Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Ecology Marc Daniels Biology. What Is Ecology? Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with the environment Ecology is the study."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Ecology Marc Daniels Biology
What Is Ecology? Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with the environment Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with the environment The environment consists of abiotic and biotic factors The environment consists of abiotic and biotic factors Biotic factors are living factors (other organisms) Biotic factors are living factors (other organisms) Abiotic factors are physical, non-living factors Abiotic factors are physical, non-living factors Historical Factors help us determine movement of individuals Historical Factors help us determine movement of individuals There are 4 different types of ecology There are 4 different types of ecology
Why Do We Study Ecology? Ecology helps us understand the abundance and distribution of organisms. Ecology helps us understand the abundance and distribution of organisms. It provides a scientific foundation for the conservation of species and natural areas. It provides a scientific foundation for the conservation of species and natural areas.
Types of Ecology Organismal Ecology Organismal Ecology –Explores the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations that allow for individuals to live successfully in an area. –Focuses on how organisms interact with one another and their physical environment
Types of Ecology Population Ecology Population Ecology –A population is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time –Focuses on how the number of individuals change over time, which includes analyzing and predicting population trends.
Types of Ecology Community Ecology Community Ecology –A Community is a group of species that interact with one another in a particular area (includes more that one specie) –Focuses on interactions between species such as predation, parasitism, competition, as well as how organisms respond to disturbances (fires, floods, man made creations, etc.)
Types of Ecology Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Ecology –An Ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a particular region along with non-living components. (biotic and abiotic factors) –Focuses on how nutrients and energy move between organisms, as well as how abiotic factors such as climate, pollution, etc. affect organisms.
Factors That Shape Climate Factors that shape temperature, moisture, sunlight, and wind Factors that shape temperature, moisture, sunlight, and wind –Varies due to varying amounts of sunlight that hit our earth More sunlight near the equator, with sunlight lessening at altitudes north and south of the equator More sunlight near the equator, with sunlight lessening at altitudes north and south of the equator Seasons are caused by the tilt of the earth (23.5 degrees) Seasons are caused by the tilt of the earth (23.5 degrees)
Factors That Shape Climate Air circulation due to heated Air circulation due to heated and cooling air creates and cooling air creates Hadley Cells Hadley Cells Warmer air holds more water, Warmer air holds more water, but areas in between falling but areas in between falling hot air tend to be dry areas hot air tend to be dry areas (30 degrees north and south) (30 degrees north and south)
Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems Biome- a type of terrestrial ecosystem that is unique to a given region. Biome- a type of terrestrial ecosystem that is unique to a given region. Often characterized by the types of plants that are within the area. Often characterized by the types of plants that are within the area. Categorized by precipitation, temperature, as well as the variation of the two. Categorized by precipitation, temperature, as well as the variation of the two.
Different Types of Biomes Tropical Wet Forests/Rain Forests Tropical Wet Forests/Rain Forests –Near equatorial regions –Precipitation and temperatures are high –Variation in temperature is low, rain supports all year long growth –Plants are typically broad leaved evergreens –Very diverse plants and animals- wide array of habitats for animals.
Different Types of Biomes Subtropical Deserts Subtropical Deserts –Near 30 degrees south and north –Temperatures vary more than in rain forests –Temperatures do not fall below zero –Drier regions that get little rain fall (Why is this?) –Plants have low growth rate, or break dormancy and grow rapidly when there is rainfall
Different Types of Biomes Temperate Grasslands Temperate Grasslands –Relatively dry areas (low rainfall) –Grasses are dominant life form –Temperatures can range from hot to below freezing –Long warm summers, and short cold winters
Different Types of Biomes Temperate Forests Temperate Forests –Similar to Temperate Grasslands, but there is relatively high precipitation that is constant throughout the year –Increased precipitation allows for the development of forests –Plants typically have a period of dormancy (dropping leaves in autumn and growing in the spring)
Different Types of Biomes Boreal Forests/ Taiga Boreal Forests/ Taiga –Regions just below the Arctic Circle, often called sub- arctic. –Very cold winters, with cool short summers (have a high variation in temperatures) –Little evaporation, so moisture is abundant although precipitation is low. –Low diversity of organisms and low productivity –Dominated by cold-tolerant conifers (pines, spruce, larch trees)
Different Types of Biomes Arctic Tundra Arctic Tundra –Areas above the sub-arctic –Very short growing season (two months) –Temperatures are below freezing –Low precipitation, but low evaporation rates –Lack of trees, but there are short plants such as shrubs (growing season too short to support growth) –Low species diversity and productivity
Different Types of Biomes Lakes, Ponds, and Wetlands Lakes, Ponds, and Wetlands –Bodies of freshwater Ponds are small, lakes are large enough to be affected by wind and have waves Ponds are small, lakes are large enough to be affected by wind and have waves Wetlands are shallower, with soil saturated into the water, and contain plants that grow above the surface of the water Wetlands are shallower, with soil saturated into the water, and contain plants that grow above the surface of the water Wetlands consist of Swamps, Marshes, and Bogs Wetlands consist of Swamps, Marshes, and Bogs
Marshes, Swamps, and Bogs Marshes- Marshes- –lack trees, have a slow and steady rate of water flow –Typically connected to a lake or stream system Swamps Swamps –Similar to marshes –Tree and shrub dominated Both are productive habitats because of the supply of sunlight and water
Different Types of Biomes Streams Streams –Bodies of water that move constantly in one direction Creeks- small streams Creeks- small streams Rivers- large streams Rivers- large streams –Colder streams are faster, narrower –Warmer streams are slower, and wider (more favorable for the growth of plants) –Estuary- the environment that forms where the river meets the ocean (fresh water meets saltwater)
Different Types of Biomes Marine Environments Marine Environments –Distinguished by it’s water depth –Sunlight penetrates water differently at different depths –Contains multiple areas/zones such as the photic zone, aphotic zone, and benthic zone