Presentation on theme: "Context Clues. Clues to a word’s meaning provided by the sentence or passage in which the word is found Clues may be found in the sentence preceding or."— Presentation transcript:
Clues to a word’s meaning provided by the sentence or passage in which the word is found Clues may be found in the sentence preceding or following the sentence in which the word is found
LA. A The student selects from a variety of simple strategies including the use of: »Phonics »Word structure »Self-questioning
LA. A »Confirming simple predictions »Reading and visual clues »Base words »Illustrations »Graphics »Charts
Strategies and Tips Look for prefixes, suffixes, and root words Is there any part of the word you recognize Look for an answer choice close to that meaning Read the sentence with your word choice to see if it makes sense
Strategies and Tips Read the sentence before and after the sentence that contains the word Guess a synonym for the word Read the sentence with your synonym in it to see if it makes sense
Types of Clues Definition Synonym Antonym Comparison Example List or Series Cause and Effect Inference
Definition The unknown word is equated to a more familiar word or phrase. Sometimes the definition is in the next sentence.
Definition Signal Words : is are was were is called are called is known as are known as means
Definition Entomology is the study of insects. By 1700, whales had become very important for their blubber. Blubber is the fat under the skin of the whale.
Synonym The meaning is usually right after the unfamiliar word and often separated from the rest of the sentence with commas, dashes, or parenthesis.
Synonym Signal Words : or that is in other words also look for…( ) …
Synonym Meat eaters, or carnivores, are at the top of the food chain. She enjoyed biology (the study of living things).
Antonym The unfamiliar word is shown to be different from or unlike another word and is often an opposite.
Antonym Signal Words: but however although otherwise not no unless instead on the contrary on the other hand while never
Antonym Mike’s parrot was loquacious but Maria’s said very little.
Comparison The unfamiliar word is shown to be the same as or like another word.
Comparison Signal Words: too like as similar to in the same way
Comparison My brother is enthralled by birds in the same way that I am interested in insects.
Example The unfamiliar word is clarified by giving an example.
Example Signal Words: for instance such as for example
Example The archeologist found different amulets, such as a rabbit’s foot and bags of herbs, near the ancient altar.
List or Series The unfamiliar word is included in a series of related words that give an idea or the word’s meaning.
List or Series North American predators include grizzly bears, pumas, wolves, and foxes.
Cause and Effect The meaning of an unfamiliar word is signaled by a cause and effect relationship between ideas in the text. This is a very difficult type of context clue.
Cause and Effect Due to a dearth of termites, the aardvark starved to death.
Inference The meaning of an unfamiliar word can be inferred from the description of a situation or experience. Say “blank” for the unknown word, fill another word that makes sense and keep on reading. This is the most difficult type of context clues.
Inference The hungry campers began to devour their bread and cheese quickly and silently.
What is Assessed Prefix Suffix Root word Multiple meanings Antonyms Synonyms Homophones Compound words Contractions Idioms Figurative language
Passage Attributes Grades 3-5 Passages may be literary or informational text. Other stimuli include, but should not be limited to, illustrations, graphics, and charts with captions. Passages must contain a word or phrase unfamiliar to most grade level students, and sufficient on text must be present to enable students to infer meaning of the word or phrase. Passages must contain appropriate words to assess knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, root words, multiple meanings, antonyms, synonyms, homophones, compound words and contractions.
Response Attributes Grade 3 Distracters may include, but are not limited to, the following: Incorrect meaning of words or phrases Correct meanings of words or phrases that do not fit the context Words with construct similar to correct response (e.g. same prefix) Incorrect interpretations of contractions Items containing antonyms should not include synonyms as distracters; similarly, items assessing synonyms should not include antonyms as distracters
Response Attributes Grades 4 & 5 Distracters may include, but are not limited to, the following: Incorrect meaning of words or phrases Correct meanings of words or phrases that do not fit the context Words with construct similar to correct response (e.g. same prefix)
Question Type Multiple choice A. B. C. D.
Key Question Phrases In which sentence does the word ____________ have the same meaning as the above sentence? Look at the word____________. Use surrounding words to help you figure out what it means? What does _____________ mean? Which context clue helps the reader figure out the meaning of _________?
Sample Question Read the sentence from the story. “Listen here!” I said. “This is the most delicious tasting thing in the world!” I waved the stick and threw it. Go fetch! When Jordy tells Blooher to “fetch” “the stick, he want Blooher to A. get the stick B. toss the stick C. hide the stick D. drop the stick
Sample Question If a north pole and south pole of the magnet get near each other, they will snap together. However, two north poles will repel each other. They will push away from each other. The word repel means: A. dislike B. attract C. move apart D. burn
Sample Question When penguins are on shore, they cluster together in a big group called rookeries. The word that means the opposite of cluster is A.scatter B.gather C.run D.sleep
Sample Question Half of everything we throw away in the landfill could be recycled. What is a landfill? A.a factory B.a valley that has been filled C.a place for garbage D.a recycling center
Sample Question He knew for sure the boy would die without the shot. So the doctor gave him the vaccine and the boy lived. What does vaccine mean? A. vitamin B. pill C. prescription D. shot
Sample Question These cables are hooked onto towers. The cables hold the road up so it actually hangs in mid-air. When it was new, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world. What does suspension mean? A.old B. working C.hanging D.failed
Sample Question The desert is a harsh environment. It is extremely hot during the day and then freezing cold at night. The opposite of harsh is.. A. warm B. cold C. pleasant D. dry
Sample Question The dog snarled at the mailman as he tried to deliver the package to the house. What does snarled mean in this sentence? A. jumped B. stuck in traffic C. barked D. growled
Sample Question At first the running was easy. But somewhere around the 20 mile mark, I seemed to hit the wall. I felt like I could not move another step! What does “hit the wall” mean? A. you hit a brick wall B. your body becomes paralyzed and can’t move C. your mind stops functioning D. your body reached a point that where it can’t go on anymore
Sample Question Johnny was quite a character! He would do things to make everyone laugh and was always playing practical jokes! What does character mean in this passage? A. a person in a story B. a person who is different from others C. a person who is angry D. a person who laughs