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CHAPTER 7 Money Markets
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Overview of the Money Market Short-term debt market -- most under 120 days. A few high quality borrowers. Many diverse investors. Informal market centered in New York City. Standardized securities -- one security is a close substitute for another.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Overview of the Money Market (concluded) Good marketability -- secondary market. Large, wholesale open-market transactions. Many brokers and dealers are competitively involved in the money market. Payment in Federal Funds -- immediately available funds. Physical possession of securities seldom made -- centralized safekeeping.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Economic Role of Money Market (MM) The money market is a market for liquidity Liquidity is stored in MM by investing in MM securities. Liquidity is bought in MM by issuing securities (borrowing).
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Characteristics of Money Market Instruments Low default risk. Short maturity. High marketability.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Money Market Balance Sheet Position of Major Participants
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Commercial Banks -- Most Important Participant in the MM Bank assets or investments Treasury bills. Agency securities. Bankers' acceptances (from other banks). Federal Funds sold. Repurchase agreements (securities purchased under agreements to resell).
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Commercial Banks,cont. Bank liabilities or borrowing Negotiable CDs. Commercial paper. Bankers' acceptances. Federal Funds purchased. Repurchase agreements (securities sold under agreements to repurchase). MM securities provides sources and uses of liquidity due to wide fluctuations in loans and deposits.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Federal Reserve in the Money Markets Money market securities is the major asset category of the Fed. Open-market operations (buying and selling of MM securities by Fed) is the primary tool for implementing monetary policy. Purchase -- increases member bank reserves. Sale -- decreases member bank reserves.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Dealers in U.S. Securities -- Involved in both primary and secondary markets. Purchases new treasury debt and resells it (primary). "Makes a market" by buying/selling (dealer) securities (bid/ask). Purchases are financed by repurchase agreements or fed funds.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. U.S. Treasury Bills Characteristics Sold on discount basis. Maturities up to one year. Denominations are in multiples of $1000.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. U.S. Treasury Bills Pricing Treasury Bills Treasury bills are priced on a bank discount rate basis, a traditional yield calculation. The bank discount rate, r d, is:
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. U.S. Treasury Bills The Wall Street Journal lists T-Bill yields on a bond equivalent basis where the discounted price is the denominator and 365 days is used as the annualizer. The effective annual yield assuming compounding at a year is: Effective Yield = [(Face Value/Price) 365/D -1] x 100%.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Auctioning New Bills Weekly sale by U. S. Treasury of three- and six-month maturities; longer-term bills, monthly or quarterly. Competitive vs. noncompetitive bid: states both the quantity of bills and bid price. Large bids. Multiple bids. Noncompetitive bid: states only the quantity of bills requested at weighted average price. Smaller bids.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Book-entry Securities No physical securities: only record entries. Book-entry record keeping Most of marketable Treasury debt is now in book- entry form.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Types of Federal Agencies Farm credit agencies -- loans to farmers. Housing credit agencies -- loans and secondary market support for mortgage market. Other agencies -- special purposes. Federal financing bank -- purchases securities of agencies and issues its own obligations.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Characteristics of Agency Debt Most are not guaranteed by federal government; federal guarantee implied, not explicit. Marketability varies with the development of the secondary market. Yields are higher than T-Bills. Slightly greater default risk. Slightly lower marketability.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Negotiable Certificates of Deposit Characteristics of Negotiable CDs Large denomination time deposit, less than six month's maturity. Negotiable -- may be sold and traded before maturity. Issued at face value with coupon rate. Development of the CD Market Issued by Citibank in Offset declining demand deposits as a source of funds.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Negotiable Certificates of Deposit (concluded) The CD Market Rate negotiated between buyer and seller. Market is sensitive to rates above or below the market rates. Rates are lower for money center banks and are tiered upward for regional banks. Purchased mainly by corporate businesses.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Commercial Paper Short term -- one to 270 days. Unsecured. Large denominations -- $100,000 and up. Issued by high-quality borrowers. A wholesale money market instrument -- few personal investors. Sold at a discount from par. Directly or dealer sold. Backed by bank lines of credit.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Commercial Paper Market (concluded) Credit ratings important for commercial paper issuance. Backup lines of credit from banks support or guarantee quality. Placement Directly by a sales force of the borrowing firm. Indirectly through dealers.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Bankers' Acceptances Time draft -- order to pay in future. Drafts are drawn on and/or accepted by commercial bank. Direct liability of bank. Mostly relate to international trade. Secondary market -- dealer market. Discounted in market to reflect yield. Standard maturities of 30, 60, or 90 days -- max of 180.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Creating a Banker's Acceptance Importer initiates purchase from foreign exporter, payable in future. Importer needs financing; exporter needs assurance of payment in future. Importer's bank writes irrevocable letter of credit for exporter Specifies purchase order. Authorizes exporter to draw time draft on bank.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Federal Funds Characteristics of Federal Funds Market for depository institutions. Most liquid of all financial assets. Related to monetary policy implementation. Yields related to the level of excess bank reserves. Originally a market for excess reserves -- Now a source of investment (federal funds sold) and continued financing (federal funds purchased).
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Federal Funds (concluded) Most Are One-day, Unsecured Loans. Bookkeeping Entry, Interest Paid Separately. Traded in Fed Funds or Immediately Available Funds.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Repurchase Agreements (Repo) Bank Financing -- Source of funds Security sold under agreement to repurchase at given price in future. Way to include corporate business in Federal Funds market. Negotiated market rate. Bank Investment – Reverse Repo Security purchased under agreement to resell at given price in future. Smaller banks are able to invest excess liquidity in a secured investment.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Repurchase Agreements (Repo) (concluded) Repos are used by the Federal Reserve in open market operations.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Interrelationship of Money Market Interest Rates Various MM instruments are close substitutes in investment portfolios. Interest rates move together over time. Deviations from traditional spreads are quickly eliminated by interest rate arbitrage.
CHAPTER 7 Money Markets. Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Overview of the Money Market Short-term debt market - most under 120 days. A few high.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Power Point Slides for: Financial Institutions, Markets, and Money, 8 th Edition Authors: Kidwell, Blackwell,
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CHAPTER 7 Money Markets Copyright© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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CHAPTER 7 Money Markets. Overview of the Money Market Short-term debt market - most under 120 days. A few high quality borrowers/issuers. Many diverse.
CHAPTER 8 FIXED - INCOME MARKETS. Overview of the Money Market Short-term debt market -- most under 120 days. A few high quality borrowers. Many diverse.
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