3 A. Climate & Weather Weather & Climate are not the same! Weather & Climate are not the same! –Climate is what you expect & weather is what you get!
4 B. Earth’s Tilt and Rotation Axis – imaginary line running from pole to pole Axis – imaginary line running from pole to pole –Earth rotates around this Makes one rotation every 24 hours –Makes Day & Night –Earth is tilted at approx. 23 ½ degrees Tilt affects climate of a place
5 C. Earth’s Revolution The Earth’s journey around the sun The Earth’s journey around the sun One revolution = 365 ¼ days One revolution = 365 ¼ days Causes seasons Causes seasons –Seasons are reversed north & south of the equator Example: It is now summer in Australia Example: It is now summer in Australia –Around March 21, the sun’s rays fall directly on the Equator – equinox – equal night – daylight & nighttime hours are equal. In the Northern Hemisphere, this marks the first day spring In the Northern Hemisphere, this marks the first day spring
6 D. The Tropics of Cancer & Capricorn Know this section well (pg. 56-57)! Know this section well (pg. 56-57)! Solstice – Sun’s direct rays are shining on one of the two tropic lines Solstice – Sun’s direct rays are shining on one of the two tropic lines –23 ½ N – Tropic of Cancer – Summer in N. Hemisphere – June 21 st –23 ½ S – Tropic of Capricorn – Winter in N. Hemisphere – December 22 nd
7 E. The Poles Dramatic differences in sunlight here! Dramatic differences in sunlight here! –6 months = constant sunlight –6 months = little to no sunlight
8 F. The Greenhouse Effect Look at diagram on pg. 70 Look at diagram on pg. 70 Earth’s atmosphere is like the glass in a greenhouse Earth’s atmosphere is like the glass in a greenhouse –Traps the sun’s warmth even in the cold weather Global Warming – rise in atmospheric CO 2 levels Global Warming – rise in atmospheric CO 2 levels –Caused by human activities Burning of coal, oil, Burning of coal, oil, and natural gas and natural gas
10 A. Latitude & Climate Low Latitudes Low Latitudes –Between the Tropic Lines (near the equator) –Called the Tropics High Latitudes High Latitudes –Polar Areas North of the Arctic Circle South of the Antarctic Circle Middle Latitudes Middle Latitudes –Between the Tropic of Cancer & Arctic Circle –Between the Tropic of Capricorn & Antarctic Circle –Most variable weather exists here Draw a diagram that includes the labels above Draw a diagram that includes the labels above
12 B. Elevation and Climate Elevation influences climate, regardless of the level of latitude Elevation influences climate, regardless of the level of latitude –Increased altitude = air thins –Thin air = less heat retained less heat retained
13 C. Wind & Ocean Currents Wind & water combine w/the effects of the sun to influence weather & climate Wind & water combine w/the effects of the sun to influence weather & climate Wind Patterns Wind Patterns –Winds blow in fairly consistent patterns – prevailing winds – map on pg.60 –Coriolis Effect – causes winds to blow diagonally The Horse Latitudes The Horse Latitudes –Why are they called this??? –Doldrums – windless areas near the Equator Ocean Currents Ocean Currents –Just like the wind, cold and warm streams of water (currents), move through the oceans El Nino El Nino –Periodic change in the pattern of ocean currents & water temperature
14 D. Landforms & Climate Landforms alter climate Landforms alter climate –Example: Mountains KNOW DIAGRAM ON PG. 64!!! KNOW DIAGRAM ON PG. 64!!! –Windward –Leeward –Rain shadow Draw a diagram on your notes that includes the terms above! Draw a diagram on your notes that includes the terms above!
16 A. Climate Regions Tropical Climates Tropical Climates –Two – Tropical Rain Forest (hot & wet throughout the year) & Tropical Savanna (dry winters & wet summers) –Found in the low latitudes (Tropics)
17 Climate Regions (cont.) Dry Climates Dry Climates –Two types – desert (dry w/ sparse plant life) & steppe (dry, largely treeless grasslands) –Occur in many parts of the world
18 Climate Regions (cont.) Mid-Latitude Climates Mid-Latitude Climates –Four - Marine west coast, Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Humid Continental –Read pg. 68 – What climate do we have?
19 Climate Regions (cont.) High Latitude Climate High Latitude Climate –Two – Subarctic & Tundra Brrrrrrr!!! Brrrrrrr!!! –Permafrost found here
20 Climate Regions (cont.) Highlands Climate Highlands Climate –Elevation can determine climate regardless of the latitude! –Mts. = cooler
21 B. Climatic Changes Climate changes over time because of many reasons – many which are unknown! Climate changes over time because of many reasons – many which are unknown! Humans and how they Humans and how they treat the Earth have a treat the Earth have a lot to do with it! lot to do with it!