Presentation on theme: "1 Attitudes ► An attitude is a positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea. ► Attitudes can be based on three general classes of."— Presentation transcript:
1 Attitudes ► An attitude is a positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea. ► Attitudes can be based on three general classes of information: 1. Affect 2. Behavior 3. Cognition
2 How are Attitudes Formed? ► Learning Mere exposure—repeated exposure to a stimulus increases our feelings about the stimulus. Direct experience Operant conditioning-reward and punishment Classical conditioning-association of CS with UCS Observational learning-imitation of others Media ► Genetics
3 Attitudes and Judgment ► Existing attitudes bias judgments of new information. Death penalty study (Lord, Ross, & Lepper, 1979) Fibrocystic disease and caffeine study (Kunda, 1987)
4 Attitudes and Judgment Data from Kunda (1987)
5 Attitudes and Judgment ► Attitudes also bias recall of old information. Introversion/Extraversion study (Sanitioso et al., 1990)
6 Attitudes and Behavior ► LaPiere (1934) study of attitudes and behavior towards Chinese people.
7 Attitudes and Behavior ► Factors that moderate the attitude-behavior link: Strength of attitude Specificity of attitude Self-focus Self-monitoring
8 Self-Monitoring Scale ► 1. I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people T F ► 2. I can only argue for ideas which I already believe T F ► 3. I have considered being an entertainer T F ► 4. I would probably make a good actor T F ► 5. I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations T F
9 Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Attitude toward a behavior Subjective norms Perceived Behavioral control IntentionBehavior
10 Attitude Action
11 Cognitive Dissonance ► A state of psychological tension that is aroused when a person simultaneously holds two thoughts that contradict one another.
12 Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Inconsistency between thoughts Experience cognitive dissonance Attempt to reduce dissonance Change attitude
13 Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) ► Participants did boring tasks for 1 hour. ► Paid $1 or $20 to tell another participant that the tasks were enjoyable. ► During interview, asked how much they enjoyed the tasks.
14 Three Dissonance-Arousing Conditions ► 1. Attitude-behavior inconsistency Leads to change in attitude ► 2. Exerting wasted effort Leads to effort justification ► 3. Making a difficult decision Leads to post-decisional dissonance
15 Two Perspectives on Self-Persuasion ► 1. Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) – inconsistency between thoughts leads to unpleasant tension (dissonance), which motivates people to reduce dissonance by changing thoughts.
16 Two Perspectives on Self-Persuasion ► 2. Self-Perception Theory (Bem) – people form and modify their attitudes by observing their own behavior.
17 Implications ► Behavior Attitude change ► Use of cognitive dissonance to promote healthy behavior.