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Minerals A large nugget
A Cut Diamond
Quartz Hexagonal crystals (six sided)
Quartz Concoidal fracture (like a bottle breaking)
K-spar (Potassium Feldspar 2 planes cleavage-one plane fracture
Fig. 03_02C Hornblende Crystals on left- 2 planes of fracture on right
Minerals form rocks!
Polymorphism 2 minerals-same composition-different crystal form
Figure 3.5 Ionic Bonding Gain/Lose (to get 8 in outer shell) Salt/Halite
Figure 3.7 Colvalent Bonding Electron Sharing (to get 8 in outer) Chlorine
Figure 3.8 Crystal form is expression of internal structure
Salt/Halite in cubes?
Diamonds-all carbon Strong bonds in all directions create form
Graphite-all carbon Weak bonds in plane make it soft
Pyrite FeS Cubic crystals, metallic luster
Quartz Glassy luster
Use of a streak plate
Moh’s scale of hardness Goes up to 10 Diamond is 10 Minerals on left Tools on right
Figure 3.14 Cleavage Mica-1 plane
What is this mess!!!!! Relax-its not that hard Why minerals have certain cleavage? Cleavage represents internal structure/bonding and defines the mineral groups
Mica Group Feldspar Group Hornblende Group Halite Calcite Fluorite Cleavage in minerals
Fracture Concoidal fracture in quartz
K-spar (potassium feldspar) 1 plane fracture (top)-2 planes cleavage
Magnetite Guess what-its magnetite!
Mineral groups defined by crystal structure
Minerals on earth-relative abundance
Quartz Hexagonal Crystals No cleavage Conchoidal fracture
Figure 3.26 Quartz Small amounts of impurities change color
K-spar (potassium feldspar) Salmon, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees-fracture 1 plane
Plagioclase Feldspar White, Grey, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees Fracture 1 plane Note Striations
Biotite Mica 1 cleavage-sheets
Pyroxene vs. Amphibole Groups Pyroxene-90 degree cleavage Amphibole-60/120 degree cleavage
Amphibole Group 2 cleavages at 60 and 120 degrees
Pyroxene Group 2 cleavages at 90 degrees
Olivine Group Concoidal fracture-no cleavage
Table 3.2 Non-silicate minerals
Carbonates Calcite (Ca) Dolomite (Ca-Mg)
Halides Fluorite Halite
Oxides Hematite (Iron Ore) Corundum (Ruby-red and Sapphires-blues)
Sulphides Galena (Lead Ore) Sphalerite (Zinc Ore) Pyrite (Iron ore) Cinnabar (Mercury Ore)
Sulphates Gypsum (Calcium) Near Surface Anhydrite (Calcium) At Depth
Precious Stones EmeraldSapphire-bluesRuby-red Corundum Beryl
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