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Ecology Chapter 7 Aquatic Ecosystems. Standard 5 - Biomes Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems {CLE 3255.5.3,.4,.5} Obj: Describe the factors.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology Chapter 7 Aquatic Ecosystems. Standard 5 - Biomes Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems {CLE 3255.5.3,.4,.5} Obj: Describe the factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology Chapter 7 Aquatic Ecosystems

2 Standard 5 - Biomes Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems {CLE ,.4,.5} Obj: Describe the factors and characteristics that determine each water biome and the organisms that live there Freshwater Biome*

3 Sec. 1: Freshwater Ecosystems Wetland - land that is periodically under water Factors that determine which organisms live in an area are: salinity, temperature, oxygen, sunlight, and nutrients Include: lakes, ponds, swamps, and marshes

4 Types of Organisms Plankton: float near the surface 2 Types: 1.) Phytoplankton - microscopic plants; 2.) Zooplankton - microscopic animals Nekton: free swimming organisms - fish, turtles, whales, etc. Benthos: bottom dwellers - muscles, worms, bacteria, etc.

5 Lakes and Ponds Lakes, ponds, wetlands, rivers, streams 2 Zones: 1.) Littoral - near the shore; 2.) Benthic - bottom of the lake or pond - decomposers, insect larvae, and clams Eutrophication - increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystems Can cause damage to the lake and life

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8 Swamps and Marshes Swamps: dominated by woody plants such as trees and shrubs Occur on flat, poorly drained land often near streams Variety of plant and animal life exists

9 Swamp

10 Marshes Contain non-woody plants such as cattails Florida Everglades is the largest freshwater wetland in US Occur in low, flat lands and have little water movement Several kinds of marshes each with it’s own characteristics and salinity

11 Freshwater Marsh

12 Rivers Most originate from snow melt in mountains Changes with the land and climate through which it flows Runoff effects the growth and health of the water and organisms Life adapts to the different parts of the river (flow, temp, etc.)

13 Standard 5 - Biomes Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems {CLE ,.4,.5} Obj: Describe the factors and characteristics that determine each water biome and the organisms that live there Marine Biome*

14 Sec. 7-2: Marine Ecosystems Located mainly in coastal areas and in the open ocean Organisms in coastal areas adapt to changes in water level and salinity In open ocean they adapt to temperature, amount of sunlight and nutrients

15 Coastal Wetlands Covered by salt water for all or part of the time Estuaries, Marshes, and Swamps Provide habitat and nesting for many fish and wildlife Absorb excess rain, protects areas from flooding

16 Estuaries An area in which fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean Very productive ecosystems because they constantly receive fresh nutrients

17 Estuaries: Plants and Animals Receives lots of sunlight and plenty of nutrients for plants and animals Provide protected harbors and access to the ocean, and connection to the river

18 Threats to Estuaries In populated areas, used as places to dump wastes Pollutants can destroy; breaks down over time, but estuaries cannot cope with the amounts produced by large human populations

19 Salt Marshes Develop in estuaries where rivers dump mineral rich mud Breeding ground for clams, fish, birds, shrimps, and crabs Absorb pollutants and protect inland areas

20 Mangrove Swamps Located along coastal areas of tropical and subtropical zones Mangrove trees dominate these areas Grow partly submerged in warm shallow waters Help protect the coastline from erosion and reduce damage from storms

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22 Rocky and Sandy Shores Rocky shores have more plants and animals than sandy shores Rocks provide anchors and protection to the organisms Sandy shores often dry out and organisms get stranded

23 Coral Reefs Built by tiny coral animals that secrete limestone which slowly accumulate to form the coral reef Live only in clear and warm salt water with sunlight for photosynthesis Among the most diverse ecosystem on Earth

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25 Two types of Corals Hard Coral Brain Coral and elkhorn coral Build coral reefs Soft Coral Sea fingers and sea whips Do not build coral reefs

26 Types of Reefs Fringing reefs are reefs that form along a coastline. They grow on the continental shelf in shallow water. Barrier reefs grow parallel to shorelines, but farther out, usually separated from the land by a deep lagoon. Coral Atolls are rings of coral that grow on top of old, sunken volcanoes in the ocean.

27 Humans and coral reefs Fragile ecosystem 27% of coral reefs in the world are in danger of destruction from human activities Oil spills, sewage, pesticides, and silt runoff have been linked to coral reef destruction

28 Human interaction (cont.) Over fishing can deplete fish populations and upset the reefs balance Reefs grow slowly so may not be able to overcome repair the damage

29 Oceans Sunlight that is usable only goes to about 100m (330ft) into the ocean before the sunlight is absorbed Much of the oceans life is concentrated in the shallow, coastal waters Seaweed and algae grow anchored to rocks, phytoplankton float near the surface, invertebrates that feed on these are also concentrated near the shore

30 Plants and Animals of the Ocean In open ocean; least productive of all ecosystems Phytoplankton only grow in area where there is enough sunlight Zooplankton live near the surface with the phytoplankton they feed on The larger organisms come closer to the surface to feed on these organisms Decomposers, filter feeders that do not depend on sunlight dwell in the depths

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32 Sunlit zone or the Euphotic zone Plants Primary Producers Free-floating algae -- often called seaweed Red algae Green algae Brown algae Phytoplankton -- tiny, one-celled photosynthetic plankton like diatoms, dinoflagellates, Animals include most ocean fishincluding: sharkssharks and rays, man-o'-war, jellyfish, sea turtles, seals, coral, and zooplanktonrays man-o'-war jellyfishsea turtlesseals coral zooplankton

33 Intertidal zone: where the land and sea meet

34 Threats to Oceans Steadily becoming polluted Most pollution come from activities on land due to runoff Over-fishing and certain fishing methods also destroying fish populations Nets can drown or strangle animals that must return to the surface to breathe when they get caught in them

35 Artic & Antartic Ecosystems Artic Ocean gets nutrients from the surrounding land masses Supports whales, seals, ocean birds, polar bears, and provide food for people Antartic only continent never colonized by humans - used mainly for research Only a few plants grow Artic plankton feed the fish, whales, and penguins that live there


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