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Presentation on theme: "INFUSION AND ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS Author: as. Yu.Yu. Plaskonis."— Presentation transcript:


2 Injection dosage forms - a specific group of drugs that require special conditions of preparation, the strictest adherence to aseptic, technological discipline, full responsibility for the preparation, quality control and design to dispensing drugs.

3 Injection solutions are prepared in aseptic unit

4 Aseptic conditions - defined conditions, and complex institutional arrangements required to enable to save the drugs from getting into these microorganisms.

5 Technology process of preparation of solutions for injection consists of the following stages:  Preparation of aseptic unit and the organization of work in aseptic conditions.  Preparation of vessels and auxiliary materials.  Preparation of solvents and drugs.  dissolved drugs.  stabilization or isotones solutions  Quality control solutions.  Filtering solutions to filling bottles, checking the absence of mechanical inclusions.  closing, leak check, preparation for sterilization (marking).  Sterilization.  Quality control and design of drugs to leave.

6  Isotonic solutions are solutions, which have an osmolality, equal to the osmolality of liquids of organism (blood, plasma, lymph, tear liquid and ін,).  Name Isotonic originates from the Greek words of isos - even, tonus -pressure.  At introduction of solution with a high osmolality (hypertensive solution) as a result of difference of osmolalities into a cage or red corpuscles and surrounding plasma motion of water begins from red corpuscles to smoothing of osmolalities. Red corpuscles here, delivered part of water, lose the form (shrivel) - there is plasmolysis.  If in an organism solution is entered with osmotic LP (low blood pressure solution), a liquid here will penetrate into a cage or red corpuscles. Red corpuscles begin to distend, and at a wide difference in osmolar pressure inwardly and out of cage a shell does not maintain pressure and torn - there is hemolysis.

7 Methods of calculating the isotonic concentration  The method, based on equation Mendeleev-Clapeyron or law Van't Hoff  The method, based on a law Raul (for cryoscopy constants )  The method of using isotonic equivalents by sodium chloride.

8 Expect the amount of glucose for isotones solution  Rp.: Sol. Glucosi of 200 ml isotonicae Sterilisa! D.S. For intravenous introduction  (Equivalent of glucose by sodium chloride - 0,18; depression of temperature of freezing of 1% solution - 0,1; М. - 180,0).

9  Isotonic equivalent (E) of sodium chloride shows the amount of sodium chloride, which creates conditions identical osmotic pressure, osmotic pressure equal to 1.0 g of drug.  The isotonic concentration of soluble-sodium of chloride is evened 0,9%.  Solutions of medicinal matters in concentrations, which create osmotic pressure, even such to 0,9% soluble-sodium of chloride, also are isotonic.  Е of glucose/sodium chloride = 0,18, (this amount shows, what amount of sodium of chloride creates in identical terms osmolality, equal to the osmolality 1,0 this substance). 0,18 sodium of chloride - 1,0 glucose 0,9 sodium of chloride - Х Х = (0,9 · 1,0) : 0,18 = 5,0  By the prescription glucose on 200 ml: 5,0 - 100 ml Х - 200 ml Х = 10,0 glucose of waterless

10 Calculation after depression of freezing temperature of solution:  Δt - depression of freezing temperature of solution shows how many degrees Celsius reduces the freezing temperature of 1% solution compared to the freezing point of pure solvent Freezing point depression of serum 0,52. 1% - Δt X - 0,52 o C X= (0,52/ Δt) 1%  Solutions of medicinal substances in a isotonic concentration must have the same depression of freezing temperature. Δt = 0,104 Δt = 0,104 0,52/ 0,104 = 5 % 5 - 100 ml Х - 200 ml Х = 10,0.

11 Calculation after equalization of Mendeleyev - Klapeyron: PV=nRT P- plasma osmotic pressure (7.4 atm.) V- volume of solution, l R- gas constant (0.082) T- absolute temperature of the body (310) n- number of mole solute n= P*V/ R*T, n = m/ M, m = M*P*V/ R*T= M* 7,4/ 0,082* 310 m = 0,29* M

12 By prescription : m = 0,29 · 180,0 = 52,2 glucose of waterless on 1 l of solution, on 100 ml it is needed 5,22, that answers a isotonic concentration. Thus, on 200 ml of solution it is necessary to take a 10,44 glucose of waterless. For preparation of injection solutions and eye drops use glucose taking into account her actual humidity. A calculation is conducted after a formula:  Х = (100 · а) : (100 - в), where and is an amount of glucose after the sample of writing; in is humidity of glucose. If humidity of glucose of 10%, then:  Х = (100 · 10) : (100 - 10) = 11,0

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