Anadiplosis The repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause. See Sentence Variation Packet for example "They call for you: The general who became a slave; the slave who became a gladiator; the gladiator who defied an Emperor. Striking story." -- delivered by Joaquin Phoenix (from the movie Gladiator)
Anaphora A rhetorical figure involving the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines or sentences. It is a type of parallelism. See Sentence Variation Packet for examples. Example: “ M.L.K.’s speech “I Have a Dream” employs anaphora in which several successive sentences begin with the phrase “I have a dream that one day…”
Antimetabole The arrangement of ideas in the second clause is a reversal of the first See Sentence Variation Packet for example: Am I a philosopher dreaming I’m a butterfly; or a butterfly dreaming I’m a philosopher?
Antithesis Opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel structure. Example: “We shall support any friend, oppose any foe.”
Apostrophe An address, either to someone who is absent and therefore cannot hear the speaker, or to something nonhuman that cannot comprehend. Apostrophe often provides a speaker the opportunity to think aloud.
ASYNDETON Leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, clauses. See Sentence Variation Packet for example: I saw the mountain; I climbed the mountain; I conquered the mountain.
CONNOTATION The emotional response that a word arises in a reader.
Epanalepsis The repetition at the end of a clause of the word, or a form of the word, that occurred at the beginning of the clause. For example see sentence variation packet: “Dinner was over, but no one had dined; the argument had taken away everyone’s appetite.”
ETHOS When a speaker/writer focuses the audiences attention on themselves or to an authority figure to strengthen their argument.
Figurative Language Language that employs one or more figures of speech (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, etc.)
Hyperbole deliberate exaggeration of a person, thing, quality, event to emphasize a point external to the object of exaggeration; intentional exaggeration for rhetorical effect. "So first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." -- Franklin Delano Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address
IMAGERY Vivid use of language that evokes a reader’s sense (sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing)
Imperative sentence Sentence used to command, enjoin, implore or entreat. Example “My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.”
Irony To express the opposite of what is expected
Juxtaposition Placement of two things closely together to emphasize comparisons or contrasts. See Chapters 2 Glossary of The Language of Composition book for example.
LOGOS When the author uses, logic, statistics or facts to support their argument.
METAPHOR A comparison made without using like or as "With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood." -- Martin Luther King, I Have a DreamI Have a Dream
MOOD The atmosphere, usually created by descriptions of the settings and characters.
Oxymoron Paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another Example: But this peaceful revolution. "Safe sex -- now there's an oxymoron. That's like 'tactical Nuke' or 'adult male.'" -- delivered by Tim Curry (from the movie Lover's Knot)'tactical Nuke
PARADOX a statement or proposition that seems self- contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth. The next time I have a daughter, I hope it's a boy." -- delivered by Paul Lynde (from the movie Bye Bye Birdie) The criminal act that took his life brings shame to our country. An apostle of non-violence has been the victim of violence. The cause for which he marked and worked, I am sure, will find a new strength." - Hubert H. Humphrey, Remarks on the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Parallelism A similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses. "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." -- John F. Kennedy, Inaugural AddressInaugural Address
PATHOS When a writer appeals to the audiences emotions.
Personification Attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or idea. Example: with history the final judge of our deeds "Once again, the heart of America is heavy. The spirit of America weeps for a tragedy that denies the very meaning of our land." - - Lyndon Baines Johnson
POLYSYNDETON The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions "And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good." -- Genesis 1:24-25 (KJV)
RHETORIC The art of persuasion through speaking and writing
SATIRE Literature that uses irony, wit and sarcasm
SIMILE Comparison using like or as But His strong love stands like a granite rock unmoved by the hurricanes of our inequity." -- [originally delivered by Charles Haddon Spurgeon]
Syllogism A form of deduction logic that connects two ideas through a third one: "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; Socrates is mortal" (this form is called Darii), "All coal is black: some rocks are not black; some rocks are not coal" (this form is called Baroko) The syllogism is composed of major premise; minor premise: conclusion.deductionmajor premiseminor premiseconclusion Example from “Letter…”Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court [which outlaws segregation in the public schools], for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. We note, in conclusion, that this passage works largely through a number of enthymemes which function as argumentative claims. The final independent clause, "I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong," may be broken down into the following syllogism: Laws that are morally wrong should be disobeyed Segregation ordinances are morally wrong Segregation ordinances should be disobeyed The opening, major, premise is strong, moral, and idealistic (and potentially dangerous when misinterpreted as a license to commit violence). Those who agree with it and act on it should, like King, be prepared to bear its (perhaps unjust) consequences and, when needed, be able to provide a justification for their actions.