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Minerals A large nugget
A Cut Diamond
Quartz Hexagonal crystals (six sided)
Quartz Concoidal fracture (like a bottle breaking)
K-spar (Potassium Feldspar 2 planes cleavage-one plane fracture
Fig. 03_02C Hornblende Crystals on left- 2 planes of fracture on right
Minerals form rocks!
Polymorphism 2 minerals-same composition-different crystal form
Figure 3.5 Ionic Bonding Gain/Lose (to get 8 in outer shell) Salt/Halite
Figure 3.7 Colvalent Bonding Electron Sharing (to get 8 in outer) Chlorine
Figure 3.8 Crystal form is expression of internal structure
Salt/Halite in cubes?
Diamonds-all carbon Strong bonds in all directions create form
Graphite-all carbon Weak bonds in plane make it soft
Pyrite FeS Cubic crystals, metallic luster
Quartz Glassy luster
Use of a streak plate
Moh’s scale of hardness Goes up to 10 Diamond is 10 Minerals on left Tools on right
Figure 3.14 Cleavage Mica-1 plane
What is this mess!!!!! Relax-its not that hard Why minerals have certain cleavage? Cleavage represents internal structure/bonding and defines the mineral groups
Mica Group Feldspar Group Hornblende Group Halite Calcite Fluorite Cleavage in minerals
Fracture Concoidal fracture in quartz
K-spar (potassium feldspar) 1 plane fracture (top)-2 planes cleavage
Magnetite Guess what-its magnetite!
Mineral groups defined by crystal structure
Minerals on earth-relative abundance
Quartz Hexagonal Crystals No cleavage Conchoidal fracture
Figure 3.26 Quartz Small amounts of impurities change color
K-spar (potassium feldspar) Salmon, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees-fracture 1 plane
Plagioclase Feldspar White, Grey, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees Fracture 1 plane Note Striations
Biotite Mica 1 cleavage-sheets
Pyroxene vs. Amphibole Groups Pyroxene-90 degree cleavage Amphibole-60/120 degree cleavage
Amphibole Group 2 cleavages at 60 and 120 degrees
Pyroxene Group 2 cleavages at 90 degrees
Olivine Group Concoidal fracture-no cleavage
Table 3.2 Non-silicate minerals
Carbonates Calcite (Ca) Dolomite (Ca-Mg)
Halides Fluorite Halite
Oxides Hematite (Iron Ore) Corundum (Ruby-red and Sapphires-blues)
Sulphides Galena (Lead Ore) Sphalerite (Zinc Ore) Pyrite (Iron ore) Cinnabar (Mercury Ore)
Sulphates Gypsum (Calcium) Near Surface Anhydrite (Calcium) At Depth
Precious Stones EmeraldSapphire-bluesRuby-red Corundum Beryl
MINERALS. Chemical composition of the Crust n Oxygen most abundant- 46.6% n Followed by silicon and aluminum n Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium.
Rock – an aggregate of minerals (mixture of minerals). Mineral – naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids, with a definite chemical composition.
MINERALS. What is a mineral? How do we differentiate a mineral from a piece of wood or a human? What is a rock?
Silicates SiO n silicon oxide 1/3 of all minerals are silicates about 95% of the Earth’s crust is composed of silicates.
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology, 10e Image PPTs Chapter 3 Mineral Properties, Identification, and Uses.
MINERALS Introduction What Are They? Physical Properties & Identification Atoms & Elements Mineral Groups.
Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral: Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical.
Classification of Minerals Native Elements Native Elements – minerals naturally composed of only one element (e.g., diamond, sulfur, gold) Sulfides and.
DEFINITION OF MINERAL Naturally occurring, Inorganic Solid with a definable chemical composition and crystal structure Physical Properties Crystal Form.
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II)
Content Composition of Earth Crust Minerals Groups Silicates Structures Silicates Minerals Nonsilicate Minerals.
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CHAPTER 5 MINERALS Name: __________________ Period: _____ Date: ___________________.
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Atoms Atoms – basic building blocks for all earth materials; consist of 3 basic components: protons, neutrons, electrons Atoms – basic building blocks.
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By definition a mineral is: Naturally occurring An inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition By definition a.
Minerals The Building Blocks of Rocks. Natural Beauties The Hope Diamond.
What is a Mineral? Identifying Minerals.. You may think that all minerals look like gems. But, in fact, most minerals look more like rocks. Does this.
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Analogy Minerals : the ingredients Tomatoes, ground beef, pasta, bread, lettuce Rocks : the spaghetti dinner.
Geology 12 Presents Mineralogy Minerals: 1. Naturally occurring = not man made (but some can be) 2. Inorganic 3. Crystalline solid a) cubic (dice) ex:
Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks. Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks By definition a mineral is/has Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered.
WHAT IS A MINERAL? -NATURALLY OCCURING, INORGANIC SUBSTANCES MINERALS ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ROCKS. YOU CAN’T HAVE A ROCK WITHOUT MINERALS.
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Jeopardy Review MINERALS Copy HW Open to packet pg 3.
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Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II). Definition of a Mineral 2.2 Minerals 1. Naturally occurring 2. Solid substance 3. Orderly crystalline structure.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of all minerals? A. Shiny B. Naturally occurring C. Consistent chemical composition D. Crystal structure.
UNIT 2 MINERALS PART 2 full lecture Structure of minerals Composition of magma or fluids from which the minerals form. Conditions like temperature and.
MINERALS TYPES OF BONDING INTERMOLECULAR BONDING HYDROGEN BONDING Occurs primarily between water molecules due to polarity. VAN DER WAALS BONDING Occurs.
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Matter and Minerals Chapter 2 Lecture Jennifer Mangan James Madison University Earth Science Fourteenth Edition.
Introduction to Minerals. Objectives Define mineral. Compare the two main groups of minerals. Identify the six types of silicate crystalline structures.
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Descriptions of Rock Forming Minerals: All the following minerals are made of silica tetrahedrons, either alone or combined with other elements.
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