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Barriers to Career Development INTERACTIVE TOOLKIT www.vacareerview.orgwww.vacareerview.org Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech 800-542-5870.

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Presentation on theme: "Barriers to Career Development INTERACTIVE TOOLKIT www.vacareerview.orgwww.vacareerview.org Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech 800-542-5870."— Presentation transcript:

1 Barriers to Career Development INTERACTIVE TOOLKIT Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

2 Identify Barriers Relevant to Your School Location Immigration Status Parental Involvement Minority Status Socio-Economic Class R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

3 Location R The location, and thus available resources, of a school and community may be a large barrier or perceived barrier to career development for both parents and students. Location of the school and community may also contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged based on race, ethnicity, socio-economic class, or gender; perceiving limited opportunities for career experiences; and perceived limited opportunities for social and economic support for career decisions or educational needs. (Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005) Although little can be done to change the location of the school, students and parents can be supported to help over come these perceived barriers in a number of ways: Provide a list of local resources for career development, career experience, and educational support, including mentoring programs. Include school-sponsored and community-supported resources. Encourage students to gain hands-on experience in their field of interest. Encourage and help students to see how related experiences can connect to their field of interest, especially if no direct opportunities for experience are available locally. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

4 Location R Connect career development to curriculum content. Make these connections explicit to students, but be sure to express that the list of connections is not exhaustive. When discussing career development, provide examples of successful career professionals who come from a similar location. Include diversity of race, ethnicity, and gender, especially your students are likely to feel those are potential barriers they will face. Encourage students to choose a career role model. Encourage students to identify their personal interests, skills, goals, perceived barriers, and expected outcomes for career efforts. Work with students to develop plans to overcome their perceive barriers using their identified skills and interests, available resources for increasing their skills and experiences, and examples from their career role model. (Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005) Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

5 Immigration Status Language Barriers Feeling Unwelcome in the School Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

6 Language Barriers Parent Language Barriers Student Language Barriers R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

7 Parent Language Barriers To help parents overcome this barrier: Provide translated materials, especially the pamphlets and flyers sent home with students. Provide the option of a translator for interactions with the faculty. Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths. Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents. Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures. Parents who have recently immigrated to the U.S. may have limited experience reading, writing, or speaking English. These parents may want to be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty doing so –both from the immediate language barrier, and as a result of a perceived judgment against them. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

8 Student Language Barriers Because school systems provide English as a Second Language programs, Student Language Barriers are not about misunderstanding spoken or written course work or school communications. Instead, students may perceive that speaking English as their second language will become a barrier for them as try to find jobs and establish careers. To help students overcome this perceived barrier: Encourage students to think of, and present, their multilingual abilities as a skill or career asset. When discussing careers, provide examples which represent multilingual professionals, particularly professionals who speak English as their second language. This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to. (Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

9 Feeling Unwelcome in the School Language Barriers Perceived Judgment Limited Connection to the School Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

10 Perceived Judgment Parents’ Perceived Judgment Students’ Perceived Judgment R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

11 Parents’ Perceived Judgment Parents who have recently immigrated to the U.S. may have limited experience reading, writing, or speaking English, and limited understanding and experience with the culture. These parents may want to be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty doing so because of a fear being judged based on their ethnicity, culture, or immigration status. To help parents overcome this barrier: Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths. Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents. Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures. Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their child’s schooling. Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

12 Students’ Perceived Judgment Students’ may perceived they are being judged by peers, school authorities, and potential employers. This judgment may be based on their ethnicity, language abilities, ability to understand course materials, gender role, socio-economic class, or a number of other factors. To help students overcome this perceived barrier: Encourage students to identify barriers they think they will encounter. Discuss with the students why they believe they will encounter these barriers. Encourage students to identify their skills and interests. Discuss with students how these skills and interests may overcome, or provide alternate paths around the barriers they have identified. When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of backgrounds, experiences, and abilities. This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to. (Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

13 Limited Connection to the School Parents Limited Connection to the School Teacher Support for Parents Connection to the School R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

14 Parents Limited Connection to the School With language barriers, and perceived judgment, parents may have a difficult time connecting to the school, and thus face increased barriers in becoming involved in their children’s education. To help parents overcome this barrier: Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Encourage parents to attend parent-teacher association meetings, and meetings with teachers or other staff. Offer child-care during meetings, so that parents with no other child-care options can come. Offer free or reduced-fare transportation to parent-teacher association meetings, so parents with no other means of transport can come. Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their children’s schooling. Give parents feedback on the positive influence of their involvement. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

15 Parents Limited Connection to the School Build bridges between the school and families. Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents and staff, and browse resources. Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.student-led parent-teacher conferences Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the students at the end of the school year. Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning. Encourage parents and students to talk about both general and specific aspects of school. Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments.interactive homework assignments (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

16 Teacher Support for Parents Connection to the School Teachers can play an instrumental role in supporting parents, and encouraging parents to connect to the school and increase their involvement in their child’s education. Because teachers have a wide variety of experience with parental involvement, they may need some encouragement to invite parents to become more involved in their classrooms. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) To help overcome this barrier: Establish a Teachers Involving Parents ProgramTeachers Involving Parents Program Encourage teachers to keep parents informed about students progress, rather than only contacting parents when there is a problem Encourage teachers to establish student-led parent-teacher conferencesstudent-led parent-teacher conferences Provide support for teacher-parent interactions. Serve as a facilitator for the interactions. Lead by example. Participate with frequent conversations with both parents and teachers, and hold student-led counseling meetings. R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

17 Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System Parents and students who recently immigrated to the U.S. may be unfamiliar with the U.S. School System, and thus have a difficult time navigating it successfully. To help parents overcome this barrier: Offer resources, in a variety of languages, which explain the U.S. School System in a concise manner. Offer times you are available to meet with parents (and a translator if necessary), and explain the U.S. School system. To help students overcome this barrier: Take time during time in English as a Second Language classes to explain the U.S. School System to students. Emphasize important milestones and requirements in the school system. Offer time for students to come meet with you and discuss the U.S. School System, and develop a strategy to navigate through the school system and meet their desired educational (and occupational) goals successfully. (Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Turney & Kao, 2009) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

18 Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Different cultures often have different educational values, career values, and perceptions of parental involvement than typical of the culture in the U.S.; therefore parents and students with vast experience in a different culture may have different educational priorities or means of showing parental involvement than may be expected. This may or may not lead to parental involvement or career development barriers. To avoid potential barriers: Evaluate parental involvement from a variety of perspectives. Parental involvement does not just mean participating in school-centered activities. Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments to encourage parental involvement at home.interactive homework assignments Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the students at the end of the school year. This gives parents an indication of the level of support to offer their child. Communicate to parents the importance in their children’s education, and career development. R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

19 Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement Encourage students to identify their skills and interests. When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of backgrounds, experiences, and abilities. This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

20 Parental Involvement R Unsure of Degree of Participation in Education Lack of Support Not Enough Communication with the School Feeling Unwelcome in the School Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement Language Barriers Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

21 Unsure of Degree of Participation in Education (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R To help parents overcome this barrier: Build bridges between the school and families. Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the students at the end of the school year. Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents and staff, and browse resources. Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.student-led parent-teacher conferences Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning. Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments.interactive homework assignments Parents play an important role in supporting and enhancing their child’s education; however, many parents are unsure of how much they should participate in their child’s education and work and thus are hesitant to do too much. Additionally, parents own educational experiences may leave them questioning their capabilities for assisting their child and interacting with teachers, counselors, and other school staff. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

22 Lack of Support At times parents may feel unsupported in meeting their child’s educational and career development needs. This lack of support can lead to parents being unsure of their abilities to assist their child, and may eventually result in parents who have stopped trying all together. R To help parents overcome this barrier: Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their child’s schooling. Provide parents with specific feedback regarding the positive influence of their involvement. Build bridges between the school and families. Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents and staff, and browse resources. Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning. Encourage teachers and staff to contact parents more frequently, not just when students are having problems. (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

23 Not Enough Communication with the School R Communication between parents, students, and the school are essential for building bridges between schools and families; yet many parents feel they do not hear from the school enough. Parents are also unsure of their ability to reach out and contact the school. When communication with the school falters, parents may feel disconnected from their child’s education, and thus be more willing to be involved. (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) To help overcome this barrier: Create a welcoming school environment. Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents. Build bridges between the school and families. Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their children’s schooling. Give parents feedback on the positive influence of their involvement. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

24 Not Enough Communication with the School R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. Encourage teachers and staff to contact parents more frequently, not just when students are having problems. Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.student-led parent-teacher conferences Initiate a Teachers Involving Parents Program, to encourage and support teachers in seeking out contact with parents.Teachers Involving Parents Program Provide support for teacher-parent interactions. Serve as a facilitator for the interactions. Lead by example. Participate with frequent conversations with both parents and teachers, and hold student-led counseling meetings. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

25 Feeling Unwelcome in the School Language Barriers Perceived Judgment Limited Connection to the School Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

26 Perceived Judgment Parents’ Perceived Judgment Students’ Perceived Judgment R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

27 Language Barriers Parent Language Barriers Student Language Barriers R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

28 Parent Language Barriers To help parents overcome this barrier: Provide translated materials, especially the pamphlets and flyers sent home with students. Provide the option of a translator for interactions with the faculty. Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths. Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents. Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures. Parents who have recently immigrated to the U.S. may have limited experience reading, writing, or speaking English. These parents may want to be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty doing so –both from the immediate language barrier, and as a result of a perceived judgment against them. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

29 Student Language Barriers Because school systems provide English as a Second Language programs, Student Language Barriers are not about misunderstanding spoken or written course work or school communications. Instead, students may perceive that speaking English as their second language will become a barrier for them as try to find jobs and establish careers. To help students overcome this perceived barrier: Encourage students to think of, and present, their multilingual abilities as a skill or career asset. When discussing careers, provide examples which represent multilingual professionals, particularly professionals who speak English as their second language. This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to. (Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

30 Parents’ Perceived Judgment Parents may perceived judgment for a variety of reasons, including immigration status, language barriers, socio-economic class, race, ethnicity, and parenting style and support. These parents may want to be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty doing so because of a fear being judged. To help parents overcome this barrier: Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths. Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents. Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures. Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their child’s schooling. Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

31 Students’ Perceived Judgment Students’ may perceived they are being judged by peers, school authorities, and potential employers. This judgment may be based on their ethnicity, language abilities, ability to understand course materials, gender role, socio-economic class, or a number of other factors. To help students overcome this perceived barrier: Encourage students to identify barriers they think they will encounter. Discuss with the students why they believe they will encounter these barriers. Encourage students to identify their skills and interests. Discuss with students how these skills and interests may overcome, or provide alternate paths around the barriers they have identified. When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of backgrounds, experiences, and abilities. This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to. (Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

32 Limited Connection to the School Parents Limited Connection to the School Teacher Support for Parents Connection to the School R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

33 Parents Limited Connection to the School With language barriers and perceived judgment, parents may have a difficult time connecting to the school, and thus face increased barriers in becoming involved in their children’s education. To help parents overcome this barrier: Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Encourage parents to attend parent-teacher association meetings, and meetings with teachers or other staff. Offer child-care during meetings, so that parents with no other child-care options can come. Offer free or reduced-fare transportation to parent-teacher association meetings, so parents with no other means of transport can come. Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their children’s schooling. Give parents feedback on the positive influence of their involvement. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

34 Parents Limited Connection to the School Build bridges between the school and families. Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents and staff, and browse resources. Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.student-led parent-teacher conferences Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the students at the end of the school year. Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning. Encourage parents and students to talk about both general and specific aspects of school. Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments.interactive homework assignments (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

35 Teacher Support for Parents Connection to the School Teachers can play an instrumental role in supporting parents, and encouraging parents to connect to the school and increase their involvement in their child’s education. Because teachers have a wide variety of experience with parental involvement, they may need some encouragement to invite parents to become more involved in their classrooms. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) To help overcome this barrier: Establish a Teachers Involving Parents ProgramTeachers Involving Parents Program Encourage teachers to keep parents informed about students progress, rather than only contacting parents when there is a problem Encourage teachers to establish student-led parent-teacher conferencesstudent-led parent-teacher conferences Provide support for teacher-parent interactions. Serve as a facilitator for the interactions. Lead by example. Participate with frequent conversations with both parents and teachers, and hold student-led counseling meetings. R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

36 Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System Parents and students who recently immigrated to the U.S. may be unfamiliar with the U.S. School System, and thus have a difficult time navigating it successfully. To help parents overcome this barrier: Offer resources, in a variety of languages, which explain the U.S. School System in a concise manner. Offer times you are available to meet with parents (and a translator if necessary), and explain the U.S. School system. To help students overcome this barrier: Take time during time in English as a Second Language classes to explain the U.S. School System to students. Emphasize important milestones and requirements in the school system. Offer time for students to come meet with you and discuss the U.S. School System, and develop a strategy to navigate through the school system and meet their desired educational (and occupational) goals successfully. (Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Turney & Kao, 2009) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

37 Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Different cultures often have different educational values, career values, and perceptions of parental involvement than typical of the culture in the U.S.; therefore parents and students with vast experience in a different culture may have different educational priorities or means of showing parental involvement than may be expected. This may or may not lead to parental involvement or career development barriers. To avoid potential barriers: Evaluate parental involvement from a variety of perspectives. Parental involvement does not just mean participating in school-centered activities. Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments to encourage parental involvement at home.interactive homework assignments Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the students at the end of the school year. This gives parents an indication of the level of support to offer their child. Communicate to parents the importance in their children’s education, and career development. R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

38 Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement Encourage students to identify their skills and interests. When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of backgrounds, experiences, and abilities. This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to. (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

39 Minority Status R Parent Minority Status Barriers Student Minority Status Barriers Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

40 Parent Minority Status Barriers R The minority status of parents may contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged based on race, ethnicity, socio-economic class, or gender. These perceived judgments may lead to limited participation and involvement in school activities, and decreased communication with the school. In turn, this may lead to parents feeling unsupported and unable to help their child with their educational and career development needs. To help parents overcome these perceived barriers: Create a welcoming environment. Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents. Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all school constituents. Build bridges between the school and families. Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups. Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents and staff, and browse resources. (Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

41 Student Minority Status Barriers R The minority status of students attending a school may contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged based on race, ethnicity, socio-economic class, or gender; perceiving limited opportunities for career experiences; and perceived limited opportunities for social and economic support for career decisions or educational needs. To help students overcome these perceived barriers: When discussing career development, provide examples of successful career professionals share a similar minority status. Encourage students to choose a career role model. Encourage students to identify their personal interests, skills, goals, perceived barriers, and expected outcomes for career efforts. Work with students to develop plans to overcome their perceive barriers using their identified skills and interests, available resources for increasing their skills and experiences, and examples from their career role model. (Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005) Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

42 Socio-Economic Class R Parent Socio-Economic Class Barriers Student Socio-Economic Class Barriers Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

43 Parent Socio-Economic Class Barriers R The socio-economic class of parents may contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged; perceiving limited opportunities for career experiences for their children; perceived limited opportunities for social and economic support for career decisions or educational needs; and limited available time and support necessary for interactions with the school. To help parents overcome these perceived barriers: Create a welcoming environment. Encourage parents to attend parent-teacher association meetings, and meetings with teachers or other staff. Offer child-care during meetings, so that parents with no other child-care options can come. Offer free or reduced-fare transportation to parent-teacher association meetings, so parents with no other means of transport can come. Provide a list of local resources for career development, career experience, and educational support, including mentoring programs. Include school-sponsored and community-supported resources. (Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

44 Student Socio-Economic Class Barriers R The socio-economic class of students attending a school may contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged; perceiving limited opportunities for career experiences; and perceived limited opportunities for social and economic support for career decisions or educational needs. To help students overcome these perceived barriers: When discussing career development, provide examples of successful career professionals share a similar socio-economic class. Encourage students to identify their personal interests, skills, goals, perceived barriers, and expected outcomes for career efforts. Work with students to develop plans to overcome their perceive barriers using their identified skills and interests, available resources for increasing their skills and experiences, and examples from their career role model. Provide a list of local resources for career development, career experience, and educational support, including mentoring programs. Include school-sponsored and community-supported resources. (Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005) Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

45 Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004) Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active participatory role in the students’ education. Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference, students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to develop a plan on how to move forward. Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education and career development. Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

46 Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004) Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active participatory role in the students’ education. Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference, students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to develop a plan on how to move forward. Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education and career development. Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

47 Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004) Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active participatory role in the students’ education. Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference, students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to develop a plan on how to move forward. Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education and career development. Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

48 Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004) Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active participatory role in the students’ education. Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference, students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to develop a plan on how to move forward. Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education and career development. Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

49 Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004) Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active participatory role in the students’ education. Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference, students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to develop a plan on how to move forward. Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education and career development. Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

50 Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences R (Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004) Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active participatory role in the students’ education. Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference, students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to develop a plan on how to move forward. Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education and career development. Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

51 Interactive Homework Assignments Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the assignment. Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited. R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Examples of interactive homework assignments include: Have students read to their parents. Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time. Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any mistakes. Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test. When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and key. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

52 Interactive Homework Assignments Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the assignment. Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited. R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Examples of interactive homework assignments include: Have students read to their parents. Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time. Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any mistakes. Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test. When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and key. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

53 Interactive Homework Assignments Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the assignment. Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited. R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Examples of interactive homework assignments include: Have students read to their parents. Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time. Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any mistakes. Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test. When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and key. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

54 Interactive Homework Assignments Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the assignment. Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited. R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Examples of interactive homework assignments include: Have students read to their parents. Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time. Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any mistakes. Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test. When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and key. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

55 Interactive Homework Assignments Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the assignment. Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited. R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006) Examples of interactive homework assignments include: Have students read to their parents. Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time. Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any mistakes. Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test. When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and key. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

56 Teachers Involving Parents Program R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) The Teachers Involving Parents Program is a "school-based intervention to increase teacher invitations to parent involvement and ultimately parents' involvement in their children's education.” (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) The program facilitates participants collective identification and development of effective, school-specific strategies for inviting parents to participate in their child’s education and school-life. Participating teachers: Reflect on best and worst experiences with parental involvement. Identify school and community specific barriers to parental involvement. Develop tools to dismantle these barriers, depending on if it was a problem that could be changed, or one that would have to be coped with. Take parent’s perspectives into consideration. Identify current successful strategies for communicating with parents, and develop additional strategies to improve communication with parents. Reflect on the Teacher Involving Parents Program as a whole, identifying major themes. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

57 Teachers Involving Parents Program R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) The Teachers Involving Parents Program is a "school-based intervention to increase teacher invitations to parent involvement and ultimately parents' involvement in their children's education.” (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) The program facilitates participants collective identification and development of effective, school-specific strategies for inviting parents to participate in their child’s education and school-life. Participating teachers: Reflect on best and worst experiences with parental involvement. Identify school and community specific barriers to parental involvement. Develop tools to dismantle these barriers, depending on if it was a problem that could be changed, or one that would have to be coped with. Take parent’s perspectives into consideration. Identify current successful strategies for communicating with parents, and develop additional strategies to improve communication with parents. Reflect on the Teacher Involving Parents Program as a whole, identifying major themes. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

58 Teachers Involving Parents Program R (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) The Teachers Involving Parents Program is a "school-based intervention to increase teacher invitations to parent involvement and ultimately parents' involvement in their children's education.” (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002) The program facilitates participants collective identification and development of effective, school-specific strategies for inviting parents to participate in their child’s education and school-life. Participating teachers: Reflect on best and worst experiences with parental involvement. Identify school and community specific barriers to parental involvement. Develop tools to dismantle these barriers, depending on if it was a problem that could be changed, or one that would have to be coped with. Take parent’s perspectives into consideration. Identify current successful strategies for communicating with parents, and develop additional strategies to improve communication with parents. Reflect on the Teacher Involving Parents Program as a whole, identifying major themes. Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

59 References Ali, S. R., McWhirter, E. H., & Chronister, K. M. (2005). Self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations for adolescents of lower socioeconomic status: A pilot study. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1). doi: Amatea, E. S., Daniels, H., Bringman, N., & Vandiver, F. M. (2004). Strengthening Counselor-Teacher Family Connections: The Family-School Collaborative Consultation Project. Professional School Counseling, 8(1), Clark, G. M., Carlson, B. C., Fisher, S., Cook, I. D., & D'Alonzo, B. J. (1991). Career development for students with disabilities in elementary schools: A position statement of the division on career development. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 14, 109. doi: / Flores, L. Y., & Ojeda, L. (2008). The influence of gender, generation level, parents' education level, and percieved barriers on the educational aspirations of Mexican American high school students. Career Development Quarterly, 57(1). Giannantonio, C. M., & Hurley-Hanson, A. E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4). Griffin, D., & Galassi, J. P. (2010). Parent perceptions of barriers to academic success in a rural middle school. Professional School Counseling, 14(1). R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

60 References Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2008). Career adaptability in childhood. Career Development Quarterly, 57(1). Helwig, A. A. (2008). From childhood to adulthood: A 15-year longitudinal career development study. Career Development Quarterly, 57(1). Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2005). Current/Revised Model. 2014, from Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M., Jones, K. P., & Reed, R. P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(7), Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M., & Sandler, H. M. (2005). Parents' motivations for involvement in their children's education. In N. Patrikakou, R. P. Weilsberg, S. Redding & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), School-Family Partnerships for Children's Success. New York: Teachers College Press. Kier, M. W., Blanchard, M. R., Osborne, J. W., & Albert, J. L. (2013). The development of the STEM career interest survey (STEM-CIS). Research in Science Education, 44, doi: /s R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech

61 References Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2000). Contextual Supports and Barriers to Career Choice: A Social Cognitive Analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), doi: / Mei, T. (2009). Intervention implications for school counselors from a SCCT perspective. 2014, from Melton, B. (2004). Breaking Through Barriers. Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2009). Barriers to school involvement: Are immigrant parents disadvantaged? The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4). Walker, J. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2006). Why research on parental involvement is important to classroom management. In C. M. Everston & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice and Contemporary Issues. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Watson, M., & McMahon, M. (2005). Children’s career development: A research review from a learning perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(2), doi: /j.jvb R Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech


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