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Published byTheodore Knights
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Minerals A large nugget
A Cut Diamond
Quartz Hexagonal crystals (six sided)
Quartz Concoidal fracture (like a bottle breaking)
K-spar (Potassium Feldspar 2 planes cleavage-one plane fracture
Fig. 03_02C Hornblende Crystals on left- 2 planes of fracture on right
Minerals form rocks!
Polymorphism 2 minerals-same composition-different crystal form
Figure 3.5 Ionic Bonding Gain/Lose (to get 8 in outer shell) Salt/Halite
Figure 3.7 Colvalent Bonding Electron Sharing (to get 8 in outer) Chlorine
Figure 3.8 Crystal form is expression of internal structure
Salt/Halite in cubes?
Diamonds-all carbon Strong bonds in all directions create form
Graphite-all carbon Weak bonds in plane make it soft
Pyrite FeS Cubic crystals, metallic luster
Quartz Glassy luster
Use of a streak plate
Moh’s scale of hardness Goes up to 10 Diamond is 10 Minerals on left Tools on right
Figure 3.14 Cleavage Mica-1 plane
What is this mess!!!!! Relax-its not that hard Why minerals have certain cleavage? Cleavage represents internal structure/bonding and defines the mineral groups
Mica Group Feldspar Group Hornblende Group Halite Calcite Fluorite Cleavage in minerals
Fracture Concoidal fracture in quartz
K-spar (potassium feldspar) 1 plane fracture (top)-2 planes cleavage
Magnetite Guess what-its magnetite!
Mineral groups defined by crystal structure
Minerals on earth-relative abundance
Quartz Hexagonal Crystals No cleavage Conchoidal fracture
Figure 3.26 Quartz Small amounts of impurities change color
K-spar (potassium feldspar) Salmon, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees-fracture 1 plane
Plagioclase Feldspar White, Grey, 2 cleavages at 90 degrees Fracture 1 plane Note Striations
Biotite Mica 1 cleavage-sheets
Pyroxene vs. Amphibole Groups Pyroxene-90 degree cleavage Amphibole-60/120 degree cleavage
Amphibole Group 2 cleavages at 60 and 120 degrees
Pyroxene Group 2 cleavages at 90 degrees
Olivine Group Concoidal fracture-no cleavage
Table 3.2 Non-silicate minerals
Carbonates Calcite (Ca) Dolomite (Ca-Mg)
Halides Fluorite Halite
Oxides Hematite (Iron Ore) Corundum (Ruby-red and Sapphires-blues)
Sulphides Galena (Lead Ore) Sphalerite (Zinc Ore) Pyrite (Iron ore) Cinnabar (Mercury Ore)
Sulphates Gypsum (Calcium) Near Surface Anhydrite (Calcium) At Depth
Precious Stones EmeraldSapphire-bluesRuby-red Corundum Beryl
MINERALS. Chemical composition of the Crust n Oxygen most abundant- 46.6% n Followed by silicon and aluminum n Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium.
Silicates SiO n silicon oxide 1/3 of all minerals are silicates about 95% of the Earth’s crust is composed of silicates.
Mineral - A naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous solid with a definite chemical composition and an ordered atomic arrangement. naturally occurring.
MINERALS Introduction What Are They?
Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral: Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical.
Classification of Minerals Native Elements Native Elements – minerals naturally composed of only one element (e.g., diamond, sulfur, gold) Sulfides and.
DEFINITION OF MINERAL Naturally occurring, Inorganic Solid with a definable chemical composition and crystal structure Physical Properties Crystal Form.
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II)
Content Composition of Earth Crust Minerals Groups Silicates Structures Silicates Minerals Nonsilicate Minerals.
Minerals. Minerals: Building blocks of rocks To be considered a mineral, a substance must: be a naturally occurring solid be formed by inorganic processes.
Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks Chapter 2
CHAPTER 5 MINERALS Name: __________________ Period: _____ Date: ___________________.
Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals. Minerals: Building blocks of rocks By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular.
Atoms Atoms – basic building blocks for all earth materials; consist of 3 basic components: protons, neutrons, electrons Atoms – basic building blocks.
In the beginning…... your new friends: MINERALS Basic Building Blocks of Rocks.
Matter and Minerals Matter and Minerals Geology for Engineers.
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