Orbital Motion: 1.Compare the Geocentric Model to the Heliocentric System. What evidence was used to prove one of them wrong? Geocentric – Earth centered.

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Orbital Motion: 1.Compare the Geocentric Model to the Heliocentric System. What evidence was used to prove one of them wrong? Geocentric – Earth centered where all objects revolved around Earth Heliocentric – Sun centered solar system where all objects orbit the Sun Evidence – other planets had moons 2.What force attracts all objects to each other? Gravity – depends on the objects mass and distance from each other 3.What is the difference between rotation and revolution; and how long does each one take? Rotation – spinning on an axis Revolution – one object orbits another Rotation take 24 hours Revolution of Earth take 1 year or 365 days 4.What is an orbit? the path a planet follows due to gravity and inertia

5.The tilt of the Earth’s axis causes direct and indirect sunlight at different locations. This explains why ________________________. Also, what is the difference between direct and indirect sunlight? We have different seasons Direct sunlight is when all of the energy is focused in a small area Indirect sunlight is when the same amount of energy is spread across and area and becomes less intense 6.True or False: the seasons are caused by Earth’s elliptical orbit. False 7.True or False: the sun gives off less energy in the winter and more energy in the summer. False 8.What season is it in the Northern Hemisphere when the North Pole points towards the sun? Summer

9.What season is it in the Southern Hemisphere when the North Pole points towards the sun? Winter 10.What season is it in the Northern Hemisphere when the North Pole points away from the sun? Winter 11.What season is it in the Southern Hemisphere when the North Pole points away from the sun? Summer 12.What is the difference between an equinox and a solstice? Equinox – daylight hours are equal to night time hours Solstice – marks the longest or shortest day light hours of the year

13.Draw and label an ellipse. 14.How is an ellipse different than a circle? Ellipses have two foci and an eccentricity greater than zero Circles have one focus and have an eccentricity equal to zero 15.What is Kepler’s First Law of Orbital Motion? All Planets Travel in an elliptical orbit 16.True or False: A planet moves slowest in an orbit when it is closest to the sun. False

Mapping the Earth’s Surface: 1.What is a coordinate system? Places horizontal and vertical lines that intersect across the globe. 2.Degrees of latitude and longitude can be broken into 60 smaller units called ___________. Minutes 3.Lines of latitude are like the _____-axis and start at the __________ (0°) which cuts the Earth in half. X-axisEquator 4.Measured as degrees __________ or __________ of the equator. North or South

5.Each of the poles are _____° 90 ° N or S 6.Lines of longitude are like the __________ and start at the __________ __________ (0°). Y-axisPrime Meridian 7.Lines of longitude are measured as degrees _____ or _____ of the Prime Meridian which runs through __________, England. West or EastGreenwich 8.What is a topographic map? A map that uses contour lines to give an aerial (from space) view or different heights of an area

9.What are contour lines? Lines that connect areas of equal elevation 10.How do you determine the interval between each line? Subtract the given contour heights from one another and divide by the number of lines between the two intervals 11.True or False: If a location is directly on a contour line, an exact height can be given. True 12.True or False: If a location is between contour lines, an interval must be given. True Example 480-500

13.What does the closeness of the contour lines tell you? close together – very steep  hard to walk up far apart – not steep or shallow  easy to walk up 14.When crossing a river, contour lines will point _____stream. UP

Moon: 1.How old is the moon? 4.5 Billion Year Old 2.What is the main theory that describes the formation of the moon? Another planet collided with Earth sending much of the crust into space as dust. This dust revolved around Earth due to Earth’s gravitational attraction. The dust eventually collected into the moon. 3.What is the moon made mostly of? Why? Silicate Minerals – much like the crust b/c during collision much of the Earth’s crust was sent into space as dust. 4.What does it mean to be deficient in iron? lacking, does not have very much

5.True or False: Mares are large flat planes made of basaltic lava, so at one time there was volcanic activity on the moon. FALSE!!!! 6.Why is there such a great range of temperatures on the moon? the moon does not have an atmosphere and very little water to regulate (carry heat from the poles to the equator and back) the sunlight energy 7.How long is a lunar month? 29.5 days 8.When a moon is in waxing phase, what happens to the amount of the sunlight portion that we view from Earth? The amount of the light portion of the moon increases Adding light to the right!

9.When a moon is in waning phase, what happens to the amount of the sunlight portion that we view from Earth? The amount of the light portion of the moon decreases Adding shadow to the right! 10.What is the difference between a crescent shaped moon and a gibbous? Draw them. crescent is only ¼ lightgibbous is ¾ light 11.What is an eclipse and what are the two parts of the shadow called? An eclipse is when the Earth or Moon is shadowed Umbra – darkest part of the shadow (total eclipse) Penumbra – lightest part of the shadow (partial eclipse) 12.What is the difference between a lunar and solar eclipse? Lunar – the moon is shadowed by the Earth Solar – the Earth is shadowed by the moon during the day

13.Why isn’t every eclipse a total eclipse? The object must be in the Umbra of the shadow and this does not occur ever time b/c the Earth’s orbit and the Moon’s orbit are in different planes. 14.True or False: Lunar eclipses only occur during a full moon. TRUE! 15.True or False: During a solar eclipse the moon and sun appear to be the same size. True 16.What part of the sun can be viewed during a solar eclipse? Solar Corona (sun’s atmosphere)

17. How are tides created; and when are they highest? Tides are bulges of water the move around Earth due to the gravitational attraction of the water to the moon and the sun Spring Tide during New Moon phase (the sun and moon are on the same side of Earth pulling the water towards them) 18.Why does the moon have more influence on the tides than the sun? The moon is much closer and distance is a factor in gravitational attraction. 19.Draw the position of the Sun, Earth, and Moon during a spring and neap tide.

Stars: 1.Space is really big so we measure in light years. Describe the measurement. The distance light can travel in one year at a speed of 186,000 miles per second 2.Name three ways we classify stars? Color, Size, Brightness 3.True or False: Red stars are really hot. False! 4.What is the color of the hottest star? Blue

5.What is the difference between apparent and absolute brightness? Apparent is how bright the star seems from Earth (sun would be the brightest) Absolute is an exact measurement of the brightness of stars if all stars were the same distance from Earth. 6.Describe the formation of a star? Stellar Nebula – all stars start as a cloud of gas and dust that rotates Proto Star Stage – as the cloud rotates, matter and energy move to the center of the cloud due to the gravitational attraction. This also increases the temperature and pressure. A star is born when there is enough temperature and pressure for the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to fuse and become one helium atom 7.What marks the birth of a star? When fusion starts 8.The death of a star can occur in two ways. Describe them and what is the biggest factor to determine how are star dies? A star will always cool and expand. Depending on the mass a star will either become a white dwarf OR the star will form a supernova

10.Describe the two ways a supernova can end. A supernova can end in a pulsar or a blackhole 11.How is mass related to the amount of time a star is actively undergoing fusion? the more mass the longer the life span, in general, depending on the rate of fusion 12.What is spectral class? it is related to the color of the star, but it is the direct measurement of the stars temperature. 13.What is luminosity? the brightness of a star – determined by how much hydrogen the star is fusing in certain amount of time

Describe the HR Diagram.

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