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CSC211 Data Structures Lecture 9 Linked Lists Instructor: Prof. Xiaoyan Li Department of Computer Science Mount Holyoke College

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Motivation p In a sequence using an array, inserting a new item needs to move others back... 102030?? 18

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Motivation p In a sequence using an array, inserting a new item needs to move others back... 10202030? 18

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Motivation p In a sequence using an array, inserting a new item needs to move others back... p So the Big-O of the insert is O(n) 10182030?

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Motivation p How can we insert a new item without moving others ? 102030?? 18 We need a new data structure

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Motivation p How can we insert a new item without moving others ? 18 ?? 30 2010 break an array into a linked chain...

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Motivation p How can we insert a new item without moving others ? 18 ?? 30 2010 and then put the new item into the chain

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Motivation p How can we insert a new item without moving others ? 18 ?? 30 2010 But the links (->) need some way to build up

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p p Chapter 5 introduces the often- used data structure of linked lists. p p This presentation shows how to implement the most common operations on linked lists. Linked Lists in Action CHAPTER 5 Data Structures and Other Objects

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Each node in the linked list is a class, as shown here. data link 10 data link 15 data link 7 null class node { public: typedef int value_type;... private: value_type data; node *link; }; Declarations for Linked Lists

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data link 7 p p The data portion of each node is a type called value_type, defined by a typedef. link null data link 15 Declarations for Linked Lists data 10 class node { public: typedef int value_type;... private: value_type data; node *link; };

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p p Each node also contains a link field which is a pointer to another node. data 15 data 7 Declarations for Linked Lists data 10 link null link class node { public: typedef int value_type;... private: value_type data; node *link; };

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Declarations for Linked Lists p p A program can keep track of the first node by using a pointer variable such as head_ptr in this example. p p Notice that head_ptr itself is not a node -- it is a pointer to a node. data link 10 data link 15 data link 7 null head_ptr node * head_ptr;

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Declarations for Linked Lists p p A program can also keep track of the last node by using a pointer variable such as tail_ptr in this example. p p Notice that tail_ptr itself is not a node -- it is a pointer to a node. data link 10 data link 15 data link 7 null head_ptr node * head_ptr; node * tail_ptr; tail_ptr

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Declarations for Linked Lists p p A program can keep track of the first and the last nodes by using pointer variables such as head_ptr, tail_ptr. p p Notice that neither head_ptr nor tail_ptr is a node -- it is a pointer to a node. For an empty list, null is stored in both the head and the tail pointers. head_ptr null tail_ptr null node * head_ptr; node * tail_ptr; head_ptr = NULL; tail_ptr = NULL; // NULL can be used for any pointers!

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The Complete node Class Definition p The node class is fundamental to linked lists p The private member variables p data: a value_type variable p link: a pointer to the next node p The member functions include: p A constructor p Set data and set link p Retrieve data and retrieve link

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The Complete node Class Definition p The node class is fundamental to linked lists p The private member variables p data_field p link_field p The member functions include: p A constructor p Set data and set link p Retrieve data and retrieve link class node { public: // TYPEDEF typedef double value_type; // CONSTRUCTOR node( const value_type& init_data = value_type( ), node* init_link = NULL ) { data = init_data; link = init_link; } // Member functions to set the data and link fields: void set_data(const value_type& new_data) { data = new_data; } void set_link(node* new_link) { link = new_link; } // Constant member function to retrieve the current data: value_type data( ) const { return data; } // Two slightly different member functions to retrieve // the current link: const node* link( ) const { return link; } node* link( ) { return link;} private: value_type data; node* link; }; default argument given by the value_type default constructor (no DC for int and double in old versions of C++) Why TWO? p. 213--

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A Small Quiz - p p Suppose a a program has built the linked list as shown, and head_ptr is a pointer to a node. p p What is the data type of *head_ptr? p p cout << (*head_ptr). data(); p p cout data(); data link 10 data link 15 data link 7 null head_ptr

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Linked List Toolkit p Design Container Classes using Linked Lists p The use of a linked list is similar to our previous use of an array in a container class p But storing and retrieving needs more work since we do not have that handy indexing p => Linked List Toolbox p using node class

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The Workings of four functions p This lecture will show four functions: p Compute the length of a linked list (code) p Insert a new node at the head (code) p Insert a node at any location (pseudo-code) p Delete a node from the head (pseudo-code) p Read Section 5.2 for other functions in the Toolbox p will be used in container classes bag and sequence

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Length of a Linked List We simply want to compute the length of the linked list, for example the one shown here. Note that list_length is not a member function of the node class 10 1515 7 null head_ptr

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Pseudo-code of list_length

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Pseudo-code of list_length 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Make cursor point to each node, starting at the head. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 0

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Pseudo-code of list_length 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Make cursor point to each node, starting at the head. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 1 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Pseudo-code of list_length 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Make cursor point to each node, starting at the head. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 2 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Pseudo-code of list_length 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Make cursor point to each node, starting at the head. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 3 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr); Pseudo-code of list_length 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Make cursor point to each node, starting at the head. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 3 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr) { const node *cursor; size_t count = 0; // step 1 for (cursor = head_ptr; cursor != NULL; cursor = cursor->link()) count++; // step 2 return count; // step 3 } Real code of list_length: List Traverse 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 0 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr) { const node *cursor; size_t count = 0; // step 1 for (cursor = head_ptr; cursor != NULL; cursor = cursor->link()) count++; // step 2 return count; // step 3 } Real code of list_length: List Traverse 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 1 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr) { const node *cursor; size_t count = 0; // step 1 for (cursor = head_ptr; cursor != NULL; cursor = cursor->link()) count++; // step 2 return count; // step 3 } Real code of list_length: List Traverse 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 2 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr) { const node *cursor; size_t count = 0; // step 1 for (cursor = head_ptr; cursor != NULL; cursor = cursor->link()) count++; // step 2 return count; // step 3 } Real code of list_length: List Traverse 1. Initialize the count to zero. 2. Each time cursor points to a new node, add 1 to count. 3. return count. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 3 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr) { const node *cursor; size_t count = 0; for (cursor = head_ptr; cursor != NULL; cursor = cursor->link()) count++; return count; // step 3 } Big-O of list_length Big-O: O (n) if length is n 10 1515 7 null head_ptr count 3 cursor

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size_t list_length(const node* head_ptr) { const node *cursor; size_t count = 0; for (cursor = head_ptr; cursor != NULL; cursor = cursor->link()) count++; return count; } Is list_length works for an empty list? cursor = head_ptr = NULL count = 0 count 0 head_ptr null cursor null

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The Workings of four functions p This lecture will show four functions: p Compute the length of a linked list (code) p Insert a new node at the head (code) p Insert a node at any location (pseudo-code) p Delete a node from the head (pseudo-code) p Read Section 5.2 for other functions in the Toolbox p will be used in container classes bag and sequence

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry); Inserting a node at the Head We want to add a new entry, 13, to the head of the linked list shown here. Note that head_ptr is a reference node pointer 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13

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Inserting a Node at the Head ¶ ¶Create a new node, pointed to by a local variable insert_ptr. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head ¶ ¶insert_ptr = new node; 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head insert_ptr = new node; · ·Place the data in the new node's data field. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head insert_ptr = new node; · ·insert_ptr->data = entry; 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 ? What expression appears on the left side of the assignment statement ? void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head insert_ptr = new node; · ·insert_ptr->data = entry; 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 But data is a private variable, so cannot be accessed by a non-member function void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head insert_ptr = new node; · ·insert_ptr->data = entry; 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 But data is a private variable, so cannot be accessed by a non-member function void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry); X

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Inserting a Node at the Head insert_ptr = new node; · ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 Instead, Set_data function is used since data_field is a private variable of the node class void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 insert_ptr = new node; ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); ¸Connect the new node to the front of the list. void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 What will be the parameter ? insert_ptr = new node; ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); Ìinsert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); ? void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 The new node is linked to the node that head_ptr is pointing to. insert_ptr = new node; ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); Ìinsert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 insert_ptr = new node; ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); Ìinsert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); ¹Make the head_ptr point to the new head of the linked list. void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head 10 1515 7 null head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 insert_ptr = new node; ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); Ìinsert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); Íhead_ptr = insert_ptr; void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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Inserting a Node at the Head insert_ptr = new node; · ·insert_ptr->set_data(entry); Ì Ìinsert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); Íhead_ptr = insert_ptr; 10 1515 7 null head_ptr 13 When the function returns, the linked list has a new node at the head, containing 13. void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry);

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head Linked List: O(1) - cmp: Array: O(n) What is the Big-O of the head_insert function? What is the Big-O of the head_insert function?

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head Does the function work correctly for the empty list ?

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head head_ptr entry 13 null Does the function work correctly for the empty list ?

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Front head_ptr entry 13 null insert_ptr 13

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head head_ptr entry 13 null insert_ptr 13 null

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head head_ptr entry 13 insert_ptr 13 null

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head head_ptr 13 null When the function returns, the linked list has one node, containing 13.

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Caution! p p Always make sure that your linked list functions work correctly with an empty list. EMPTY LIST

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node; insert_ptr->set_data(entry); insert_ptr->set_link(head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head Q: Can you give an implementation with ONLY a single statement?

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { node *insert_ptr; insert_ptr = new node(entry, head_ptr); head_ptr = insert_ptr; } Inserting a Node at the Head YES, we can use the constructor with parameters!

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void list_head_insert(node*& head_ptr, const node::value_type& entry) { head_ptr = new node(entry, head_ptr); } Inserting a Node at the Head and assign the return pointer of new directly to the head pointer !

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The Workings of four functions p This lecture will show four functions: p Compute the length of a linked list (code) p Insert a new node at the head (code) p Insert a node at any location (pseudo-code) p Delete a node from the head (pseudo-code) p Read Section 5.2 for other functions in the Toolbox p will be used in container classes bag and sequence

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes p p Nodes are often inserted at places other than the front of a linked list. p p There is a general pseudocode that you can follow for any insertion function...

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes ¶ ¶Determine whether the new node will be the first node in the linked list. If so, then there is only one step: list_head_insert(head_ptr, entry);

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes ÊDetermine whether the new node will be the first node in the linked list. If so, then there is only one step: The function we already wrote The function we already wrote list_head_insert(head_ptr, entry);

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes ¶ ¶Determine whether the new node will be the first node in the linked list. If so, then there is only one step: list_head_insert(head_ptr, entry); A pointer to the head of the list A pointer to the head of the list

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes ¶ ¶Determine whether the new node will be the first node in the linked list. If so, then there is only one step: list_head_insert(head_ptr, entry); The data to put in the new node The data to put in the new node

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position.

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. In this example, the new node will be the second node In this example, the new node will be the second node previous_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position What is the name of this pointer ? Look at the pointer which is in the node *previous_ptr Look at the pointer which is in the node *previous_ptr previous_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position This pointer is called previous_ptr->link This pointer is called previous_ptr->link Always remember how can you access link previous_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ËOtherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position previous_ptr->link points to the head of a smaller linked list, with 10 and 7 previous_ptr->link points to the head of a smaller linked list, with 10 and 7 previous_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. The new node must be inserted at the head of this small linked list. The new node must be inserted at the head of this small linked list. 13 Write one C++ statement which will do the insertion. previous_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. 13 Write one C++ statement which will do the insertion. previous_ptr list_head_insert(previous_ptr->link, entry); private variable?!! X

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. 13 More precisely, you need to use member function link(), and have three lines of code previous_ptr node *sl_head_ptr; sl_head_ptr = previous_ptr->link(); list_head_insert(sl_head_ptr, entry); previous_ptr->set_link(sl_head_ptr); sl_head_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. 13 More precisely, you need to use member function link(), and have three lines of code previous_ptr node *sl_head_ptr; sl_head_ptr = previous_ptr->link(); list_head_insert(sl_head_ptr, entry); previous_ptr->set_link(sl_head_ptr); sl_head_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes 15 1010 7 null head_ptr ·Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Start by setting a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. 13 More precisely, you need to use member function link(), and have three lines of code previous_ptr node *sl_head_ptr; sl_head_ptr = previous_ptr->link(); list_head_insert(sl_head_ptr, entry); previous_ptr->set_link(sl_head_ptr); sl_head_ptr

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes ¶ ¶Determine whether the new node will be the first node in the linked list. If so, then there is only one step: list_head_insert(head_ptr, entry); · Otherwise (if the new node will not be first): Set a pointer named previous_ptr to point to the node which is just before the new node's position. pDo the following : node *sl_head_ptr; sl_head_ptr = previous_ptr->link(); list_head_insert(sl_head_ptr, entry); previous_ptr->set_link(sl_head_ptr);

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Pseudocode for Inserting Nodes The process of adding a new node in the middle of a list ( only the step after previous_ptr has been set ) can also be incorporated as a separate function. This function is called list_insert in the linked list toolkit of Section 5.2. The process of adding a new node in the middle of a list ( only the step after previous_ptr has been set ) can also be incorporated as a separate function. This function is called list_insert in the linked list toolkit of Section 5.2. p Challenge yourself: p The textbook actually gives you a different implementation (p 235, 4 lines of code) Can you implement list_insert with just one line of code? Can you implement list_insert with just one line of code? p Dont use list_head_insert p See Self-Test Ex 16

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The Workings of four functions p This lecture will show four functions: p Compute the length of a linked list (code) p Insert a new node at the head (code) p Insert a node at any location (pseudo-code) p Delete a node from the head (pseudo-code) p Read Section 5.2 for other functions in the Toolbox p will be used in container classes bag and sequence

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Pseudocode for Removing Nodes p p Nodes often need to be removed from a linked list. p p As with insertion, there is a technique for removing a node from the front of a list, and a technique for removing a node from elsewhere. p p Well look at the pseudocode for removing a node from the head of a linked list.

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Removing the Head Node 10 1515 7 null head_ptr 13 Start by setting up a temporary pointer named remove_ptr to the head node. remove_ptr

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Removing the Head Node 10 1515 7 null head_ptr 13 Set up. Set up remove_ptr. ·head_ptr = remove_ptr->link(); remove_ptr Draw the change that this statement will make to the linked list.

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Removing the Head Node 10 1515 7 null head_ptr 13 Set up. Set up remove_ptr. Ëhead_ptr = remove_ptr->link(); remove_ptr

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Removing the Head Node Set up. Set up remove_ptr. Ëhead_ptr = remove_ptr->link; ¸delete remove_ptr; // Return the node's memory to heap. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr 13 remove_ptr

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Removing the Head Node Heres what the linked list looks like after the removal finishes. 10 1515 7 null head_ptr

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p p It is easy to insert a node at the front of a list. p p The linked list toolkit also provides a function for inserting a new node elsewhere p p It is easy to remove a node at the front of a list. p p The linked list toolkit also provides a function for removing a node elsewhere--you should read about this function and the other functions of the toolkit. Summary

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Key points you need to know p Linked List Toolkit uses the node class which has p set and retrieve functions p The functions in the Toolkit are not member functions of the node class p length, insert(2), remove(2), search, locate, copy,... p compare their Big-Os with similar functions for an array p They can be used in various container classes, such as bag, sequence, etc. Toolkit Code

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Homework... p Self-Test Exercises (node) p 1-12 p Read after class p Linked List ToolKit (Section 5.2) p Do Self-Test Ex 13 -25 p Read before the next lecture p Section 5.3- 5.4 p Programming Assignment 4 p Detailed guidelines online!

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T HE E ND Presentation copyright 1997, Addison Wesley Longman, For use with Data Structures and Other Objects Using C++ by Michael Main and Walter Savitch. Some artwork in the presentation is used with permission from Presentation Task Force (copyright New Vision Technologies Inc) and Corel Gallery Clipart Catalog (copyright Corel Corporation, 3G Graphics Inc, Archive Arts, Cartesia Software, Image Club Graphics Inc, One Mile Up Inc, TechPool Studios, Totem Graphics Inc). Students and instructors who use Data Structures and Other Objects Using C++ are welcome to use this presentation however they see fit, so long as this copyright notice remains intact.

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