2What Is Ecology?Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with the environmentThe environment consists of abiotic and biotic factorsBiotic factors are living factors (other organisms)Abiotic factors are physical, non-living factorsHistorical Factors help us determine movement of individualsThere are 4 different types of ecology
3Why Do We Study Ecology?Ecology helps us understand the abundance and distribution of organisms.It provides a scientific foundation for the conservation of species and natural areas.
4Types of Ecology Organismal Ecology Explores the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations that allow for individuals to live successfully in an area.Focuses on how organisms interact with one another and their physical environment
5Types of Ecology Population Ecology A population is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same timeFocuses on how the number of individuals change over time, which includes analyzing and predicting population trends.
6Types of Ecology Community Ecology A Community is a group of species that interact with one another in a particular area (includes more that one specie)Focuses on interactions between species such as predation, parasitism, competition, as well as how organisms respond to disturbances (fires, floods, man made creations, etc.)
7Types of Ecology Ecosystem Ecology An Ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a particular region along with non-living components. (biotic and abiotic factors)Focuses on how nutrients and energy move between organisms, as well as how abiotic factors such as climate, pollution, etc. affect organisms.
8Factors That Shape Climate Factors that shape temperature, moisture, sunlight, and windVaries due to varying amounts of sunlight that hit our earthMore sunlight near the equator, with sunlight lessening at altitudes north and south of the equatorSeasons are caused by the tilt of the earth (23.5 degrees)
10Factors That Shape Climate Air circulation due to heatedand cooling air createsHadley CellsWarmer air holds more water,but areas in between fallinghot air tend to be dry areas(30 degrees north and south)
11Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems Biome- a type of terrestrial ecosystem that is unique to a given region.Often characterized by the types of plants that are within the area.Categorized by precipitation, temperature, as well as the variation of the two.
13Different Types of Biomes Tropical Wet Forests/Rain ForestsNear equatorial regionsPrecipitation and temperatures are highVariation in temperature is low, rain supports all year long growthPlants are typically broad leaved evergreensVery diverse plants and animals- wide array of habitats for animals.
15Different Types of Biomes Subtropical DesertsNear 30 degrees south and northTemperatures vary more than in rain forestsTemperatures do not fall below zeroDrier regions that get little rain fall (Why is this?)Plants have low growth rate, or break dormancy and grow rapidly when there is rainfall
17Different Types of Biomes Temperate GrasslandsRelatively dry areas (low rainfall)Grasses are dominant life formTemperatures can range from hot to below freezingLong warm summers, and short cold winters
19Different Types of Biomes Temperate ForestsSimilar to Temperate Grasslands, but there is relatively high precipitation that is constant throughout the yearIncreased precipitation allows for the development of forestsPlants typically have a period of dormancy (dropping leaves in autumn and growing in the spring)
21Different Types of Biomes Boreal Forests/ TaigaRegions just below the Arctic Circle, often called sub-arctic.Very cold winters, with cool short summers (have a high variation in temperatures)Little evaporation, so moisture is abundant although precipitation is low.Low diversity of organisms and low productivityDominated by cold-tolerant conifers (pines, spruce, larch trees)
23Different Types of Biomes Arctic TundraAreas above the sub-arcticVery short growing season (two months)Temperatures are below freezingLow precipitation, but low evaporation ratesLack of trees, but there are short plants such as shrubs (growing season too short to support growth)Low species diversity and productivity
25Different Types of Biomes Lakes, Ponds, and WetlandsBodies of freshwaterPonds are small, lakes are large enough to be affected by wind and have wavesWetlands are shallower, with soil saturated into the water, and contain plants that grow above the surface of the waterWetlands consist of Swamps, Marshes, and Bogs
29Marshes, Swamps, and Bogs lack trees, have a slow and steady rate of water flowTypically connected to a lake or stream systemSwampsSimilar to marshesTree and shrub dominatedBoth are productive habitats because of the supply of sunlight and water
34Different Types of Biomes StreamsBodies of water that move constantly in one directionCreeks- small streamsRivers- large streamsColder streams are faster, narrowerWarmer streams are slower, and wider (more favorable for the growth of plants)Estuary- the environment that forms where the river meets the ocean (fresh water meets saltwater)
36Different Types of Biomes Marine EnvironmentsDistinguished by it’s water depthSunlight penetrates water differently at different depthsContains multiple areas/zones such as the photic zone, aphotic zone, and benthic zone