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Minerals A large nugget. A Cut Diamond Quartz Hexagonal crystals (six sided)

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Presentation on theme: "Minerals A large nugget. A Cut Diamond Quartz Hexagonal crystals (six sided)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals A large nugget

2 A Cut Diamond

3 Quartz Hexagonal crystals (six sided)

4 Quartz Concoidal fracture (like a bottle breaking)

5 K-spar (Potassium Feldspar 2 planes cleavage-one plane fracture

6 Fig. 03_02C Hornblende Crystals on left- 2 planes of fracture on right

7 Minerals form rocks!

8 Polymorphism 2 minerals-same composition-different crystal form

9 Atomic Structure

10 Figure 3.5 Ionic Bonding Gain/Lose (to get 8 in outer shell) Salt/Halite

11 Periodic Table

12 Figure 3.7 Colvalent Bonding Electron Sharing (to get 8 in outer) Chlorine

13 Figure 3.8 Crystal form is expression of internal structure

14 Salt/Halite in cubes?

15 Diamonds-all carbon Strong bonds in all directions create form

16 Graphite-all carbon Weak bonds in plane make it soft

17 Pyrite FeS Cubic crystals, metallic luster

18 Quartz Glassy luster

19 Use of a streak plate

20 Moh’s scale of hardness Goes up to 10 Diamond is 10 Minerals on left Tools on right

21 Figure 3.14 Cleavage Mica-1 plane

22 What is this mess!!!!! Relax-its not that hard Why minerals have certain cleavage? Cleavage represents internal structure/bonding and defines the mineral groups

23 Mica Group Feldspar Group Hornblende Group Halite Calcite Fluorite Cleavage in minerals

24 Fracture Concoidal fracture in quartz

25 K-spar (potassium feldspar) 1 plane fracture (top)-2 planes cleavage

26 Magnetite Guess what-its magnetite!

27 Mineral groups defined by crystal structure

28 Elements-relative abundance

29 Minerals on earth-relative abundance

30 Quartz Hexagonal Crystals No cleavage Conchoidal fracture

31 Figure 3.26 Quartz Small amounts of impurities change color

32 K-spar (potassium feldspar) Salmon, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees-fracture 1 plane

33 Plagioclase Feldspar White, Grey, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees Fracture 1 plane Note Striations

34 Biotite Mica 1 cleavage-sheets

35 Pyroxene vs. Amphibole Groups Pyroxene-90 degree cleavage Amphibole-60/120 degree cleavage

36 Amphibole Group 2 cleavages at 60 and 120 degrees

37 Pyroxene Group 2 cleavages at 90 degrees

38 Olivine Group Concoidal fracture-no cleavage

39 Table 3.2 Non-silicate minerals

40 Carbonates Calcite (Ca) Dolomite (Ca-Mg)

41 Halides Fluorite Halite

42 Oxides Hematite (Iron Ore) Corundum (Ruby-red and Sapphires-blues)

43 Sulphides Galena (Lead Ore) Sphalerite (Zinc Ore) Pyrite (Iron ore) Cinnabar (Mercury Ore)

44 Sulphates Gypsum (Calcium) Near Surface Anhydrite (Calcium) At Depth

45 Natives

46 Diamonds

47 Precious Stones EmeraldSapphire-bluesRuby-red Corundum Beryl

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