2Geological Time Rocks, Resources and Scenery Simplified diagram Geological time is on a different scale from human time.Chalk was formed during the Cretaceous periodClay was formed during the Mesozoic - Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary periodsGranite was formed about 280 million years ago in the Permian period of the Late Palaeozoic era.Carboniferous Limestone was formed 340 million years ago during the Carboniferous period of the Late Palaeozoic era
3Rock Classification and Cycle Rocks, Resources and SceneryRock Classification and CycleIgneous rocks e,g. granite. An intrusive igneous rock is formed by the cooling of magma deep underground.Rocks belong to one of three groups.Limestone in YorkshireMetamorphic rocks are formed by heat underground. They change from one type of rock into another.Chalk and clay in the south eastGranite in the SouthwestSedimentary rocks e.g. limestone, chalk and clay. Limestone (an organic rock) is precipitated from solutions and isformed by the accumulation of calcium carbonate in warm tropical seas. Clay (an inorganic rock) is formed by the compaction & cementation of sediments under the sea.The rock cycle shows that all rocks are weathered and eroded and are washed into the sea where they form new rocks
4Weathering Rocks, Resources and Scenery Exfoliation – the outer layers of the rock break offRocks are susceptible to weathering. The type of weathering that is most effective is determined by the composition of the rock and the climate.Biological weathering.Freeze-thaw weatheringMechanical weathering – freeze thaw weathering and exfoliation.Carbonation: Rock is dissolvedCalcium carbonate (CaCo3) is dissolved carbon dioxide in rainwater or moisture in surrounding air forms carbonic acid and reacts with the minerals in the rock. The process weakens the rock thus breaking it down in the process.e.g.: Calcium Carbonate + Water + Carbon Dioxide ---> Calcium Carbonate (soluble)Chemical weathering – solution and carbonation.Biological weathering – the roots from plants and trees break up the rock.
5Different rocks create contrasting landforms and landscapes - granite Rocks, Resources and SceneryDifferent rocks create contrasting landforms and landscapes - graniteMoorland is the landscape formed on granite. It consists of poorly drained land as the granite is impermeable and so bogs and marshes (mires) form. There are few trees and peat covers large areas. The land is suitable for pastoral farming and tourism.TorsTors are hilly outcrops of granite. They are formed when the overlying rocks are eroded leaving a mound of solid granite which is deeply jointed. Dartmoor is known for its tors e.g. Yes Tor, 619 m and Haytor 457 m.Moorland
6Rocks, Resources and Scenery Different rocks create contrasting landforms and landscapes – chalk and clayEscarpment/cuestaScarp slopeDip slopeDry valleyClay valechalkDry valleys are valleys without water. They were formed during a wetter periods.Spring line settlementClay vale – an area of lowland.Spring lineEscarpment/cuesta – a range of chalk hills with a steep scarp slope one side and a gentle dip slope the other side.Spring lines are found where the chalk changes to clay or where the water table reached the surface. A series of springs are found in a line along the base of the escarpment.
7Rocks, Resources and Scenery Different rocks create contrasting landforms and landscapes – limestoneSurface features:Limestone pavements – areas of bare limestone which has been weathered. The joints are called grykes and the slabs clints.Swallow holes – deep holes in the limestone down which rivers disappear.Dry valleys – valleys where the river has disppeared.Caverns – large underground caves formed by the solution of the liemstone by the underground rivers.Resurgences – springs where the underground river reappears at the surface.Limestone pavement –clints (slabs) and grykes (joints)Swallow holeUnderground features:Stalactite – a column which hangs down from the ceiling.Stalagmite – a column that grows up from the floor.Pillar – a column formed where a stalactite meets a stalagmite.Curtain – a very wide column of limestone.
8Resources, land and scenery Rocks, Resources and SceneryResources, land and sceneryGranite, chalk and clay and Carboniferous limestone provide resources to extract, land to farm on and unique scenery for tourism.Opportunities and limitations for farming: In granite areas 90% of the land is farmed. Open moorland is used for pastoral farming (sheep,cattle and ponies)Arable farming on fringes (hay and grass. Granite haspoor thin soils, poor drainage andvery heavy rainfall which make farming difficult.In limestone areas sheep farming is found but the thin soils make arable farming difficult.Chalk is good for pastoral farming and some arable as short sprungy grass grows well.Clay is good for arable farming as it has deep fertile soils and also for dairy farming as grass grows well.Production of cement: Limestone and chalk are both quarried to make cement.Building stone: Granite can be used for kitchen work surfaces, floortiles and grave stones.Limestone can be used fordry-stone walls, house building and garden stone for patios/rockeries.
9Chalk Aquifers Rocks, Resources and Scenery Aquifers are stores of underground water. An aquifer is under the London basin. Rain falls on the chalk hills and percolates down through the rocks. It is stored in the chalk sandwiched between the clay layers. To reach the water, wells are sunk. Water supply in London depends on this groundwater.
10Opportunities for tourism and costs and benefits of this Rocks, Resources and SceneryOpportunities for tourism and costs and benefits of thisLimestone:Yorkshire Dales National ParkSpectacular landscapeSteep valleysCliffsExtensive grassy plateauxGranite:Dartmoor National ParkWild open moorlandAbundant wildlifeArea of outstanding beautyMany types of outdoor activityAccessibility (near to motorways and urban areas)Literature (Charles Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle)Costs (problems)Benefits (good things)Traffic jamsLitterFarm gates left openAnimals worried by dogsHigh shop pricesHigh house prices due to demand for holiday homesVisitors spend money in shops, cafes and hotelsJobs for locals are created in restaurants, hotelsLocal craft shops and farms gain extra income
11Quarrying Rocks, Resources and Scenery Demand for resources has led to quarrying. This is an important issue and has led to conflict and debate.Case Study: Hope Quarry, Castleton, Yorkshire Dales. One of the largest quarries in the Peak District. It supplies 2 million tonnes a year to Hope Cement works.Hope Cement works produces 1.3 million tonnes of cement every year.Creates jobs local people employed and it increases the local economy.Quarrying is digging out of rocks and minerals from the earth’s surfaceLimestone and slate are the rocks usually quarried.Quarrying can include sand and gravel extraction and open cast mining.EconomicSocialEnvironmentalBrings jobs into rural communityHigher tax revenue used to build new schools and roads.People have jobs and feel more prosperous.When quarry finishes, can build new resource e.g. shopping centre or ecocentre.When quarry closes people lose their jobs.Dust, Noise, Blot on landscape, Large big hole left, Wildlife habitats destroyed, Ground water pollutedAdvantagesDisadvantages
12Impact of quarrying Rocks, Resources and Scenery Impact of quarrying on the environment can be reduced by careful, sustainable management.After quarrying has finished: There are strict environmental controls and quarry owners are now expected to restore landscape to a better state than before. They can replace topsoil and use for farming. For recreation: they can make tracks for mountain biking & can use waste tips for dry ski slopes. They can create wildlife areas by planting trees and scrubs and creating ponds and set up wetland nature reserve in old pits. They can be used forretailing e.g. Bluewater andscience e.g. Eden Project.There are ways of reducing the impacts. At Hope Quarry they plant trees and use landscaping. They aim toreduce dust by using trains to take stone away rather than lorries. Theyreduce CO2 by planting more trees.