Presentation on theme: "Part I Section 5. Invertebrate marine animal A polyp that begins to form an exoskeleton ◦ CO 2 & Ca in the water to make calcium carbonate (CaCO 3."— Presentation transcript:
Fringing reef can take 10,000 years to form Atolls up to 30 my Coral – tan and purple
Data from deep drilling on coral atolls ◦ Bikini Atoll (Pacific Ocean) ◦ As depth of corals increased, age of corals also increased ◦ Fossil corals dated 50 myo and found 1200 m deep Grown on underlying volcanic rock ◦ Shallow corals found at deep depths!
Darwin (1842) produced 1 st map of distribution of corals 3 main types: ◦ Fringing barrier reefs, barrier reefs, atolls
Conditions required: ◦ Temperature range =16 ⁰C – 35 ⁰C Optimum range = 23 ⁰C - 25 ⁰C ◦ Water clarity Clear water (less turbid) without silt Silt reduces light penetration which inhibits photosynthesis of symbiotic zooxanthellae in coral tissues (90% nutrients provided) Depth – rapid growth occurs within 20 m from surface ◦ Salinity ◦ Substrate – surface on which plant/animals live Basaltic rocks of seamounts
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Shoreline protection from erosion - ◦ Dissipates/absorbs energy of waves Benefits include protection of ◦ Coastal properties ◦ Ecosystems ◦ Costs to provide breakwaters – constructed structures for protection from erosion ◦ Anchorage of boats