxy Game Built: 1.5K 1972 PONG Built: 10K “Breaks down”

13 Early Game Consoles Pong 1972 Magnavox builds OdysseyMagnavox

14 Early Stages: 1976-1977 COLECO builds TELSTARTELSTAR Cartridges are born (Fairchild Camera & Instrument: Channel F) Atari bought by Warner Communications ($28M) –Atari releases first console (later known as Atari 2600)Atari 2600

15 Early Stages 1977-78 Nintendo releases OthelloOthello Taito creates Space Invaders! –Midway bought license Apple and Atari release PCs –But Atari is seen as a gaming company

16 The Golden Age 1979-1981 Atari releases Asteroids! Frogger, Konami/Sega, 1981 Pac-Man, Bally/Midway, 1980 Donkey Kong, Nintendo, 1981 Namco releases Pac-Man, 1982 (+300K machines sold) –Own television show (games  culture) US Army commissions Atari for a tank simulation game –Start of a long and sustained effort Nintendo releases first console in 1981 Nothing to do over the weekend? Check this out (some retro games): –

17 The Great Crash 1982-1984 The Commodore 64 PC is released Coleco releases the Adam PC Too many competitors small and large saturate the market –1982 Warner Corp. stock fell 32% after Atari announces less-than-expected sells of consoles –Atari sold to Jack Tramiel (owner of Commodore) –New company: Atari Corp. pulls from Console market Bright spot: Nintendo releases famicon, which does well in Japan

18 The Return of the Video Games 1985-1988 Nintendo releases NES –Met with skepticism by market observers –Turns out to be an instant hit –Legend of ZeldaLegend of Zelda Apple releases the Mac, Atari releases 520ST –Who won? Tetris is released!Tetris Coleco files for bankruptcy 1985 MS releases Windows PC as a gaming platform 2006: Games for Windows

19 The Story Continues 1989 Nintendo releases Gameboy, Sega releases Genesis 1991 Nintendo releases SNES, Sega releases Sonic 1993 32-bit consoles –Nintendo releases Mortal Combat! 1999-2001 Playstation 2, Gamecube, Xbox 2006: Nintendo releases wii (out sales PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360)

20 Current Trends Games for mobile devices are the fastest growing sector Which is the most played digital game in history? (perhaps)

21 Homework Next Wednesday (x2) Assigned Reading: Chapter 8 (note: make your own examples when asked for. Do not use the ones from the book) For each of the 4 traits of digital games, discuss an example in a digital game (*) that illustrates that trait in a non-digital game (*) that illustrates the difficulty non-digital games have coping with the lack of that trait 1.Immediate but narrow interactivity 2.Information manipulation 3.Automated complex system 4.Networked communication 5.Open question: despite the shortcomings in dealing with these four traits above, discuss an advantage across any dimension of non-digital games over digital ones (*) describe this game in one paragraph including name, what type of game it is - RPG, RTS, etc-, and what is the objective of the game

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