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Thomas E. Canty ServerCare, Inc. Session #126 Data Guard Best Practices & Tuning.

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Presentation on theme: "Thomas E. Canty ServerCare, Inc. Session #126 Data Guard Best Practices & Tuning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thomas E. Canty ServerCare, Inc. Session #126 Data Guard Best Practices & Tuning

2 Speaker Qualifications Thomas E. Canty, Senior Oracle DBA, ServerCare, Inc. 19 years of Oracle experience, starting with version 5 Has presented at IOUG, OpenWorld, NoCOUG, IASA, Has been a DBA, Developer, Architect, and IT Manager Has worked with Fortune 100 companies in Healthcare, Technology, Pharmaceuticals, and Telecom, as well as Major Universities

3 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

4 Data Guard Modes Maximum Performance Mode –Least performance impact –Default mode Maximum Protection Mode –Emphasis on data safety –Requires at least one secondary Maximum Availability Mode –Emphasis on uptime –Continues if secondary unavailable

5 Physical vs. Logical Standby FeaturePhysical StandbyLogical Standby Disaster recovery & HA Yes Data protectionYes PerformanceMost Efficient - Redo Apply bypass SQL level layers Redo converted to SQL before it is applied Primary DB work reduction Limited read only reportingUnrestricted read only reporting Efficient use of standby Limited read only reportingExtra schemas are unrestricted read/write Data type restrictions No restrictionsDoes not include LONG, LOB, etc. Rolling upgradesNot availableYes

6 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

7 Session Data Unit (SDU) In Oracle Net connect descriptor: sales.servercare.com= (DESCRIPTION= (SDU=32767) (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp) (HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)) (CONNECT_DATA= (SID=sales.servercare.com))) Globally in sqlnet.ora: –DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE=32767

8 Session Data Unit (SDU) (Cont.) On standby DB, set in listener.ora: SID_LIST_listener_name= (SID_LIST= (SID_DESC= (SDU=32767) (GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.servercare.com) (SID_NAME=sales) (ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1)))

9 TCP Socket Buffer Size Set TCP socket buffer size = 3 * BDP –Data Guard broker config. – Set in sqlnet.ora –Non Data Guard broker – set in connect descriptor BDP - Bandwidth Delay Product RTT- Round Trip Time

10 TCP Socket Buffer Size Assume gigabit network with RTT 25 ms BDP= 1,000 Mbps * 25msec (.025 sec) 1,000,000,000 * ,000,000 Megabits / 8 = 3,125,000 bytes In this example: socket buffer size = 3 * bandwidth * delay = 3,125,000 * 3 = 9,375,000 bytes sqlnet.ora: RECV_BUF_SIZE= SEND_BUF_SIZE=

11 Network Queue Sizes Between kernel net. subsystems & NIC driver txqueuelen - transmit queue size netdev_max_backlog - receive queue size Assumes gigabit network with 100ms latency Set queues: –ifconfig eth0 txqueuelen –sysctl.conf: net.core.netdev_max_backlog=20000

12 Overall Network Ensure sufficient bandwidth to standby Verify TCP_NODELAY set to YES (default) RHEL3 - increase /proc/sys/fs/aio-max-size on standby –From (default) to Set RECV_BUF_SIZE & SEND_BUF_SIZE = 3 * Bandwidth Delay Product (BDP) Use Session Data Unit (SDU) size of Increase send & receive queue sizes –TXQUEUELENGTH –NET_DEV_MAX_BACKLOG

13 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

14 ARCn Redo Transport 1) Read from local arch 2) Receive redo 3) Ack - know - ledge

15 ASYNC LGWR Redo Transport 1) Write local redo 2) ASYNC send redo 3) Receive redo 4) Ack - know - ledge 5) Write stdby redo

16 SYNC LGWR Redo Transport 1) Write local redo 2) SYNC send redo 3) Receive redo 4) Ack - know - ledge 5) Post receipt to LGWR

17 Optimize ARCn Transport Increase MAX_CONNECTIONS to 5 on standby (if possible) –default (2), maximum (5) Increase LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES –Larger than MAX_CONNECTIONS –Up to network bandwidth –default (2), maximum (30)

18 Optimize LGWR Transport Decrease NET_TIMEOUT (default 180 secs.) –Be careful! - Not too low New COMMITS –COMMIT IMMEDIATE WAIT (default) –COMMIT NOWAIT –COMMIT NOWAIT BATCH

19 All Redo Transport Standby redo logs –Use fastest disks –No RAID5 –Don’t multiplex –Use the recommended number of SRLs (maximum# of online logfiles + 1) * maximum# of threads

20 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

21 Checkpoint Phase Checkpoint occurs –During log switch –LOG_CHECK_TIMEOUT expiration –LOG_CHECKOUT_INTERVAL reached Reduce log switch interval –Resize redo log to 1GB - primary and secondary –Recommended - checkpoint every 15 minutes

22 Checkpoint Phase (Cont.) Determine checkpoint frequency COL NAME FOR A35; SELECT NAME, VALUE, TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, ‘HH:MI:SS’) TIME FROM V$SYSSTAT WHERE NAME = 'DBWR checkpoints'; NAME VALUE TIME DBWR checkpoints :15:43 SQL> / NAME VALUE TIME DBWR checkpoints :34:06

23 Redo Read (Secondary) Obtain read rate for the standby redo log SQL> ALTER SYSTEM DUMP LOGFILE '/u01/oradata/docprd/sredo01.log’ validate; System altered. $vi docprd_ora_3560.trc Mon Mar 12 08:59: ……………… Redo read statistics for thread Read rate (ASYNC): 4527Kb in 0.58s => 6.90 Mb/sec Longest record: 19Kb, moves: 0/7586 (0%) Change moves: 4340/18026 (24%), moved: 2Mb Longest LWN: 92Kb, moves: 1/1365 (0%), moved: 0Mb Last redo scn: 0x ( )

24 Redo Apply (Secondary) Goal –Redo apply rate (secondary) > Redo create rate (primary) Carefully consider enabling DB_BLOCK_CHECKING –LOW, MEDIUM and FULL options –Possible performance impact

25 Redo Apply (Cont.) Determine Log Block Size (LEBSZ) SELECT LEBSZ FROM X$KCCLE WHERE ROWNUM=1; Get recovery blocks - at least two snapshots –Managed Recovery Case SELECT PROCESS, SEQUENCE#, THREAD#, block#, BLOCKS, TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'DD-MON-YYYY HH:MI:SS') time from v$MANAGED_STANDBY WHERE PROCESS='MRP0'; Determine the recovery rate (MB/sec) for a specific archive sequence number –Managed Recovery Case: ((BLOCK#_END - BLOCK#_BEG) * LOG_BLOCK_SIZE) / (TIME_END - TIME_BEG) * 1024 * 1024

26 Redo Apply (Cont.) Redo Generation Rate vs. Redo Apply RateRecommendation 2 * Max Primary DB Redo Generation Rate < Redo Apply Rate Excellent - No Tuning Required Max Primary DB Redo Generation Rate < Redo Apply Rate < 2 * Max Primary DB Redo Generation Rate Good - Tuning is Optional Avg. Primary Redo Generation Rate < Redo Apply RateOK - Need Tuning Avg. Primary Redo Generation Rate > Redo Apply RateBad - Need Tuning Oracle Recommends:

27 Recovery Parallel Recovery (before ) –Set to number of CPUs recover managed standby database parallel ; PARALLEL_EXECUTION_MESSAGE_SIZE –Can increase to 4096 or 8192 Uses additional shared pool memory –Problems if set too high DB_CACHE_SIZE –Can set secondary DB_CACHE_SIZE >= primary Must set to primary before changing roles

28 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

29 Arch Wait Events - Primary ARCH wait on ATTACH –Time for all arch processes to spawn RFS connection ARCH wait on SENDREQ –Time for all arch processes to write received redo to disk + open & close remote archived redo logs ARCH wait on DETACH –Time for all arch processes to delete RFS connection

30 LGWR SYNC Wait Events - Primary LGWR wait on ATTACH –Time for all log writer processes to spawn RFS connection LGWR wait on SENDREQ –Time for all log writer processes to write received redo to disk + open & close the remote archived redo logs LGWR wait on DETACH –Time for all log writer processes to delete RFS conn.

31 LGWR ASYNC Wait Events - Primary LNS wait on ATTACH –Time for all network servers to spawn RFS connection LNS wait on SENDREQ –Time for all network servers to write received redo to disk + open & close the remote archived redo logs LNS wait on DETACH –Time for all network servers to delete RFS conn. LGWR wait on full LNS buffer –Time for log writer (LGWR) process awaiting for network server (LNS) to free ASYNC buffer space

32 Wait Events on Secondary RFS Write –Time to write to standby redo log or archive log + non I/O work like redo block checksum validation RFS Random I/O –Time to write to a standby redo log to occur RFS Sequential I/O –Time to write to an archive log to occur

33 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

34 10g R2 Improvements Multiple archive processes can transmit a redo log in parallel to the standby database –MAX_CONNECTIONS attribute of the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n controls the number of these processes Parallel Recovery for Redo apply is automatically set equal to number of CPUs – and Fast-Start Failover –Automatically fails over to a previously chosen physical standby database

35 10g R2 Improvements (Cont.) LGWR ASYNC –Uses a new process (LNSn) to transmit the redo data directly from the online redo log to the standby database Physical standby database flashback –Can flash back temporarily for reporting Logical standby database –Automatically deletes applied archived log RMAN –Automatically creates temp datafiles after recovery

36 11g Improvements Physical standby database open read/write for test or other purposes with zero compromise in data protection using new Snapshot Standby Automatic failover configurable for immediate response to designated events or errors More flexibility in primary/standby configurations –e.g. Windows primary and Linux standby Rolling upgrade options now in physical standby with Transient Logical Standby ASYNC transport enhanced to eliminate the impact of latency on network throughput

37 11g Improvements (Cont.) Fast detection of corruptions caused by lost writes in the storage layer SQL Apply supports XML data type (CLOB) Many performance, manageability, and security enhancements Support for new Oracle Database 11g Options – Oracle Active Data Guard and Oracle Advanced Compression Fast Start Failover now available for Maximum Performance mode

38 Outline Overview Network Optimization ARCn & LGWR Redo Transport Checkpoint, Redo Read/Apply & Recovery Wait Events 10g R2 & 11g Improvements Best Practices

39 Best Practices Geographically separate primary & standby DB Ensure standby hardware configuration same as the primary –Tune standby for write intensive operations Test Data Guard before deploy in production Set standard OS and DB parameters to recommended values Perform switchover testing –Fully document a failover procedure Use FORCE LOGGING mode

40 Best Practices (Cont.) Use real-time apply Use the Data Guard Broker Enable Flashback Database on both primary and secondary databases Evaluate using AFFIRM attribute –Possible performance issues on primary Verify Asynchronous I/O enabled Carefully consider DB_BLOCK_CHECKING

41 Best Practices (Cont.) Don’t multiplex standby redo logs (SRLs) Correctly set number of SRLs Increase PARALLEL_EXECUTION_MESSAGE_SIZE Place SRLs in fast disk group or disks Use at lease two standby DBs with Maximum Protection Mode Utilize COMMIT NOWAIT if appropriate

42 Best Practices (Cont.) Ensure appropriate bandwidth between primary and secondary Increase default send & receive queue sizes –TXQUEUELENGTH –NET_DEV_MAX_BACKLOG Session Data Unit –Adjust value to Improvement during large data transmissions

43 Questions? Lots of things we didn’t cover If we don’t cover something you wanted to hear, please contact me.

44 THANK YOU! Please fill out evaluations! Tom Canty: Or Call: Session #126: Data Guard Best Practices & Tuning


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