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OBEJCTIVE: Understand the US’s contribution to Allied victory 19.2: American Power Tips the Balance.

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Presentation on theme: "OBEJCTIVE: Understand the US’s contribution to Allied victory 19.2: American Power Tips the Balance."— Presentation transcript:

1 OBEJCTIVE: Understand the US’s contribution to Allied victory 19.2: American Power Tips the Balance

2 Franz Ferdinand Assassinated April, 6, 1917 US declares war on Germany

3 1. The election of 1916 was a (landslide, close-shave, terrible loss) for Wilson. 2. One of the reasons that the US finally went to war with Germany was the ______________ ______, that encouraged Mexico to wage war the US. 3. Germany’s decision in January 1917 to wage unlimited submarine warfare violated the ____________ pledge. 4. WWI was triggered by the assassination of _____________. 5. The Four long-term causes of WWI were: __________; imperialism; nationalism; alliances

4 1. Who won the election of 1916? 2. One of the reasons that the US finally went to war with Germany was the Zimmerman Telegram, that encouraged_______ to wage war the US. 3. Germany’s decision in January 1917 to wage unlimited submarine warfare violated the ____________ pledge. 4. The Four long-term causes of WWI were: militarism; imperialism; nationalism; ________. 5. The idealistic argument used to convince Americans to enter WWI on the side of the allies was called the ______ Points.

5 Long Term Causes of WWI Nationalism – national interests and unity placed above all else Imperialism – Major powers competing over colonies (ex: Russo-Japanese War) Militarism – development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy Alliance System – created a domino effect in Europe that led to war

6 WWI: How did it begin? Balkans – “Powder Keg of Europe” June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated  Gavrilo Princip, Serbian terrorist

7 ALLIES (Triple Entente) France Great Britain Russia CENTRAL POWERS (Triple Alliance) Germany Austria Hungary Ottoman Empire

8 American Neutrality American Public opinion was split Many immigrants held sympathies for their home country Many Americans didn’t believe that the U.S. needed to be involved- European War Eventually public opinion began to support the Allies Cultural ties to Britain France and Britain were larger trading partners than Germany British Blockade kept U.S. ships out of Germany Germany countered blockaded with unrestricted submarine warfare- would sink any ship near Great Britain German U-boat sinks the Lusitania May 7, Americans killed-

9 German U-boat warfare leads to Sussex agreement Promised to stop attacking ships- if Britain would allow food/ fertilizer into Germany Doesn’t work – unrestricted U- boat warfare resumes Zimmerman Note From Germany to Mexico- promising Mexico U.S. land if they declared war Final straw Wilson asks Congress to declare War- April 6, 1917

10 Timeline Wilson wins re-election on promise of peace Jan. 31, 1917: Germany declares unlimited submarine warfare – Sussex Pledge void. US arms merchant marine Mar. 1, 1917: Zimmerman note discovered April 6, 1917: US declares war Jan. 8, 1918: Wilson’s Fourteen Points Address WILSON’s IDEAL: “war to end war” and “to make the world safe for democracy,” makes an appeal for a new world order of collective security. It would have to be a “peace without victory…a peace among equals.”

11 SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT PROBLEM: Only 200,000 men in uniform SOLUTION: DRAFT OR CONSCRIPT HOW?Selective Service Act of million men drafted 2 million serve ¾ see combat ONLY 9 MONTHS OF TRAINING!!!

12 Parade of recruits WWI, photo by Harry M. Rhodes In Denver, automobiles carrying young army recruits parade through the city. (Denver Public Library, Western History Division) Parade of recruits WWI, photo by Harry M. Rhodes Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 AMERICA GETS TO THE FIGHT PROBLEM: How to get the troops to Europe SOLUTION: 1. Expand shipbuilding 2. Use the convoy system against subs 3. Mine the North Sea OUTCOME: 1. Only 100 soldiers lost to u-boats 2. Convoys cut Allied losses in half!

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16 AMERICA GETS IN THE FIGHT Gen. John J. (Blackjack) Pershing in command of the AEF (American Expeditionary Force) “doughboys” Pershing resists using AEF as replacements Pershing wants to fight aggressive war Does not want to fight “trench warfare”

17 Black troops of the 369th Infantry Regiment in the trenches near Maffrecourt, France, in Most African American soldiers were assigned to noncombat duty, such as unloading supplies and equipment. () Blacks at the front Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. African-Americans at the front

18 "Hell Fighters" From Harlem- the 369 th Infantry Division Meuse-Argonne, September 26-October 1, On 29 September, the Regiment "... stormed powerful enemy positions,... took, after heavy fighting, the town of Sechault; captured prisoners and brought back six cannons and a great number of machine guns." Despite heavy casualties, the 369th, called "Hell Fighters" by the French and Germans, relentlessly continued the attack at dawn. Raked by enemy machine guns, they assaulted into the woods northeast of Sechault, flanking and overwhelming enemy machine gun positions. The "Le's Go!" elan and indomitable fighting spirit of the 369th Infantry was illustrated throughout the battle action. Their initiative, leadership and gallantry won for their entire Regiment the French Croix de Guerre.

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21 Fighting…”Over there…” 1917 Russian Revolution  w/d from fight in 1918 Germany focuses on WESTERN FRONT Spring 1918: Germans w/in 40 miles of Paris 30,000 US troops turn tide at Chateau-Thierry Pershing directs US forces in Meuse-Argonne offensive Argonne Forest: 120,000 KIA/casualties US “tactics” lead to high casualties

22 THE TIDE TURNS AEF arrives just in time to stop German advance on Paris (after defeating Russia) AEF CASUALTIES: 48,000 killed 62,000 die of disease 200,000 wounded

23 LEADERS AND HEREOS Alvin YorkEddie Rickenbacker US’s WWI Ace: shot down 26 planes “Red Baron” von Richthofen German Ace: Shot down 80 planes York and 17 other men captured 132 German prisoners on October 8, 1918 He was a “conscientious objector” before the war.

24 noviomagus.tripod.com TRENCH WARFARE

25 MACHINE GUN

26 THE TANK

27 ARTILLERY

28 14 inch US naval guns, mounted on railcar to silence “Big Bertha”

29 GAS Germans first use gas at Ypres in 1915 Allies retaliate Delivered by artillery TYPES: Chlorine Gas Mustard Gas

30 WAR IN THE AIR: Zeppelins & Biplanes

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32 Company K A U.S. soldier of Company K, 110th Infantry Regiment, receives aid during fighting at Verennes, France. (National Archives) Company K Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

33 MEDICAL CARE Dirt, mud, filth Lice, rats, dirty water Poison gas Decaying bodies “shell shock” Trench foot Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 (20-40 million dead world-wide)

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35 "The Prisoners and the Wounded," October, 1918 by Harvey Dunn Harvey Dunn's 1918 painting (detail) of weary soldiers in the First World War captures the misery of frontline battle. (Smithsonian Institute, Division of Political History, Washington, D.C.) "The Prisoners and the Wounded," October, 1918 by Harvey Dunn Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

36 THE COLLAPSE OF GERMANY Nov. 3, 1918: German sailors mutiny Nov : Berlin rebels The Kaiser flees to the Netherlands CEASEFIRE: 11 th hour, 11 th day, 11 th month FINAL TOLL: 4 years of fighting, involving 30 nations 26 million dead ( half are civilians) 20 million wounded 10 million refugees COST= $350,000,000,000

37 Franz Ferdinand Assassinated April, 6, 1917 US declares war on Germany


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