Forces Stabilizing Climate 1.Presence of an atmosphere What happens on the Moon? How does an atmosphere stabilize climate during day and night? What happens when you have a ticker atmosphere? What happens when you have a thinner atmosphere?
Seasons are Caused by Tilt (also called Obliquity ) ecliptic = plane of the solar system More solar radiation in the summer Less solar radiation in the winter Earth’s tilt angle: 23.5˚
Forces Stabilizing Climate, cont. 2.Having a large Moon Moon very large compared to the Earth and other Moons. The Moon stabilizes the tilt of the Earth. This stabilizes the seasons. animation
Forces Stabilizing Climate, cont. Mars: Currently Mars’ tilt is 25˚ No large Moons (2 tiny Moons: Deimos and Phobos) Tilt is highly variable - chaotic. Tilt varies between 0-60˚ on timescales of tens of thousands of years/millions of years ecliptic = plane of the solar system
Mars at High and Low Tilt Angles today high tilt angle low tilt angle
Forces Stabilizing Climate, cont. 3. The Carbonate-Silicate Cycle Unique feature of the Earth - is a result of: a. plate tectonics b. volcanism c. having oceans Where does most CO 2 come from? } having a geologically active planet
Forming Carbonate Rocks CO 2 + H 2 O ---> H 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid, dissolved in rainwater and in the oceans) Ca 2+ + H 2 CO 3 ---> CaCO 3 + 2H + (limestone + acid) Where is most of the CO 2 in the Earth? 1xtiny bit in atmosphere (270 ppm) 50xdissolved in the oceans 30,000xdeposited as carbonate rocks (sedimentary rock) 1.7 millionxdissolved in the mantle If we were to put all carbonate rocks into the atmosphere, would have an atmosphere similar to Venus.
Silicate/Rock Weathering CaSiO 3 + 2H 2 CO 3 ---> Ca 2+ + 2HCO 3 - + SiO 2 + H 2 O silicate carbonic ions quartz rock acid Another type of silicate rock: 2KAlSi 3 O 8 + 2H 2 CO 3 + 9H 2 O ---> 2K + + 2HCO 3 - + 4H 4 SiO 4 + Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 feldspar carbonic ions quartz clay acid Acid weathering of rocks produces ions (Ca 2+, K +, Fe 2+, Mg 2+, etc.). Ions washed into rivers and the oceans (ocean salinity). Clays and quartz are produced. Ions combine with H 2 CO 3 to produce limestone.
Forming Carbonate Rocks CO 2 + H 2 O ---> H 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid, dissolved in rainwater and in the oceans) Ca 2+ + H 2 CO 3 ---> CaCO 3 + 2H + (limestone + acid) Today: Much of the limestone is biogenic (coral reefs, shells) Some of the limestone is abiogenic.
Subduction CaCO 3 + SiO 2 ---> CaSiO 3 + CO 2 limestone quartz silicate rock metamorphic reaction: occurs at high T and P
The Carbonate-Silicate Cycle 1.CO 2 outgassing from volcanos (greenhouse gas) 2.CO 2 dissolves in rain, lakes, streams, turns into carbonic acid 3.Carbonic acid reacts with rocks, making ions, quartz, and clay 4.Ions and dissolved CO 2 reacts to make carbonate rocks 5.Carbonate rocks are subducted 6.Subducted carbonate rocks turned into CO 2
How Does this Cycle Stabilize Climate? CO 2 + H 2 O ---> H 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid, dissolved in rainwater and in the oceans) Ca 2+ + H 2 CO 3 ---> CaCO 3 + 2H + (limestone + acid) At high temperatures, more limestone is precipitated. More CO 2 dissolves in the oceans. This cools climate and lower temperatures. } negative feedback loop
CO 2 Constantly Replaced By Subduction
Earth’s Climate Is Obviously Not That Stable 1. The tilt undergoes precession (spinning like a top)precession Alters how much solar radiation each hemisphere receives during summer and winter. Cycles: 20,000 years 2. There are small variation in the Earth’s tilt 21.5 to 24.5˚ Cycles: 40,000 years 3. Small variation (5%) in Earth’s eccentricity Changes the distance to the Sun, higher heating when closer. Cycles: 100,000 years Milankovitch cycles Milankovitch cycles - could trigger ice ages.