Presentation on theme: "SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM. INTRODUCTION The socio-cultural impacts are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists,"— Presentation transcript:
SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
INTRODUCTION The socio-cultural impacts are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists, and of interaction with the tourism industry. host communities are often the weaker party in interactions with their guests and service providers These influences are not always apparent, as they are difficult to measure, depend on value judgments and are often indirect or hard to identify.
SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM INTRODUCTION Impacts arise when tourism brings changes in value systems & behaviour, threatening indigenous identity. Changes often occur in community structure, family relationships, collective traditional life styles, ceremonies and morality. But tourism can also generate positive impacts as it can serve as a supportive force for peace, foster pride in cultural traditions and help avoid urban relocation by creating local jobs. Socio-cultural impacts are ambiguous: the same objectively described impacts are seen as beneficial by some groups and as negative by others.
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM CHANGE OR LOSS OF INDIGENOUS IDENTITY OR VALUES Tourism can cause change / loss of local identity and values by: 1.COMMODIFICATION 2.STANDARDISATION 3.LOSS OF AUTHENTICITY / STAGED AUTHENTICITY 4.ADAPTATION TO TOURIST DEMANDS
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM 1. Commodification Tourism can turn local cultures into commodities when religious rituals, traditional ethnic rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to conform to tourist expectations, resulting in what has been called "reconstructed ethnicity." Sacred sites and objects may not be respected when they are perceived as goods to trade.
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM 2. Standardisation While landscape, accommodation, food and drinks etc, must meet the tourists' desire for the new and unfamiliar, they must at the same time not be too new or strange because few tourists are actually looking for completely new things. Tourists often look for recognizable facilities in an unfamiliar environment, like well-known fast- food restaurants and hotel chains.
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM 3. Loss of authenticity and staged authenticity Adapting cultural expressions to the tastes of tourists or even performing shows as if they were "real life" constitutes "staged authenticity".
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM 4. Adaptation to tourist demands Tourists want souvenirs, arts, crafts, and cultural manifestations, and in many tourist destinations, craftsmen have responded to the growing demand, and have made changes in design of their products to bring them more in line with the new customers' tastes = cultural erosion.
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Culture clashes Cultural clashes can take place as a result of differences in cultures, ethnicity, religion, values, lifestyles, languages, and levels of prosperity social & cultural carrying capacity. The attitude of local residents towards tourism development may unfold through the stages of euphoria, where visitors are very welcome, through apathy, irritation and potentially antagonism, when anti-tourist attitudes begin growing among local people.
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Cultural clashes: Economic inequality In resorts in destination countries such as Jamaica, Indonesia or Brazil, tourism employees with annual salaries of US$ 1,500 spend their working hours in close contact with guests whose yearly income is well over US$ 80,000. Irritation due to tourist behaviour In many Muslim countries, strict standards exist regarding the appearance and behaviour of Muslim women, who must carefully cover themselves in public. Tourists appear half-dressed, sunbathing topless or consuming large quantities of alcohol openly.
Job level friction In developing countries especially, many jobs occupied by local people in the tourist industry are at a lower level, such as housemaids, waiters, gardeners and other practical work, while higher-paying and more prestigious managerial jobs go to foreigners or "urbanised" nationals. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
Ethical issues Crime generation Crime rates typically increase with the growth and urbanization of an area The presence of a large number of tourists with a lot of money to spend, and often carrying cameras and jewellery, increases the attraction for criminals and brings with it activities like robbery and drug dealing. Child labour Jobs in tourism often have poor working and employment conditions: long hours, unstable employment, low pay, little training and poor chances for qualification. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
Prostitution and sex tourism The commercial sexual exploitation of children has paralleled the growth of tourism in many countries. The lure of easy money has caused many young people to trade their bodies in exchange for T-shirts, personal stereos and even air tickets out the country. Children are also trafficked into brothels on the margins of tourist areas and sold into sex slavery, rarely earning enough to escape. Some places have become centres for sex, frequented by paedophiles and supported by networks of pimps, taxi drivers, hotel staff, brothel owners,and tour operators who organize package sex tours. NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
Positive Impacts It has the potential to promote social development through employment creation, income redistribution and poverty alleviation. Other potential positive impacts of tourism include: Tourism as a force for peace 1.Strengthening communities 2.Facilities developed for tourism can benefit residents 3.Revaluation of culture and traditions 4.Encourages civic involvement and pride POSITIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
1. Tourism as a force for peace Travelling brings people into contact and, as tourism has an educational element, it fosters understanding between peoples and cultures and provides cultural exchange between hosts and guests. 2. Strengthening communities Local events and festivals are often rejuvenated and developed in response to tourist interest. The jobs created by tourism can act as a vital incentive to reduce emigration from rural areas. Tourisms contribution to socio-cultural conservation
The San of Namibia and southern Africa and the aboriginal peoples of Australia have recently regained management or ownership of traditional national park lands and conservancies, operating eco-lodges and serving as guides and rangers while maintaining their heritage. eg Gudigwa Camp, Botswana Tourisms contribution to socio-cultural conservation
3. Tourist facilities can benefit residents Higher living standards. Benefits include upgraded infrastructure, health and transport improvements, new sport facilities, restaurants, and public spaces as well as an influx of better-quality commodities and food (multiplier effect). 4. Revaluation of culture and traditions The preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions, which often contributes to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, protection of local heritage, and a renaissance of indigenous cultures, arts and crafts. Tourisms contribution to socio-cultural conservation
"Tourism has forced the Balinese to reflect on their artistic output as just one cultural identifier. The presence of visitors who continually praise Balinese art and culture has given people a kind of confidence and pride in their art, and made them truly believe that their culture is glorious and thus worthy of this praise and therefore justly admired. This realization removed any possibility in the people's mind that their art was in any way inferior to the art of ‘advanced’ nations, and plays an important role in conserving and developing the art in general." (UNEP) Tourisms contribution to socio-cultural conservation
5. Tourism encourages civic involvement and pride Tourism also helps raise local awareness of the financial value of natural and cultural sites and can stimulate a feeling of pride in local and national heritage and interest in its conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Tourisms contribution to socio-cultural conservation
Conclusion: These are some positive consequences of tourism that can arise when tourism is practised and developed in a sustainable and appropriate way. A community involved in planning and the implementation of tourism has a more positive attitude, is more supportive and has a better chance to make a profit than a population passively ruled - or overrun - by tourism. One of the core elements of sustainable tourism development is community development, which makes decisions that consider the long-term economy, ecology and equity of all communities.. Tourisms contribution to socio-cultural conservation