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Chapter 11 has several programming projects, including a project that uses heaps. This presentation shows you what a heap is, and demonstrates two of the important heap algorithms. Heaps Data Structures and Other Objects Using C++

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Heaps A heap is a certain kind of complete binary tree.

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Heaps A heap is a certain kind of complete binary tree. When a complete binary tree is built, its first node must be the root. Root

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Heaps Complete binary tree. Left child of the root The second node is always the left child of the root.

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Heaps Complete binary tree. Right child of the root The third node is always the right child of the root.

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Heaps Complete binary tree. The next nodes always fill the next. level from left-to-right.

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Heaps Complete binary tree. The next nodes always fill the next level from left-to-right.

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Heaps Complete binary tree. The next nodes always fill the next level from left-to-right.

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Heaps Complete binary tree. The next nodes always fill the next level from left-to-right.

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Heaps Complete binary tree.

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Heaps A heap is a certain kind of complete binary tree. Each node in a heap contains a key that can be compared to other nodes' keys. 194222127234535

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Heaps A heap is a certain kind of complete binary tree. The "heap property" requires that each node's key is >= the keys of its children 194222127234535

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Adding a Node to a Heap Put the new node in the next available spot. Push the new node upward, swapping with its parent until the new node reaches an acceptable location. 19422212723453542

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Adding a Node to a Heap Put the new node in the next available spot. Push the new node upward, swapping with its parent until the new node reaches an acceptable location. 19422214223453527

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Adding a Node to a Heap Put the new node in the next available spot. Push the new node upward, swapping with its parent until the new node reaches an acceptable location. 19422213523454227

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Adding a Node to a Heap The parent has a key that is >= new node, or The node reaches the root. reheapification The process of pushing the new node upward is called reheapification upward. 19422213523454227

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Removing the Top of a Heap Move the last node onto the root. 19422213523454227

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Removing the Top of a Heap Move the last node onto the root. 194222135232742

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Removing the Top of a Heap Move the last node onto the root. Push the out-of-place node downward, swapping with its larger child until the new node reaches an acceptable location. 194222135232742

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Removing the Top of a Heap Move the last node onto the root. Push the out-of-place node downward, swapping with its larger child until the new node reaches an acceptable location. 194222135234227

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Removing the Top of a Heap Move the last node onto the root. Push the out-of-place node downward, swapping with its larger child until the new node reaches an acceptable location. 194222127234235

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Removing the Top of a Heap The children all have keys <= the out-of-place node, or The node reaches the leaf. reheapification The process of pushing the new node downward is called reheapification downward. 194222127234235

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Implementing a Heap We will store the data from the nodes in a partially-filled array. An array of data 2127234235

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Implementing a Heap Data from the root goes in the first location of the array. An array of data 2127234235 42

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Implementing a Heap Data from the next row goesin the Data from the next row goes in the next two array locations. An array of data 2127234235 423523

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Implementing a Heap Data from the next row goesin the Data from the next row goes in the next two array locations. An array of data 2127234235 423523 2721

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Implementing a Heap Data from the next row goesin the Data from the next row goes in the next two array locations. An array of data 2127234235 423523 2721 We don't care what's in this part of the array.

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Important Points about the Implementation The links between the tree's nodes are not actually stored as pointers, or in any other way. The only way we "know" that "the array is a tree" is from the way we manipulate the data. An array of data 2127234235 423523 2721

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Important Points about the Implementation If you know the index of a node, then it is easy to figure out the indexes of that node's parent and children. Formulas are given in the book. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] 2127234235 423523 2721

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A heap is a complete binary tree, where the entry at each node is greater than or equal to the entries in its children. To add an entry to a heap, place the new entry at the next available spot, and perform a reheapification upward. To remove the biggest entry, move the last node onto the root, and perform a reheapification downward. Summary

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T HE E ND Presentation copyright 2010 Addison Wesley Longman, For use with Data Structures and Other Objects Using C++ by Michael Main and Walter Savitch. Some artwork in the presentation is used with permission from Presentation Task Force (copyright New Vision Technologies Inc) and Corel Gallery Clipart Catalog (copyright Corel Corporation, 3G Graphics Inc, Archive Arts, Cartesia Software, Image Club Graphics Inc, One Mile Up Inc, TechPool Studios, Totem Graphics Inc). Students and instructors who use Data Structures and Other Objects Using C++ are welcome to use this presentation however they see fit, so long as this copyright notice remains intact.

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