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Backup and Recovery Part 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Backup and Recovery Part 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Backup and Recovery Part 1

2 How oracle handle changes to data
Changes to data are results of: Table being updated/deleted/inserted Database objects (tables, views, users) being created/altered/dropped – (internally those result in changes to Oracle data dictionary) Changes are always handled at the data block level: Oracle keeps track of which blocks have changed and when they have changed

3 How oracle handle changes to data
When data block is changed: It is modified in memory and marked as dirty Change record (redo record) is added to the log buffer Log buffer is later written to the current redo log file Dirty blocks are later written to data files

4 Dirty blocks Dirty blocks are written to data files:
When there is no space left in memory, e.g.: Query execution needs to load data into memory If there is no free memory, some old data needs to be flushed If flushed buffers are dirty, they need to be written to data files When database is being closed During checkpoint Sometimes, during log switch In some other situations too (depending on configuration)

5 Log buffer Log buffer – memory buffer
Every change to data block is recorded in a log buffer (redo record) Log buffer is written to current redo log file: At every commit When the buffer is full (or almost full) Redo records are never used during normal database operation, they are used for: Automatic instance recovery Manual media recovery

6 Changes to data – summary
Are written to data files (delayed) Are written to redo log files (almost immediately) In case of instance failure: Oracle uses redo log files to recover changes that were not written to data files

7 Redo log files Database must contain at least two redo log files (online redo log files) Redo log files are written sequentially: Redo log 1 Redo log 2 Redo log n At any time, there is exactly one current redo log file (the one being written by the database)

8 Redo log files Online redo log can be in three states:
current – database is writing changes to this redo log (exactly one online redo log is always current) active – if the database crashes now, redo log will be used for recovery – it contains changes not yet written to data files inactive – redo log contains changes not required for database recovery – all information is already written to data files

9 Checkpoint Redo log is active as long as there are dirty buffers in the database corresponding to changes written to that redo log At checkpoint all dirty buffers are written to data files After checkpoint: One redo log file is current All other redo log files are inactive Checkpoint can be triggered manually: alter system checkpoint

10 Log switch Online redo log files have fixed size
When the online redo log file becomes full, Oracle switches to the next file – log switch log file to switch to must be inactive log switch can be triggered manually by the DBA alter system switch logfile

11 Checkpoint at log switch
Sometimes Oracle wants to do a log switch, but the next redo log is active, then Oracle: stops all database operation performs a checkpoint when the next redo log file becomes inactive, resumes operation prints message to alert log: "checkpoint not complete" 11

12 System change number System change number – SCN:
Oracle counts all transactions in the database Every time a transaction is committed, SCN is incremented SCN is stored in: Control file – to know the current SCN of the database Data files – to "timestamp" the file. If file is replaced with an old version from backup – Oracle detects it by comparing the SCN in control file with SCN in data file

13 Oracle startup sequence
At startup Oracle performs 3 steps STARTUP NOMOUNT – start the instance STARTUP MOUNT – open all control files OPEN DATABASE – open all remaining files – data files, temp files, online redo logs

14 Instance startup During instance startup (STARTUP NOMOUNT) Oracle:
Reads instance parameters from PFILE or SPFILE Starts database processes according to the parameters Finds the location of control files, but does not open them

15 Mounting the database During database mount:
Oracle opens and reads all copies of Control files If there is a problem with any of the control files, the database cannot be mounted Oracle reads location of all data files, temp files, redo log files, but does not open them

16 Opening the database During database open Oracle:
Opens and reads headers of all data files If the database was closed properly (SCN in each header file matches SCN in control file), there are no additional steps If the database was not closed properly Oracle tries to perform automatic instance recovery

17 Automatic instance recovery
During instance recovery Oracle: Restores all data files to the state just before the crash Redo log files, which were active or current at the time of the crash are read and changes from them are applied to the data files This phase is called rolling forward phase Rolls back all transactions which were not committed at the time of the crash This phase is called rolling back phase

18 Media recovery Instance recovery can fail for the following reasons:
Data file can be missing, corrupted Online redo log can be missing, corrupted Data file can be too old to be recovered (e.g. data file was restored from old backup) Data file is too new (e.g. all files except one were restored from the backup) If instance recovery fails, manual media recovery must be used to recover the database

19 Backups There are two basic types of backups:
Offline backup – backup of an inactive database, that was shut down properly Online backup – backup of an open database Oracle backups are performed by copying Oracle files at operating system level (Oracle is not involved).

20 Offline backup When performing offline backup:
backup all data files, control files, server parameter file (or parameter file) do not backup online redo log files! (redo log files are used for recovery, they are not used for clean database startup) Note: database must be shut down cleanly (e.g. shutdown immediate). After shutdown abort redo logs are required to open the database 20

21 Restoring offline backup
To restore offline backup to original database directory: Restore all control files, data files, temp files from backup If necessary, restore parameter file or server parameter file Do not restore online redo logs (you can delete old online redo logs if they are present) Startup and open the database with resetlogs option: STARTUP MOUNT ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS 21

22 Archivelog mode Database can operate in two modes:
noarchivelog mode – redo logs can be overwritten as soon as they become inactive archivelog mode – redo logs are archived to safe location before they can be overwritten Archivelog mode enables to recover database after media failure In noarchivelog database can recover from instance failure usually database cannot recover from media failure 22

23 Archivelog mode To switch between archivelog and noarchivelog mode:
startup mount alter database archivelog/noarchivelog archive log list – shows information alter database open After switching database modes, shutdown the database and do offline backup. 23

24 Archivelog mode Archivelog mode enables:
online backups – backups done while the database is running media recovery – recovering from loss of a data file point in time recovery – recovery until specified point in time or SCN – useful for recovering from human errors 24

25 Media recovery Media recovery – recovery after a loss of a data file
Media recovery requires: backup (online or offline) from before the crash archived redo logs from the time of the backup to the time of the crash online redo logs Complete recovery – recovery of all committed transactions Incomplete recovery – not all committed transactions are recovered, some transactions are lost 25

26 Incomplete recovery Incomplete recovery is performed:
when some redo log files are missing, e.g. one of the archived redo logs is missing or online redo log is missing when doing point in time recovery (recovery until specified time or SCN) After incomplete recovery the database must be opened with RESETLOGS option 26

27 Incomplete recovery - example
Database running in ARCHIVELOG mode SCN: 1000 – Full backup SCN: 1250 – one of the archived redo logs is accidentally erased SCN: 1500 – disk failure, data file is lost Recovery: restore the backup recover database using archived redo logs recovery stops at SCN 1250 and the remaining transactions are lost we open the database at SCN 1250 27

28 Example cont. After recovery – full backup at SCN 1250
The database is running and fails again at SCN 1700 We have two sets of archived logs: SCN 1000 – 1500 (with missing 1250) SCN 1250 – 1700 If incorrect redo logs are used during recovery – database becomes corrupted To prevent incorrect usage of archived logs, Oracle requires RESETLOGS option after incomplete recovery 28

29 Complete recovery Online redo logs are required for complete recovery
Committed transactions are not lost (as in incomplete recovery) There is no need to open database with RESETLOGS option 29

30 Performing recovery Recovery can be performed on open or closed database For open database recovery, recovered datafiles/tablespaces must be taken offline SYSTEM tablespace cannot be taken offline - SYSTEM tablespace can only be recovered on closed database It is possible to recover: Single datafile: RECOVER DATAFILE 'path'; Single tablespace: RECOVER TABLESPACE users; Entire database: RECOVER DATABASE; 30

31 Closed database recovery
Copy damaged files from backup (only damaged files, not all data files) Make archived redo logs available to database startup mount Issue recover command: recover database (for entire database recovery) recover tablespace users (tablespace recovery) recover datafile ‘filename’ (datafile recovery) alter database open (after complete recovery) alter database open resetlogs (after incomplete recovery) 31

32 Open database recovery
Damaged datafiles are automatically taken offline by Oracle Make damaged tablespace offline: alter tablespace XXX offline temporary; Copy damaged files from backup (only damaged files, not all data files) Make archived redo logs available to database Issue recover command: recover tablespace XXX (tablespace recovery) alter tablespace XXX online; 32

33 Opening damaged database
Database can be opened with some damaged datafiles (except files from SYSTEM tablespace) In order to open the database: startup mount; alter database datafile ‘filename’ offline; alter database open alter tablespace XXX offline; To recover the datafile/tablespace perform open database recovery 33

34 Recovery In order to open database after recovery all datafiles must be recovered until the same SCN Recovery on open database must be complete in order to make recovered file online Incomplete recovery requires restoring full backup, not only damaged files Incomplete recovery can be: time based (recover until time) change based (recover until SCN) cancel based (user is prompted for redo logs and can stop the recovery at any time) 34

35 Incomplete recovery Time based recovery: Change based recovery:

36 Incomplete recovery Cancel based recovery: STARTUP MOUNT

37 NOARCHIVELOG database
Database in NOARCHIVELOG mode cannot be recovered In case of failure – restore most recent backup of datafiles and controlfiles (don’t backup and restore online redo logs!) Execute: STARTUP MOUNT RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL CANCEL ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS 37

38 Failures while Oracle is running
If Oracle detects disk failure while it is running: control file or log file -> terminate instance SYSTEM tablespace datafile -> terminate instance other datafile: in NOARCHIVELOG mode -> terminate instance in ARCHIVELOG mode -> take datafile offline, continue running 38

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