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1431-1432 AH 2010 AD Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC. Identification The introduction of substances, biological organisms, or energy into the soil, resulting in.

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Presentation on theme: "1431-1432 AH 2010 AD Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC. Identification The introduction of substances, biological organisms, or energy into the soil, resulting in."— Presentation transcript:

1 AH 2010 AD Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

2 Identification The introduction of substances, biological organisms, or energy into the soil, resulting in a change of the soil quality, which is likely to affect the normal use of soil or endangering public health and the living environment is called soil pollution. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

3 Cause Soil pollution results from the buildup of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

4 Causes Examples: Industrial wastes, such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the most important causes of soil pollution. Leakages from sanitary sewage. Acid rains, when fumes released from industries get mixed with rains. Fuel leakages from automobiles, that get washed away due to rain and seep into the nearby soil. Unhealthy waste management techniques, which are characterized by release of sewage into the large dumping grounds and nearby streams or rivers. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

5 The flow of material passing through the soil. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

6 Pollutants The most common soil pollutants are : Hydrocarbons. heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Copper, Zinc, Mercury and Arsenic). Herbicides. Pesticides. Oils. Tars(A dark, oily material, consisting mainly of hydrocarbons). polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) : an organic compound. Dioxins: Any of several carcinogenic or teratogenic heterocyclic hydrocarbons that occur as impurities in petroleum-derived herbicides). Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

7 Tests to assess soil pollution The most common tests include physical, chemical and biological. 1.Physical Characteristics: 1.Physical Characteristics: Temperature, color, texture, etc. 2.Chemical analysis: 2.Chemical analysis: moisture content, carbonate, nitrate, pH, and base deficiency. 3.Biological 3.Biological like screening for the presence of microorganisms. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

8 Determination of pH value Aim: To determine the pH value of given soil sample. Materials: ▫Test tubes ▫Graduated pipettes ▫10mM CaCl 2 ▫pH meter. ▫Measuring cylinder. ▫Distilled water. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Experiment 1:

9 Determination of pH value Procedure: Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC 1.Take 2-5 gm of soil sample in a dry test tube or small beaker. 2.Add 10 ml of distilled water and shake the test tube thoroughly. 3.Allow the soil to settle. 4.Collect the supernatant 5.Record the pH with the help of a pH meter 1.Add 10 gm of fresh soil sample to a container. 2.Add 20 ml of CaCl 2 and shake well several times during 30 minutes period. 3.This helps soil and water to equilibrate. 4.Shake the samples and then check its pH. Experiment 1:

10 Determination of pH value Results: Record the results in the following table: Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Soil Sample SourcepH value Inference A B C D Experiment 1:

11 Conclusion: ▫A pH of 7 indicates neutral soil. ▫A pH above 7 indicates alkaline soil. ▫A pH below 7 indicates acidic soil. For good plant growth, you need a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5. The majority of garden plants including fruit and lawns prefer a slightly acidic soil, which is somewhere between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC

12 Carbonate (CO 3 -2 ) Assessing. Aim: to determine the carbonate in the given soil sample. Materials: ▫Soil samples ▫1M HCL ▫Test tubes Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Experiment 2:

13 Carbonate Assessing. Procedure:Procedure: ▫Take a little amount of the different types of soil each in different test tubes. ▫Add few drops of HCL to each tube and note the degree of effervescence produces in all cases that may be divided into groups as +, ++, +++, ++++ ▫The samples showing maximum degree of effervescence indicates maximum amounts of carbonates. The more carbonates present, the more bubbles or effervescence occurs. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Experiment 2:

14 Carbonate Assessing. Results: Record the results in the following table: Eq. 1 CaCO 3 + 2HCl = H 2 O + CO 2 (g) +Ca Cl - Inference & Conclusion: Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Soil Sample SourceDegree of effervescence A B C D Experiment 2:

15 Carbonate detection (by titration). Aim: to determine the carbonate in the given soil sample. Materials: ▫Burette. ▫50ml volumetric pipettes. ▫250 ml conical flask. ▫1ml graduated pipettes. ▫Sulphuric acid. ▫Phenolphthalein indicator Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Experiment 3:

16 Carbonate detection (by titration). Procedure: ▫Prepare soil solution by taking 10 gm of soil into measuring cylinder and making the solution to 100 ml mark by adding distil water. ▫50 ml of soil solution is pipetted out into a conical flask. ▫0.5 ml of phenolphthalein indicator is added. ▫This gives a pink color to soil solution if carbonates are present. ▫Now this is treated with Sulphuric acid until the pink color disappears. ▫End point is noted. ▫Consequently, effervescence is not a precise indicator but a relative index of the amount of carbonates in the soil matrix. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Experiment 3:

17 Carbonate detection (by titration). Results: Record the results in the following table: Inference & Conclusion: Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC Sample Volume of soil sample Burette readingVolume of acid consumed initialfinal A B C D E Experiment 3:

18 Carbonates presence in soil The presence of carbonates in soil may indicate a dry climate or a particular type of parent material rich in calcium, such as limestone. Free carbonates often coat soil particles in soils that are basic (i.e., pH greater than 7). Sometimes in dry climates, carbonates form a hard and dense horizon similar to cement, and plant roots cannot grow through it. Carbonates buffer soil pH and are an indication of the relative abundance of bases. The distribution and amount of carbonates influence soil fertility, erodibility, and available water capacity. Amal Alghamdi 346 MIC


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