2In a study by Zimbardo et al In a study by Zimbardo et al. (1965), participants were asked to eat a fried grasshopper by either an extremely polite and pleasant experimenter or a cold and unpleasant experimenter. About 50% of the participants in each condition ate the grasshopper, but those asked to do by the unpleasant experimenter:rated the grasshoppers more favorably.ate the grasshopper when asked to do so by the polite experimenter, but only 10% did so when asked to do by the unpleasant experimenter.in each condition ate the grasshopper, but those asked to do so by the pleasant experimenter rated the grasshoppers more favorably.ate the grasshopper when asked to do so by the unpleasant experimenter, but only 10% did so when asked to do by the pleasant experimenter.
3Rationalization is a way to reduce the aversive arousal of cognitive dissonance by: convincing ourselves that our current or past behaviour made sense after all.changing our behaviour to be more consonant with our cognition.adding a consonant cognition.All of these are true.
4In Festinger and Carlsmith’s (1959) experiment on cognitive dissonance, what variable did the experimenters manipulate to induce dissonance?the tasks completed by the participants were either exciting or boringthe tasks completed by the participants took either an hour or 15 minutes to completethe participants was paid either $1 or $20 to tell a confederate that the tasks were excitingthe participants were asked to tell a confederate that the tasks were either exciting or boring
5How did the researchers in the Aronson and Mills (1959) experiment on cognitive dissonance manipulate the amount of effort that participants had to endure to join a sexual discussion group?Participants had to pledge either $1 or $5 to join the group.Some participants had to read out loud a list of obscene words and detailed descriptions of sexual activity, whereas others had to read out loud more ordinary words.Some participants had to describe their actual sexual experiences, whereas others had to describe their sexual fantasies.Some participants had to write a counterattitudinal essay on premarital sex, whereas others had to write an essay on the same topic that was consistent with their attitude.
6The tendency for people to rate the chosen item more favorably and the rejected item less favorably after a decision has been termed:spreading of the alternatives.effort justification.a preference for consistency (PFC).heuristic processing.
7Which of the following best summarizes the textbook’s conclusion about alternatives to dissonance theory?Each alternative has a kernel of truth, but self-affirmation theory explains most of the research conducted by dissonance researchers as fully as dissonance theory does.Each alternative has a kernel of truth, but dissonance theory still explains most of the research conducted by dissonance researchers.Self-perception theory and self-affirmation theory have no substantial empirical support, but impression management theory can explain most of the dissonance results better than dissonance theory.Self-perception theory and impression management theory have no substantial empirical support, but self-affirmation theory can explain most of the dissonance results better than dissonance theory.
8Research on cultural differences in dissonance arousal has shown that people in collectivist cultures experience dissonance when:they make a choice for someone else.they make a choice for themselves.All of the above.None of the above.
9peripheral route to persuasion When running for mayor of a city, a candidate uses an advertising campaign that describes her positions on important issues and praises her integrity, honesty, and patriotism. This is an example of the ____ in advertising.soft sellhard selldeceptive practicesperipheral route to persuasion
10Systematic processing Inoculation Cognitive dissonance ____ occurs when people rely on cues to make judgments about the message, without thinking carefully about the arguments that are presented.Systematic processingInoculationCognitive dissonanceHeuristic processing
11when the message was easy to understand and the arguments were weak In a study by Hafer et al. (1996), which tested college students’ responses to a persuasive message on plea bargaining, the complexity of the message was manipulated: the arguments were stated either in clear and straightforward language or in complex and difficult to understand language. Among these four conditions, which led to more attitude change in favor of plea bargaining?when the message was difficult to understand and the credibility of the source was lowwhen the message was difficult to understand and the credibility of the source was highwhen the message was easy to understand and the arguments were weakwhen the message was easy to understand and the credibility of the source was high
12protection motivation fear enhancement dissonance According to _______ theory, threatening messages must convince recipients that a problem is serious, they are susceptible, and the recommended behaviours will be effective in order for behaviour to change.protection motivationfear enhancementdissonanceelaboration likelihood
13the foot-in-the-door technique. love-bombing. affect inoculation. The powerful technique that cults use to shower potential recruits with physical affection, flattery, and unconditional caring and security is called:the foot-in-the-door technique.love-bombing.affect inoculation.brainwashing.
14When cults seek recruits, what age group do they target? 18 to 30 years old.15 to 20 years old.30 to 40 years old.25 to 35 years old.
15Propaganda is a persuasive attempt that is: motivated by an ideology.deliberately biased in its presentationBoth of the above.None of the above.