Presentation on theme: "Everyday acid and base reactions. Calcium carbonate and rocks. Limestone is also largely composed of calcium carbonate. Bath Stone (Greater Oolite) is."— Presentation transcript:
Calcium carbonate and rocks. Limestone is also largely composed of calcium carbonate. Bath Stone (Greater Oolite) is a limestone that was laid down in the Jurassic period, c180 – 140 million years ago. It is composed of many tiny ooliths, egg stones, formed by chemical precipitation from warm tropical seas coating small fragments of shell in layers of lime
Chalk Chalk is almost pure calcium carbonate, made up of the microscopic shells of plankton.
Reaction of calcium carbonate with acid. Calcium carbonate reacts with acid to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water. CaCO 3 + 2HCl → CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O The effervescence produced is a standard test for a carbonate.
Effect of rain water on limestone. Rain water is weakly acidic, cpH 5.6, due to carbon dioxide dissolving in it to form a weak acid, carbonic acid. CO 2 + H 2 O → H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid can react with limestone. CaCO 3 + 2H 2 CO 3 ↓ Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O
Weathering Eroding “clints and grykes” in rock pavements.
Stalagtites and stalagmites. Limestone is permeable, mineral- rich water percolates through the rock. On evaporation calcium bicarbonate breaks down and calcium carbonate is deposited. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 → CaCO 3 +H 2 O + CO 2 Forming stalagtites and stalagmites.
Acid Rain Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen dissolve to produce acid rain, which increases the weathering of limestone.
Eg; SO 2 +½O 2 → SO 3 SO 3 + H 2 O → H 2 SO 4 Sulphuric acid will then react with limestone; H 2 SO 4 + CaCO 3 ↓ CaSO 4 + H 2 O +CO 2 Calcium sulphate is a softer material, with less compact crystals. Hence surfaces are eroded.
Reactions of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate decomposes when heated… … forming calcium oxide. CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2
Manufacture of lime Limestone was traditionally burnt in small lime kilns.
Reactions of calcium oxide (“quick lime”) Calcium hydroxide reacts vigorously with water to give calcium hydroxide. CaO + H 2 O →Ca(OH) 2 The resulting solution has a pH of 9 - 11
During the Black Death corpses were buried with quicklime. By reacting with moisture from the bodies it prevent the spread of the disease.
Reactions of calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 neutralises acids. Ca(OH) 2 + 2HCl→ CaCl 2 + 2H 2 O It is commonly known as “slaked lime” and is used by farmers to lower soil acidity. It is also used in some anti acids.
Reaction of limewater with carbon dioxide. When carbon dioxide is passed through limewater it turns milky due to the formation of insoluble calcium carbonate. Ca(OH) 2 + CO 2 → CaCO 3 + H 2 O This is the standard test for carbon dioxide.
Expired air; 0.4 % CO 2 Inspired air: 0.004% CO 2
Reaction of limewater If excess carbon dioxide is passed through lime water the carbonate will disappear… … forming a colourless solution of bicarbonate. CaCO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 → Ca(HCO 3 ) 2
Hard water In limestone regions water contains relatively high amounts of calcium (and magnesium) bicarbonate. Calcium ions react with detergents to make a scum rather than a lather. Waters high in bicarbonates are therefore said to be hard.
Calcium bicarbonate is unstable, decomposing on heating to produce insoluble calcium carbonate. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 → CaCO 3 +H 2 O + CO 2 Depositing lime scale on the elements of kettles.
Reactions of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 neutralises acids. Mg(OH) 2 + 2HCl→ MgCl 2 + 2H 2 O
Treating indigestion. HCl is secreted in the stomach to aid digestion. Excess acid causes indigestion. “Milk of Magnesia” contains magnesium hydroxide so neutralises excess acid.