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Violence Reduction in Neurology. Clinician Safety References Brasic JR. Clinician safety. Grand Rounds, Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center, Wards Island,

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Presentation on theme: "Violence Reduction in Neurology. Clinician Safety References Brasic JR. Clinician safety. Grand Rounds, Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center, Wards Island,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Violence Reduction in Neurology

2 Clinician Safety References Brasic JR. Clinician safety. Grand Rounds, Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center, Wards Island, New York, May 23, 2002 [videotape] Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Fogelman D: Clinician safety. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 1999;23(4):

3 Victims of Patient Assault Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at Crilly, et al.: Violence towards emergency department nurses by patients. Accid Emerg Nurs 2004; 12: Physicians Nurses Social workers Allied health personnel Emergency teams Administrators Law enforcement Corrections Other patients Visitors

4 Violence in Schizophrenia Four times more common than in people without mental illness Psychotic symptoms Alcohol abuse Psychopathy Antisocial personality disorder Special education Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Walsh E, et al. Predicting violence in schizophrenia: a prospective study. Schizophrenia Res 2004;67:

5 Violence in Hospitalized Male Patients With Paranoid Schizophrenia Alcohol abuse Drug abuse Good ability to infer cognitive mental states of others High hostility Poor empathy Youth Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

6 Violence in First Episode Psychosis Involuntary admission Drug abuse Poor insight High psychopathology Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Foley, et al. Incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence at presentation in patients with first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Res 2005; 72:

7 Research Review Avoid apparent wrongdoing Misinterpretations Misconstrued conclusions Required in 2005 Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Foley, et al. Incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence at presentation in patients with first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Res 2005; 72:

8 Hypotheses Violent patients have medical disorders (eg, metabolic, toxic) Violent patients have substance abuse Violent patients have reduced empathy Violent patients have learning disorders Violent patients have paranoid schizophrenia Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

9 Goals To measure medical disorders (eg, metabolic, toxic) To measure substance use To measure empathy To measure learning disorders To measure psychiatric disorders Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

10 Subjects Probability sampling Statistical theory applies Can generalize to total population Nonprobability sampling (Cochran, 1977) Cannot generalize to total population Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brašic, et al. Quality assurance of the community placement of institutional residents. German Journal of Psychiatry 2002;5(4): Brasic, et al., Psychoactive Medication Quality Assurance Rating Survey (PQRS). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 1997;9: Cochran WG. Sampling Techniques, 3 rd ed New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977

11 Subjects Probability sampling Total population (Brasic et al, 2002) Simple random sample of ten percent (Brasic et al, 1997) Need for probability sampling (Cochran, 1977) Generalize to total population Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brašic, et al. Quality assurance of the community placement of institutional residents. German Journal of Psychiatry 2002;5(4): Brasic, et al., Psychoactive Medication Quality Assurance Rating Survey (PQRS). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 1997;9: Cochran WG. Sampling Techniques, 3 rd ed New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977

12 Subjects Nonprobability sampling (Cochran, 1977) Readily accessible (Cochran, 1977) Haphazard selection (Cochran, 1977) “Typical” units (Cochran, 1977) Volunteers (Cochran, 1977) Cannot generalize to total population Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brašic, et al. Quality assurance of the community placement of institutional residents. German Journal of Psychiatry 2002;5(4): Brasic, et al., Psychoactive Medication Quality Assurance Rating Survey (PQRS). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 1997;9: Cochran WG. Sampling Techniques, 3 rd ed New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977

13 Consent From Patients Institutional Review Board Justify need to provide for the safety of patients and staff Admission protocol Written informed consent (Brasic, 2003; Brasic and Davis, 1998 ) Record (Audio [Video] tape, CD, DVD) the consenting procedure (Brasic, 2003; Brasic and Davis, 1998 ) Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

14 Consent From Staff Institutional Review Board Justify need to provide for the safety of patients and staff Employment application include study protocol Written informed consent (Brasic, 2003; Brasic and Davis, 1998 ) Record (Audio [Video] tape, CD, DVD) the consenting procedure (Brasic, 2003; Brasic and Davis, 1998 ) Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

15 Subjects Baseline Assessment On admission (for control nonviolent patients) Research team independent of clinical and administrative hierarchy All patients A simple random sample of 10% of all patients Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

16 Subjects Acute Assessment Perpetrator patients Immediately after violent episodes Research team independent of clinical and administrative hierarchy Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

17 Subjects Follow-up Assessment Perpetrator patients After intervention (eg, training, education, behavior modification, medication) for violent episodes Research team independent of clinical and administrative hierarchy Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

18 Tools to Measure Patient Characteristics Substance abuse, current and past Criminal record, current and past Violence, current and past Employment status Demographic Coding Form (Brasic, 2003, 2004) Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR. Documentation of demographic data. Psychological Reports 2003;93: Brasic JR. Documentation of ethnicity. Psychological Reports 2004;95: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

19 Tools to Assess Patients Hostility Scale (hostility, suspiciousness, and uncooperativeness items) of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (Overall and Gorham, 1962) Negative Symptom Scale (flat affect, emotional withdrawal, and motor retardation items of the BPRS) (Overall and Gorham, 1962) Positive Symptom Scale (concept disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, and unusual thoughts items of the BPRS) (Overall and Gorham, 1962) Empathy tasks (Abu-Akel and Abushua’leh, 2004) Modified Overt Aggression Scale (Kay et al, 1988) Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (Walker, 2005) Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Foley, et al. Incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence at presentation in patients with first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Res 2005; 72: Kay SR, et al., (1988) Profiles of aggression among psychiatric patients. I. Nature and prevalence. J Nervous Mental Disease, 1988;176: Overall JE, Gorham DR The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychol Rep 10: Walker JS. The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire: initial validation and reliability. Personality and Individual Differences 2005;38:

20 Tools to Measure Staff Characteristics Substance abuse, current and past Criminal record, current and past Violence, current and past Employment status Age Gender Length of employment Training in management of violence Demographic Coding Form (Brasic, 2003) Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR. Documentation of demographic data. Psychological Reports 2003;93: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Crilly, et al: Violence towards emergency department nurses by patients. Accid Emerg Nurs 2004; 12: 67-73

21 Debriefing of Patient Immediately after violent incident Interviewer unfamiliar with patient Interviewer from outside team for study only Do not blame patient Maintain polite, neutral, calm demeanor Record (Audio [Video] tape, CD, DVD) interview for blind rating by outside colleagues unfamiliar with patient Ask open-ended questions Elicit detailed description of incident Precipitating events Cognitive awareness of injury Intent to perpetrate violence Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

22 Treatment of Patient Immediately after violent incident Physical examination of patient Therapy for acute injuries Do not blame patient Maintain polite, neutral, calm demeanor Record (Audio [Video] tape, CD, DVD) examination of patient for blind rating by outside colleagues unfamiliar with patient Immediate toxicology Immediate basic metabolic profile Immediate hematological profile Treatment plan for posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders Observe closely to prevent further violence Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasić JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

23 Debriefing of Staff Immediately after violent incident Interviewer unfamiliar with staff Interviewer from outside team for study only Do not blame staff Maintain polite, neutral, calm demeanor Record (Audio [Video] tape, CD, DVD) interview for blind rating by outside colleagues unfamiliar with patient Ask open-ended questions Elicit detailed description of incident Precipitating events Cognitive awareness of injury Intent to perpetrate violence Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

24 Treatment of Staff Immediately after violent incident Physical examination of staff Therapy for acute injuries Do not blame staff Maintain polite, neutral, calm demeanor Record (Audio [Video] tape, CD, DVD) examination of patient for blind rating by outside colleagues unfamiliar with staff Treatment plan for posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders Observe closely to prevent further violence Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

25 Debriefing of Unit Immediately after violent incident Mental health clinicians (consultation-liaison psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, social worker) unfamiliar with unit Do not blame staff Maintain polite, neutral, calm demeanor Ask open-ended questions Elicit detailed description of incident Precipitating events Cognitive awareness of injury Intent to perpetrate violence Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

26 Treatment of Unit Immediately after violent incident Mental health clinicians (consultation-liaison psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, social worker) unfamiliar with unit Do not blame staff Maintain polite, neutral, calm demeanor Express concern for welfare of members of unit Identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other sequelae of incident Institute group counseling Institute individual treatments for staff with PTSD Protect unit from future violence Brasic JR: Pervasive developmental disorder: autism. eMedicine Pediatric Journal [serial online]. November 3, Available at: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Brasic JR, Davis E: Obtaining informed consent for research from persons with Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Movement Disorders 1998;13 (supplement 2):206 [abstract]

27 Mathematical Modeling Poisson distribution, a mathematical model for rare events Models of airplane crashes, automobile accidents Clustering of events in time and space Seasonal variation Temporal variation, eg, evenings, nights, weekends Nursing unit variation, eg, admission, maximal security, violent patients Staff variation, eg, students, new staff Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Foley, et al. Incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence at presentation in patients with first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Res 2005; 72:

28 Statistical Analysis Nonparametric tests for categorical data (clinical data, demographic data, empathy scores) between violent and nonviolent patients using baseline assessments Logistic regression models to predict violence on clinical data, demographic data, empathy scores, involuntary admission status, employment status, insight Abu-Akel A, Abushua'leh K: 'Theory of mind' in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 2004; 69: Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at: Foley, et al. Incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence at presentation in patients with first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Res 2005; 72:

29 Clinical Trials For Patient Assault on Staff Baseline assessment Intervention Staff training Patient training Follow-up assessment Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:

30 Program to Reduce Violence in Neurology Prepare manual to detail procedures to minimize violence Present nationally and internationally Publish results Brasic JR, Ainsworth J: Clinical safety in neurology. eMedicine Neurology Journal [serial online] Available at:


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