2Branding Strategies There are 6 branding strategies: Product Branding Line BrandingRange BrandingUmbrella BrandingSource/Double BrandingEndorsement Branding
3Product BrandingThe brand is promoted exclusively so that it acquires its own identity and imageThe brand acquires its ‘own’ set of associations and a stand of its own. It does not share other products and does not take on company associations.
5AdvantageA brand can be targeted accurately to a distinct target market or customers because its positioning can bePreciseUnambiguousThe only drawback of using this strategy is that creating individual brands are costly exercise
6Line BrandingThe basic idea about this strategy is how a firm organizes its portfolio.Line brands start with a product but later extend to other complimentary or supporting productsFor example: Lakme started off with a cold cream and later extended to other products
7Example… HLL Denim Deo Denim Shaving Cream Denim After Shave Denim SoapDenimTalcConcept: ‘Who doesn’t have to trytoo hard’Share common concept and products complement or support each other
8Why line branding???The chief motivation behind using this strategy is the ratio between marginal cost and marginal gain.The firm only promotes the main product and its concept; the complimentary products do not require additional investment.These products ride on the original brand’s concept & marketing.
9Range BrandingIn line branding the products complement or support the main product usage but range branding is not restrictive in this sense.Brands may move beyond product complimentarily.The nature and facade of products may differ from outside, but they all share some common competence.
11Benefits of using this strategy Formation of brand equityThe common name helps in preventing brand building efforts from getting dissipated in different directionsThe brand can embrace other new products which are consistent with the brand.For example: Himalaya Drug Co.’s Ayurvedic concepts. New product can be added to it which share its idea without much additional expenditure.
12On the Flip side….If a brand has large number of products to it then it could become weak due to overstretching.This is known as “RUBBER EFFECT”
14Same Brand supports several products in different markets. Each has its own communication strategy yet, each retains its own generic name.
15Why and When Umbrella Branding..?? THE cost of launching new brands is so high today that it is more sensible to take the umbrella brand route.Shortening of PLCA consumer has to be exposed to a brand repeatedly before he registers it, so it is more economical to build one strong, single brand than spreading your ad budget across 10 different brands
17When not umbrella branding… Umbrella brand can be limiting when a company wishes to move up the value chain or diversify into a different category.Umbrella branding worked in the 80s and early 90s, when consumer needs were simpler and options were limited.
18EXAMPLE:In Titan's case, it started off with a single product category, but when it decided to enter the budget segment, it created Sonata as a sub-brand and evolved it into an independent brand. Similarly, it created Tanishq for jewellery, FasTrack for contemporary watches, and Nebula for luxurious 18k jewellery designed by Rohit Bal. In each of these cases, the Titan name would not have worked, because each needed a distinct brand concept.
19Source/Double Branding Strategy This strategy combines firm’s name with the product brand name; kind of hybrid of umbrella & product brand strategyExample: Bajaj ChetakChetak is the name of the scooterBajaj is the company behind itHence, brand is Bajaj Chetak
20Some more Examples…. Maruti Suzuki Maruti 800 Maruti Zen Maruti Alto Maruti EsteemMaruti Baleno
21Johnnie Walker Johnnie Walker Red Label Johnnie Walker Black Label Johnnie Walker Blue Label
22ObjectivesThe firm’s name brings its equity to the product. The product benefits from what the company has achieved in the form ofAwarenessExpertiseAttributeReputation
232.The name of the product provides the opportunity to add something unique to the brand. This is an opportunity for the customization.
24When to choose this strategy?? This decision depends on the company’s field of experience, expertise and know-how.The brands need to be consistent with the activity or expertise domain of the firm.Hence, motorcycles are the ones which enjoy greater consistency and expertise similarity whereas cars don’t. Hence you see more number of two-wheeler cos. Using this strategy.
25Endorsement Branding Modified version of double branding It makes product brand name more significant and the corporate brand name is relegated to a lesser status.The brand gets an endorsement that it belongs to a specified company. For E.g.:Kit Kat gives a signal that it is a Nestlé's productSimilarly, Dairy Milk gives is a Cadbury’s brand
27ObjectivesThis strategy allows the brand freedom to take an independent direction.In this type of strategy, the firm’s name sits back as an assurance of quality but does not pass specific associations to the brand.2. The brand is expected to carve out its own image. It acts more or less as an independent entity.
28For instance….Cadbury’s brand have their own unique position and image. Cadbury’s support the brands to the extent that they transfer certain qualities or associations which enhance customer’s trust
29Important to note…Consistency is very important otherwise the endorsement may just be perceived as hollow.For Example: Nestlé's Mithai Magic failed as it did not go well with the Nestlé's endorsement
32A house of brands Equivalent to product branding Not connected Shadow endorserLexus, saturnShadow endorser has a minimal effect on image of brand but provides credibililty in many segments
33Endorsed brandsBrands are still independent but are endorsed by corporate brand e.g. polo jeans by ralph laurenToken endorserTo provide some reassurance and credibility still allowing max. freedom to endorsed brand for creating its own associationsWill be more successful ifIt is well knownIs consistently presentedHas a strong visual metaphor symbolAppears on familty products that are well regardedLinked nameE.g. McPuff, provides benefits of separate name, yet providing advantages of link of master brand
34SubbrandsBrands connected to master brand, and augment or modify the associations of master brand, e.g. sony walkman, nike forceSubbrand as codriverWhen masterbrand and subbrand have major rolesMaster brand is performing more than master role e.g. gillete mach3
35A branded houseMaster brand moves from being primary driver to dominant driver across multiple offerings e.g. virgin rail, virgin colaEquivalent to umbrella brand, maximises synergy, provides leverageSame brands with different identities2 implicit assumptions a) there can be different brand identities in different contexts b)there is a single identity everywhere
36Brand architectureAn organising structure of brand portfolio that species the brand roles and relationships among brands