Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 AENG 223 Professional Ethics and Conduct Lecture 7 Case Studies."— Presentation transcript:
Slide 1 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 AENG 223 Professional Ethics and Conduct Lecture 7 Case Studies
Slide 2 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Overview Cyberstalking Ethics and Copyrights Profiling and Data Mining Case studies
Slide 3 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Cyberstalking “Killer Keeps Web Pages on Victim, Stalks Her Through Internet” Stories of criminal intimidation, harassment, fear, and suggestive violence where individuals use the Internet as a tool to stalk another person. The term cyberstalking has emerged to describe the use of such technology to harass or stalk. Cyberstalking is defined as the repeated use of the Internet, e-mail, or related digital electronic communication devices to annoy, alarm, or threaten a specific individual or group of individuals.
Slide 4 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Computer Crime The Internet has made a relevant difference because of the way stalking activities can now be carried out. Internet stalkers can operate anonymously or pseudononymously while online. A cyberstalker can stalk one or more individuals from the comfort of his/her living room.
Slide 5 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Case Study Amy Boyer, a twenty-year-old resident of Nashua, NH, was murdered by a young man who had stalked her via the Internet. provided by Internet Youens gathered information about Boyer that was readily accessible from databases available to online search requests. Through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), two Web sites were constructed. On one site, he posted personal information about Boyer, including her picture, and on another the other site he described, in explicit detail, his plans to murder Boyer.
Slide 6 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Sexual harassment via email
Slide 7 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Sexual Harassment The combination of email, an increasingly common form of corporate communication, and sexual harassment lawsuits in the U.S., a negative by product of corporate communication, represents a new source of legal and financial risk for employees and employers alike.
Slide 8 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Definition of Sexual Harassment Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of the law. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: “Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment; “Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individual; or “Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment.
Slide 9 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Sexual Harassment via Email
Slide 10 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Sexual Harassment via Email
Slide 11 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Sexual Harassment via Email Deleted email is still regarded as evidence in court, as it leaves an electronic signature of proof of authenticity.
Slide 12 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Case Study Deleted email messages and those subsequently overwritten may still provide evidence in lawsuits, if they can be expertly recovered. In one sexual harassment case, a female employee’s boss contended her firing was due to financial considerations. John H. Jessen, managing director of Electronic Evidence Discovery, Inc., in Seattle, recovered an email message that had been deleted by its sender and then overwritten. The company’s president had written to her direct manager, the head of human resources, ‘I want you to get that tight-[expletive deleted] out of here. I don’t care what you have to do.’ The company agreed to settle for $250,000. Without expert recovery of the deleted and overwritten message, it would have been simply her word against his word.
Slide 13 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Conclusions In the cases of sexual harassment via employee email described here, the companies’ own internal records provided some of the legal evidence used against specific employees and the company itself in court. Indicative of the seriousness of such email abuse is the increasing number of lawsuits dealing with email in workplace sexual harassment.
Slide 14 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Conclusions As technology, such as Internet access, becomes increasingly sophisticated, opening the door to a vast array of sexually explicit digitized content on the World Wide Web and bulletin boards, email is likely to become more sexually explicit. Indeed, email-related litigation, including abuses, such as sexual harassment, is one of the fastest growing areas in employment related civil litigation in the U.S.
Slide 15 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 From Intel to AMD for $1 bn. The Indictment further alleges that unbeknownst to Intel, PANI had been offered a job at Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (“AMD”), a major competitor of Intel, in late March 2008, and had begun employment at AMD on June 2, 2008. Also unbeknownst to Intel at the time, PANI had started downloading Intel’s trade secrets and confidential and proprietary information while he was on his “vacation” from Intel, still on Intel’s payroll, but after he had started working for AMD. From June 8 through June 11, 2008, PANI remotely accessed Intel’s computer system numerous times and downloaded 13 “top secret” (according to Intel’s classification system) Intel documents, along with other confidential and proprietary information. PANI accessed and downloaded a document explaining how the encrypted documents could be reviewed when not connected to Intel’s computer system.
Slide 16 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Copyright Act To reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords; To prepare derivative works based upon the work; To distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works; To display the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and In the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.
Slide 17 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Digital Copyright If the work is in a CD-ROM format, the deposit requirement is one complete copy of the material, that is, the CD-ROM, the operating software, and any manual(s) accompanying it. If registration is sought for the computer program on the CD-ROM, the deposit should also include a printout of the first 25 and last 25 pages of source code for the program.
Slide 18 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Digital Rights Management Digital Rights Management technologies in the field of copyright protection should meet four objectives: –give consumers new freedom to enjoy music and other forms of content; –give copyright owners and other value chain participants the means to manage and protect their rights in published works; –implement elements of law, such as copyright exceptions, that ensure that rights are managed in accordance with the public interest; –provide users with the means to manage their legitimate personal rights and This technology can ensure the neutrality, security, commercial reliability, and trusted interoperability of applications and services used to protect and manage rights in all forms of information, including creative works protected by copyright.
Slide 19 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 The Dawn of MP3s Traditional standards allow music to be sampled at 44,100 times per second (in stereo-2 channels) with each sample having 16 bits. In comparison, MP3 uses music compression algorithms like advanced audio coding to replicate original music at a bit rate of 128Kps. This represents a compression ratio of 11:1. Although MP3 has a much lower bit rate than traditional standards, music quality does not suffer because human ears cannot discern the difference for bit rates beyond 128Kps. But with this compression ratio, a CD that has 12 songs encoded in traditional standards can contain more than 130 songs encoded in MP3.
Slide 20 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 More MP3s Increasing availability of broadband access and reducing costs of hard disks allow downloading and storing of songs in MP3 economically attractive. Because it is operable across many technology platforms and has no security or copyright features, MP3 is immensely popular.
Slide 21 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 MP3s and Copyrights MP3s began with a huge underground movement of college students on the Internet who converted songs from their CDs into MP3 files, and circulated the files over the Net, allowing people worldwide to download these files and play original music on PCs using free software. This MP3 movement sparked worry in the music industry, where key players (the retailers, record labels, and artists) were concerned about losing money.
Slide 22 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Napster and RIAA Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). To date, RIAA has brought lawsuits upon Napster, MP3.com, Aimster, and others in its bid to control piracy. RIAA argued that Napster facilitated music piracy on a large scale with its 80 million registered users trading millions of songs daily. Copyright disclaimers on Napster’s Web site were not adequate; copyright laws state that a person is liable for copyright infringement when he or she materially contributes (either directly or indirectly) to that activity with the knowledge of its implications.
Slide 23 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 The Dawn of Amazon and iTunes Download MP3s to specific devices with DRM (in this case a watermark on MP3 song). The DRM watermark will not allow the MP3 to copied and duplicated and played on other devices (iPod, iPhone, etc). Download MP3s at the prices of €0.99 per song.
Slide 24 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Conclusions Lawsuits filed against Internet companies serves to underscore the impact the Net has on the music industry. However, lawsuits are not the best approach for record labels to deal with emerging technologies. The Internet is bringing new key players and business models into the music industry. Technological advancements and emergence of industry standards is accelerating such changes.
Slide 25 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Conclusions Consumers will be the biggest winners amidst intense competition. All other key players in the music industry must concentrate on their core competencies and re- examine their value propositions so as to remain truly valuable and relevant to consumers. What remains to be seen is whether brick-and- mortar retailers or online retailers, such as Amazon or iTunes (if any) will prevail.
Slide 26 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 What is Data Mining? Generally, data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information - information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. Data mining software is one of a number of analytical tools for analyzing data. It allows users to analyze data from many different dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the relationships identified. Technically, data mining is the process of finding correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases.
Slide 27 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 What can Data Mining do? Data mining is primarily used today by companies with a strong consumer focus. Blockbuster Entertainment mines its video rental history database to recommend rentals to individual customers. American Express can suggest products to its cardholders based on analysis of their monthly expenditures. The National Basketball Association (NBA) is exploring a data mining application that can be used in conjunction with image recordings of basketball games.
Slide 28 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Data Mining TV Viewers The Advertising Delivery System (ADS) – to identify the demographic and psychographic (behavioral) characteristics of viewers based on their viewing patterns. Viewing patterns include types of shows viewed, the frequency each show is viewed, the time each show is viewed, and the duration of each viewing. The related data mining techniques use these components to identify subsets of viewers rich in the target groups of interest to TV advertisers and networks.
Slide 29 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Data Mining Issues One of the key issues raised by data mining technology is not a business or technological one, but a social one. It is the issue of individual privacy. Data mining makes it possible to analyze routine business transactions and glean a significant amount of information about individuals buying habits and preferences. Another issue is that of data integrity. Clearly, data analysis can only be as good as the data that is being analyzed.
Slide 30 C.MarkidesAENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct05/05/2015 Data Mining Issues As computer technologies make consumer behavioural data increasingly accessible. It also becomes increasingly important to address the analytical, business, social/privacy, legal, and ethical considerations in data mining for consumer marketing. Purchasing data can be used to construct demographic profiles of consumers, enabling retailers to target their marketing efforts and advertising to individual consumers.