Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM."— Presentation transcript:

1 YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) MAP HEALTH EFFECTS HEALTH EFFECTS HEALTH EFFECTS HEALTH EFFECTS NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT RADIOACTIVITY IN FOOD RADIOACTIVITY IN FOOD RADIOACTIVITY IN FOOD RADIOACTIVITY IN FOOD RADIOACTIVITY IN WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SEA WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SEA WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SEA WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SEA WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL AND AIR RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL AND AIR RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL AND AIR RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL AND AIR BACKGROUND GAMMA READINGS GAMMA READINGS GAMMA READINGS GAMMA READINGS AS OF 1200 HRS EDT 14 APRIL 2011 GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyMinistry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Nuclear and Industrial Safety Administration Nuclear and Industrial Safety Administration (NISA) INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS RELIEFWEB International Nuclear Safety Center International Atomic Energy Agency Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System WHO WHO – Health Action In Crisis WHO-WPRO US GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS US Government - Japan Earthquake and Tsunami The Department of State U.S Embassy in Japan State Dept.'s DipNote on Twitter State Dept. Background Note U.S. Agency for International Development OFDA The Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- Tsunami CDC-Earthquake CDC-Radiation Emergencies NIOSH FDA NIOSH EPA OSHA DOE - NNSA PORTALS AND RESOURCES All Partners Access Network (APAN) Japan Disaster Wiki CATDAT and Earthquake Reports GDACS Center of Excellence – Disaster Management Humanitarian Assistance National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health Google Crisis Resources Japan Atomic Industrial Forum LIBRARY National Medical Library – Japan Earthquake Disaster Information Management Research Center Radiation Emergency Medical Management AFTERSHOCK - 11 APRIL AFTERSHOCK - 11 APRIL AFTERSHOCK - 11 APRIL AFTERSHOCK - 11 APRIL KEY LINKS

2 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BACKGROUND Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) - Located on the east coast of Japan, 6 nuclear reactors are boiling water reactors (BWRs). The earthquake on 11 March severed off-site power to the plant and triggered the automatic shutdown of the three operating reactors - Units 1, 2, and 3. Control rods were inserted into the reactor cores, ending the fission chain reaction. The remaining reactors - Units 4, 5, and 6 -- had previously been shut down for routine maintenance. Backup diesel generators, designed to start with loss of off-site power, began providing electricity to pumps circulating coolant to the 6 reactors. The tsunami washed over the FDNPP, disabling the generators. Some batteries remained operable, but the site lost water circulation for reactor cooling. Over the ensuing days there was evidence of partial nuclear meltdowns in reactors 1, 2, and 3; hydrogen explosions destroyed the upper cladding of the buildings housing reactors 1, 3, and 4; an explosion damaged reactor 2's containment; and multiple fires broke out at reactor 4. Fears of radiation leaks led to a 30 km (18-mile) radius evacuation around the plant. Radioactive material was released on several occasions, due to both deliberate venting to relieve pressure, and uncontrolled (accidental) releases. These conditions resulted in radioactive contamination of the air, soil, drinking water, and seawater. Several large aftershocks and subsequent tsunami warnings have added to the difficulties faced by plant workers as they work to neutralize the situation at the FDNPP. IAEA Briefing 14:30 UTC: 13 April 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 This 10 April image taken by T-Hawk drone aircraft shows the damaged reactor building of Unit 4, left, of the tsunami-crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. TEPCO

3 AFTERSHOCK (11 APRIL 2011) At 02:04:51 P.M.UTC on 11 April 2011 an aftershock measuring 6.6 struck the east Honshu region. The Earthquake triggered a local tsunami warning that was cancelled 49 minutes afterward. The aftershock struck at a depth of 10 km. 3 deaths and 10 injuries (3 serious) were caused by the aftershock. Power was temporarily disabled to the crippled reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. At 23:08 UTC, , an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.2 occurred offshore of the East Coast of Honshu, Japan) at a depth of 13.1 km. Distances from epicentre of the earthquake to NPP sites were: 188 km to Tokai, 217 km to Fukushima Daini, 229 km to Fukushima Daiichi, 236 km to Hamaoka and 285 km to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa. At 05:07 UTC, , an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0 occurred inland east of Honshu, Japan at a depth of 10.6 km. Distances from epicentre of the earthquake to NPP sites were; 46 km to Fukushima Daini, 53 km to Fukushima Daiichi, 72 km to Tokai, 165 km to Onagawa and 179 km to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa. JMA Tsunami Warning: 11 April 2011 USGS Magnitude 6.6 Earthquake: 11 April 2011USGS Magnitude 6.6 Earthquake: 11 April 2011 CATDAT Update: 12 April 2011CATDAT Update: 12 April 2011

4 SITUATION The Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) issued a new provisional rating for the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on the IAEA International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi is now rated as a level 7 "Major Accident" on INES. Level 7 is the most serious level on INES and is used to describe an event comprised of "A major release of radioactive material with widespread health and environmental effects requiring implementation of planned and extended countermeasures". The new provisional rating considers the accidents that occurred at Units 1, 2 and 3 as a single event on INES. Previously, separate INES Level 5 ratings had been applied for Units 1, 2 and 3. The provisional INES Level 3 rating assigned for Unit 4 still applies. The re-evaluation of the Fukushima Daiichi provisional INES rating resulted from an estimate of the total amount of radioactivity released to the environment from the nuclear plant. NISA estimates that the amount of radioactive material released to the atmosphere is approximately 10 percent of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, which is the only other nuclear accident to have been rated a Level 7 event. The science ministry reports that radiation levels in seawater off the coast of Fukushima Prefecture are the highest since it began monitoring them about 3 weeks ago. The ministry reports that the level of iodine-131 was 88.5 Bq/l (2.2 times the government's upper limit for wastewater from nuclear facilities) in a sample taken on Monday about 30 km east of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi is now rated as a level 7 "Major Accident" on INES. THE INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL EVENT SCALE NISA PRESS RELEASE 12 APRIL 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 JAIF Earthquake Report #51: 13 April 2011 Earlier ratings of the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi were assessed as follows: On 18 March, Japanese authorities rated the core damage at the Fukushima Daiichi 1, 2 and 3 reactor Units caused by loss of all cooling function to have been at Level 5 on the INES scale. They further assessed that the loss of cooling and water supplying functions in the spent fuel pool of the Unit 4 reactor to have been rated at Level 3. Japanese authorities may revise the INES rating at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant as further information becomes available. INES is used to promptly and consistently communicate to the public the safety significance of events associated with sources of radiation. The scale runs from 0 (deviation) to 7 (major accident). Earlier ratings of the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi were assessed as follows: On 18 March, Japanese authorities rated the core damage at the Fukushima Daiichi 1, 2 and 3 reactor Units caused by loss of all cooling function to have been at Level 5 on the INES scale. They further assessed that the loss of cooling and water supplying functions in the spent fuel pool of the Unit 4 reactor to have been rated at Level 3. Japanese authorities may revise the INES rating at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant as further information becomes available. INES is used to promptly and consistently communicate to the public the safety significance of events associated with sources of radiation. The scale runs from 0 (deviation) to 7 (major accident). Chernobyl (1986) Kyshtym (1957) TMI (1979) Tokaimura (1999) Vandellos (1989) Forsmark (2006)

5 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NOTE: The IAEA has provisionally upgraded the situation at Fukushima Daiichi from Level 5 to Level 7 on the INES Scale. 11 and 12 APRIL EARTHQUAKES The IAEA confirmed that a 6.6 magnitude earthquake occurred in Japan at 08:16 UTC, 11 April. The epicenter of the earthquake was in Fukushima Prefecture, 68km from the Daiichi nuclear power plant. Workers were temporarily evacuated to the seismic evacuation shelter. No changes were observed on radiation monitoring equipment. Off-site power was lost and water injection pumps for Units 1, 2 and 3 stopped, but were restarted after 50 minutes. Two aftershocks occurred at 23:08 UTC, 11 April and at 05:07 UTC, 12 April. NISA has reported that the earthquakes had no effect on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. PRESSURE The pressure in Unit 1 has now stabilized. The pressure in the RPV is increasing, according to one channel of instrumentation, but remains stable according to another channel. In Units 2 and 3 Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure. TEMPERATURE RPV temperatures remain above cold shutdown conditions in all Units, (typically less than 95°C). In Unit 1 temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 206°C and at the bottom of the RPV is 119°C. In Unit 2 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 165°C. The temperature at the bottom of RPV was reported as 208°C (this measurement has been available since the 12th April). In Unit 3 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 99°C and at the bottom of the RPV is 116°C. There has been no change in status in Units 4, 5 and 6 and the Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility. NISA News Release 12 April 2011 IAEA Briefing 14:30 UTC: 12 April 2011 IAEA Briefing 14:30 UTC: 13 April April IAEA International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale PROVISIONAL UPGRADE OF INES RANKING Overall, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi plant remains very serious but there are early signs of recovery in some functions such as electrical power and instrumentation. There have been no changes concerning the provisional INES Level 7 rating and protective measures as reported in yesterday's brief. The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has submitted a provisional International Nuclear and Radiological Even Scale (INES) Level 7 rating for the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This new provisional rating considers the accidents that occurred at Units 1, 2 and 3 as a single event on the INES and uses estimated total release to the atmosphere as a justification. NISA reports that the amount of discharged radioactive materials is approximately 10% of that discharged in the Chernobyl accident in 1986, which was also assessed as a Level 7 Major Accident. FRESH WATER In Unit 1 fresh water is being continuously injected into the RPV through the feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. In Units 2 and 3 fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at an indicated rate of 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power. FIRE IN COOLING WATER STRUCTURE On 11 April, a fire broke out in the housing outlet structure for cooling water for Units 1-4. The fire was extinguished manually and no consequences were identified in terms of release of radioactive material, cooling of the plants or radiation monitoring. INJECTION OF NITROGEN GAS Nitrogen gas is being injected into the Unit 1 containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion. The injection of nitrogen was stopped briefly following the earthquake on 11 April, but resumed later.

6 13 April 2011 IAEA Summary of Reactor Unit Status Severe ConditionConcernNo Immediate Concern

7 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UNITSITUATION UNIT 1 Unit 1 experienced an explosion on March 12, after attempts to vent gas from the containment. The explosion destroyed the outer shell of the building’s upper floors. Coolant within Unit 1 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, and Japanese authorities believe the core has been damaged. Official have been unable to measure temperature in the spent fuel storage pool. As of 26 March, lighting had been restored to the control center. Pooled water at the floor of Unit 1 showed high radiation levels (sampling on 27 March:.4mSv/hr). Transfer of stagnant water to the reactor condenser has been ongoing since 24 March. As of 1 April, the condenser is full. Drainage of the pooled water in the tunnel outside of the building of unit 1 to the suppression pool surge tank is now complete. Freshwater pumping to the RPV using off-site power was established on 29 March, and continues. Water transfer from the condenser to the condensate storage tank was completed on 10 April. Nitrogen gas is being injected into the Unit 1 containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel. The pressure in this containment vessel has stabilized. The pressure in the RPV is increasing. Fresh water is being continuously injected into the RPV through the feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. The pressure in the RPV is increasing, as indicated on both channels of instrumentation, which may indicate that it is not working properly. The temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 206 °C and at the bottom of the RPV is 119 °C. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuously as of 06:30, 9 April. UNIT 2 Coolant within Unit 2 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, and Japanese authorities believe the core has been damaged. The transfer of water from the Condensate Storage Tank the Surge Tank of Suppression Pool Water began on 29 March 07:45 UTC. TEPCO has identified a possible leakage path from the Turbine building of Unit 2 to the sea via a series of trenches/tunnels used to provide power to the sea water intake pumps and supply of service water to the reactor and turbine buildings. On 4 April, a tracer was used in an attempt to determine where the water was coming from. On 5 April it was confirmed that the tracer was seen leaking from the crack into the sea. Coagulation agents (liquid glass) were injected into the holes drilled around the pits to block leakage of water. At 20:38 UTC on 5 April, it was reported that the leakage has stopped. Additional activities to secure the leak were reported finished on 6 April. Water transfer from the condenser to the condensate storage tank was completed on 10 April. Fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at an indicated rate of 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power. Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure. An additional 60 T of fresh water was injected via the Spent Fuel Cooling System line to the spent fuel pool in Unit 2 by a temporary pump on 10 April. As of 13 April, the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 165 °C. The temperature at the bottom of the RPV was reported as 208°C. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuous as of 06:30, 9 April. UNIT 3 Unit 3 experienced an explosion on March 14 that destroyed the outer shell of the building’s 3rd floor. Concern about damage to the primary containment vessel and spent fuel pool remain. Lighting to the Central Control Room was restored on 22 March. Since 29 March, fresh water is being injected continuously into the reactor pressure vessel through the fire extinguisher line using a temporary electric pump. Pooled water at the floor of Unit 3 showed high radiation levels (sampling on 26 March: I-131 levels were 3.2 X 105 for Unit 3). The transfer of water from the Condensate Storage Tank to the Surge Tank of Suppression Pool was completed on 30 March at 23:37 UTC. Stagnant water on the basement floor of the turbine building is now being pumped into the Condenser. Fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at an indicated rate of 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power. The Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure. As of 13 April, The temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 99 °C and at the bottom of the RPV is 116 °C. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuous as of 06:30, 9 April. UNIT 4 All fuel from Unit 4 had been removed from the reactor core for routine maintenance before the earthquake and placed into the spent fuel pool. The building's outer shell was damaged on 14 March, causing sever damage to the buildings upper floors. Authorities remain concerned that structural damage may have reduced cooling capabilities in the spent fuel pool. Lighting to the Central Control Room was restored on 29 March. Fresh water (instead of sea water) is now being sprayed into the spent fuel pool using a concrete pump truck. As of 13 April, no changes have been reported in the status of Unit 4. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuous as of 06:30, 9 April. UNITS 5 & 6 Shut down for routine maintenance before the earthquake. Instrumentation indicated rising temperatures at spent fuel pools starting 14 March. Both reactors achieved cold shutdown on 20 March. Workers have opened holes in the roofs of both buildings to prevent hydrogen gas accumulation, which is suspected of causing explosions at units 1 and 3. Outside power supply was restored to Units 5 and 6 on 22 March. As of April, the temperature in the spent fuel pools of Units 5 and 6 is stable at 32.8°C and 22.5°C, respectively. Both reactors remain in cold shutdown, with low pressure and water temperature; systems operating on off-site AC power. At 21:00 4 April, low-level radioactive groundwater in the sub-drain pit of units 5 and 6 (around 1,500t) was discharged through the water discharge canal to the sea. In order to make room for higher contaminated water from the turbine buildings and trenches, T of low level contaminated water from Units 5 and 6 sub-drain pit were released to the sea from 4 to 9 April. In addition, T of low-level contaminated water was discharged from the Central Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility to the south discharge point. Common Spent Fuel Pools In addition to pools in each of the plant's reactor buildings, authorities are also concerned about rising temperatures in the Common Use Spent Fuel Pool, where spent fuel is stored after cooling for at least 18 months in the reactor buildings. Official confirmed fuel assemblies were fully covered by water on March 18. Outside power was available starting 24 March, and cooling began. Water spray by the concrete pump truck continues. On 3 April, the temperature was stable. On 10 April additional anti- scattering agent was sprayed in an area of about 550 m2 on the mountain-side of the Common Spent Fuel Pool to prevent the radioactive materials on the ground from being scattered. NISA Conditions of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-6 (07:00 5 April)IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 NISA Seismic Damage Update (83rd Release: 9 April)

8 GAMMA DOSE RATES IN μSv/hour 14 MARCH – 12 APRIL Natural Background: 0.1 µSv/hr. Dose rates continue to decrease. Natural Background: 0.1 µSv/hr. Dose rates continue to decrease. Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures, the values tend to decrease. For Fukushima, on 12th April a dose rate of 2.1 μSv/h, for the Ibaraki prefecture a gamma dose rate of 0.14 μSv/h was reported. The gamma dose rates in all other prefectures were below 0.1 µSv/h. On 12th April, the IAEA Team made measurements at 7 different locations in the Fukushima area at distances of 32 to 62 km, North and Northwest from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At these locations, the dose rates ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 µSv/h. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 Megabecquerel/m2. IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL April IAEA Radiological Monitoring & Consequences Report

9 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY TRENDS AROUND FDNPP JIAF: Trend of Radiation in the Environment around Fukushima Daiichi NPS 13 April

10 1,346 milk, produce and other food samples from Chiba, Ehime, Fukushima, Gunma, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Kyoto, Miyagi, Nagano, Niigata, Saitama, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokyo, Yamagata prefectures were tested by the MHLW from 19 March to 13 April, (76 samples received since 11 April 2011). Samples are tested for both radioactive Iodine and cesium or cesium alone. LIFTED RESTRICTIONS: 08 April: Restriction on the distribution of spinach and kakina in Guma has been lifted. 10 April: Restriction on the distribution of raw milk in Ibaraki has been lifted RESTRICTIONS AS OF 13 APRIL: On 13 April, the Prime Minister of Japan requested the Governor of Fukushima prefecture to restrict the consumption of shiitake mushrooms (grown on logs in open fields only) produced at Iitate-village until further notice. Instructions were also issued to restrict the distribution of shiitake mushrooms (grown on logs in open fields only) produced in the cities of Date, Soma, Minamisoma, Tamura and Iwaki; the towns of Shinchi, Kawamata, Namie, Futaba, Ookuma, Tomioka, Naraha and Hirono, and; the villages of Iitate, Katsurao and Kawauchi until further notice. In Chiba Prefecture, local distribution of spinach from Katori City and Tako Town; and spinach, garland chrysanthemum, parsley, qinq-geng-cai, celery and Korean lettuce from Asahi City have been restricted. As of 13 April, media sources report that Iitate Village of Fukushima Prefecture has decided not to plant rice and vegetables this year. Planting rice in soils with Cs above 5000 Bq/kg is banned. In Fukushima, there are restrictions on the consumption of leafy vegetables, headed and non-headed leafy vegetables, and flower-headed brassicas. There are also restrictions on the distribution of headed and non-headed leafy vegetables, flower-headed brassicas, spinach, kakina and unprocessed raw milk produced in the prefecture. In Tochigi, there are restrictions on the distribution of spinach and kakina. FOOD SAFETY On 13 April, results received for 76 food samples. Two samples exceeded the provisional regulation values, including one fish sample and one spinach sample, both from Ibaraki. The GoJ has lifted the restrictions on shipping raw milk from Kitakata City, Fukushima Prefecture, spinach and kakina from Gunma Prefecture as radioactivity levels in those foods are below the threshold for shipping bans. Based on the test results of rice paddy soil around the FDNPP, the GoJ decided to regulate the planting of rice crops in the areas where it is likely that produced rice might exceed the provisional standard values established under the Food Sanitation Act. Farmers will be compensated for loss of the rice crops. On 11 April the meat sample from Fukushima previously found to exceed the provisional regulation value for Cs, has been removed from the data summary as there was the possibility of cross contamination of the sample since radioactive Cs had been detected from the plastic bag used for test. Additional testing of the same carcass found no presence of radioactive Iodine or Cs. Japan’s fishery ministry said it has ordered daily inspection of marine products caught off Ibaraki Prefecture, which is down-current from where contaminated radioactive water is being dumped into the ocean. A ministry official criticized EPCO for not informing it in advance before releasing the contaminated water into the ocean. The fishing industry is urging the government to set permitted levels of iodine in marine products as soon as possible. WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 WHO –WPRO SitRep 27: 11 April 2011

11 Photo: Getty Images FOOD SAFETY WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 WHO –WPRO SitRep 27: 11 April 2011 IAEA Briefing 18:00 UTC: 11 April 2011

12 RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER BACKGROUND - On 19 March, MHLW issued a notice to local governments that when the provisional regulation values for drinking water (300 Bq/kg for Iodine; 200 Bq/kg for Cesium) are exceeded, water supply utilities would notify the residents to refrain from drinking the water. On 21 March, MHLW issued an additional notice that for infants, the provisional regulation value for the intake of water is set at 100 Bq/kg. On 26 March, MHLW issued a notice to water supply utilities to stop or reduce intake of surface water, and cover water treatment facilities with plastic sheets, following rainfalls, where possible, which would reduce the Iodine levels in drinking water. WHOLE POPULATION – As of 13 April, the IAEA reported that iodine 131 and Cesium 137 were detectable at very low levels of contamination in a few prefectures and did not pose a health risk. INFANTS As of 12 April, the restriction on tap water intake by infants in Iitate Village from 9 April remains in place for the Iitate Small Scale Water Supply Utility. The measure is a precaution only as readings of iodine 131 at all three treatment plants remain below provisional limits of 100 Bq/l. As of 10 April (17:00), the restriction on water intake by infants remains in Iitate Village, although readings of I-131 at all three water treatment plants are below 100 Bq/l. WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 WHO –WPRO SitRep 27: 11 April 2011

13 RADIONUCLIDES IN SEA WATER RADIATION LEVELS OF SEAWATER AT WATER DISCHARGE POINT OF FDNPP TEPCO is conducting a program for seawater (surface sampling) at a number of near-shore and off-shore monitoring locations. Until 3rd April a general decreasing trend was observed at the sampling points TEPCO1 to TEPCO4. After the discharge of contaminated water on 4th April, a temporary increase has been reported. On 13th April new data for samples collected on 11th April at TEPCO1-10 sampling points have been reported. As for the near-shore stations TEPCO 1, 3 and 4 levels of I-131 and Cs-137 below 1.5 kBq/l have been reported. At TEPCO 2, for both I-131 and Cs-137 concentrations of about 7 kBq/l were measured. As for the six TEPCO stations 15 km offshore, at TEPCO the concentration of I-131 was below 0.3 kBq/l and that of Cs-137 below 0.2 kBq/l. At TEPCO 7 and 8, I-131 and Cs-137 below 0.05 kBq/l below 0.02 kBq/l were measured. At TEPCO 9 concentrations of about 1 kBq/l of both I- 131 and Cs-137 were recorded. MEXT initiated the off-shore monitoring program on 23rd March and subsequently points 9 and 10 were added to the off-shore sampling scheme. On 4th April, MEXT added two sampling points to the north and west of sampling point 1. These are referred to as points A and B On 13th April new data for samples collected on 11th April at MEXT 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 an B sampling points have been reported. Cs-137 was only detected at MEXT 4 at a concentration level of about 70 Bq/l. I-131 concentration of about 90 Bq/l was measured at Station MEXT4. At MEXT6, 8, 10 and B, I-131 below about 15 Bq/l was reported. WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 Readings of Sea Area Monitoring: NPP 10 April 2011 MEXT AND TEPCO SAMPLING OF I-131 IN SEA WATER Sampling Points Around Fukushima NPPs As of 13 April 2011

14 RADIONUCLIDES IN SEA WATER JAIF Monitoring of Sea Water: 14 April 2011JAIF Monitoring of Sea Water: 14 April 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 Readings of Sea Area Monitoring: NPP 10 April 2011 It can be expected that, if no additional releases occur, the levels measured at the stations 30 km off-shore will decrease significantly by dilution into deeper layers and dispersion by ocean currents. The maximum permissible concentrations in seawater are 40 Bq/l for I-131 and 90 Bq/l for Cs-137. Values in excess of the Iodine-131 limit were detected at sampling points 3, 4 and 5 on 23 and 24 March but dropped below the limit on 25 March. On 30 March, the maximum permissible concentration of 40 Bq/l for I-131 was exceeded at sampling point 10. The latest results sampled on 13th April new data for samples collected showed that the near-shore stations TEPCO1, 3 and 4 levels of I-131 and Cs-137 below 1.5 kBq/l have been reported. At TEPCO 2, for both I-131 and Cs-137 concentrations of about 7 kBq/l were measured. Figure 1: Map demonstrating monitoring of radiation in sea water The sampling has been done at alternate sampling points since 26 March. The results released by MEXT are summarized in Figure 2. Figure 3: TEPCO Seawater Sampling Locations

15 RADIONUCLIDES IN SEA WATER CONCERNS FOR MARINE PRODUCTS - Japan’s fishery ministry said it has ordered daily inspection of marine products caught off Ibaraki Prefecture. A ministry official criticized TEPCO for not informing it in advance before releasing the contaminated water into the ocean. The fishing industry is urging the GoJ to set permitted levels of iodine in marine products as soon as possible. The movements of all ships, including fishing boats, are restricted within a 30 km zone from the FDNPP, based on the hazardous area set by the Maritime Safety Agency. JAIF: Monitoring of Sea Water Near FDNPP - 14 April 2011

16 RADIONUCLIDES IN AIR AND SOIL WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 RADIATION LEVELS IN THE SOIL At the request of MEXT, Fukushima Prefecture began monitoring radioactivity levels in soil on 18 March. The radioactivity levels of are monitored at 9 sites. The levels of I-131 in all but the sampling point in Iitate Village (40 km northwest of the FDNPP) have been low and generally declining. In Iitate Village, the radioactivity peaked on 20 March (1.17 megaBq/kg for I-131 and megaBq/kg for Cs-137) and has since then been decreasing. On 12th April, the presence of both I-131 and Cs-137 was detected in 7 and 6 prefectures respectively. The values reported for I-131 ranged from 1.6 to 460 Bq/m2 and for C-137 from 31 to 700 Bq/m2. The highest presence was observed in the Ibaraki prefecture. MEXT included new data on radiation in soil in Kamje-cho, 20 km northwest of the FDNPP. As of 11 April, the levels of I-131 and Cs-137 are relatively high and have not decreased since 30 March. The latest measurement of I- 131 was 190,000 Bq/kg. TEPCO analyzed soil at five sampling points on the premises of the FDNPP. The soil samples on 21 and 22 March were analyzed and plutonium 238, 239 and 240 were detected. According to TEPCO, the density of detected plutonium is equivalent to the fallout observed in Japan when atmospheric nuclear testing was conducted in the past. The detected plutonium from two samples out of five may be the direct result of the recent incident, considering the activity ratio of the plutonium isotopes. However, these plutonium levels do not pose major risk to human health. TEPCO will continue radionuclide analysis of soil. As of 8 April, radioactivity levels in soil at all sampling points have decreased since 20 March, and remain about the same as the previous readings from 3 April. RADIATION LEVELS IN THE AIR Overall, radiation levels in the air in prefectures near the FDNPP are stable. Levels are still above historic background levels, but low in terms of human health risk. High radiation levels continue to be clustered around NW area of plant. Overall, radiation levels km from the plant are decreasing or stable. Cumulative I-131 doses at various locations km from FDNPP are shown. The highest level as of 12 April was mSv at 30 km northwest of the FDNPP. NOTE: Radiation levels in area ~30km NW of plant remain higher than normal, but there is continued decrease in radiation levels

17 HEALTH CONCERNS CURRENT RISK The GoJ’s recent actions in response to events at the FDNPP are in line with the existing recommendations for radiation exposure. The GoJ has evacuated individuals who were living within a 20-km radius around the FDNPP. The GoJ announced earlier that because of accumulated radiation contamination, it would encourage people to leave certain areas beyond its 20 km (12 mile) exclusion zone around the plant. Thousands of people could be affected by the move. Children, pregnant women, and hospitalized patients should stay out of some areas km from the nuclear complex. On 11 April GoJ announced they will establish “Planned Evacuation Areas” and “Evacuation Prepared Area” in the areas beyond the 20km radius from the FDNPP. This decision is based on findings that areas beyond the 20km radius could be exposed to over 20mSv during the next year. RISK OF RADIOACTIVE EXPOSURE FROM FOOD CONTAMINATION There is a risk of exposure as a result of contamination in food. However, contaminated food would have to be consumed over prolonged periods to represent a risk to human health. As of 11 April, the restriction on water intake by infants remains in Iitate Village, although the readings of I-131 at all three water treatment plants are below 100 Bq/l. RADIATION MONITORING On 12 April, deposition of both I-131 and Cs-137 was detected in 7 and 6 prefectures respectively. The values reported for I-131 ranged from 1.6 to 460 Bq/m2 and for C-137 from 31 to 700 Bq/m2. The highest deposition was observed in the Ibaraki prefecture. Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures, the values tend to decrease. The gamma dose rates in all other prefectures were below 0.1 µSv/h. For Fukushima, on 12 April a dose rate of 2.1 μSv/h, for the Ibaraki prefecture a gamma dose rate of 0.14 μSv/h was reported. Typical normal background levels are in the range of 0.05 to 0.10 μSv/h. LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS Exposure to high doses of radiation can increase the risk of cancer. If I-131 is inhaled or ingested, it will concentrate in the thyroid gland and increase the risk of thyroid cancer. Among persons exposed to I-131, the risk of thyroid cancer can be lowered by taking potassium iodide pills, which helps prevent the uptake of the radioactive iodine. The risk of thyroid cancer following radiation exposure is higher in children and young adults. ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS If the dose of radiation exceeds a certain threshold level, it can produce acute effects, including skin redness, hair loss, radiation burns, and acute radiation syndrome. In a nuclear power accident, rescuers, first responders, and nuclear power plant workers may be exposed to doses of radiation high enough to cause acute effects, but usually not the general public. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES (UPON EXPOSURE) Upon coming indoors after radiation exposure, undress in the doorway to avoid further contamination of home or shelter. Remove clothing and shoes and place them in a plastic bag. Seal the bag and place it in a safe location away from living areas, children, and pets. Shower or bathe with warm water and soap. Notify authorities of possibly contaminated clothing and personal belongings so that they can be handled appropriately and disposed of according to accepted national procedures. Potassium iodide pills are not “radiation antidotes”. They do not protect against external radiation, or against any other radioactive substances besides radioiodine. They may cause medical complications for some individuals with poorly functioning kidneys. KI should be taken only when there is a clear public health recommendation. WHO-WPRO SitRep 28: 13 April 2011 I AEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 13 APRIL 2011 IAEA Briefing (14:30 UTC): 12 April 2011 Reuters: 11 April 2011 The risk to public health from Japan's nuclear accident is no worse after a change in the disaster's status on 12 April, according to the World Health Organization. At the moment there is very little public health risk outside the 30-kilometre (evacuation) zone. The higher severity rating was the result of combining the amounts of radiation leaking from three reactors and counting them as a single incident. HEALTH RISKS TO PEOPLE LIVING OUTSIDE OF JAPAN DUE TO RADIATION (FROM FDNPP) Thus far, there are no health risks to people living in other countries from radioactive material released into the atmosphere from the Japanese nuclear power plants. Radiation levels measured to date in other countries are far below the level of background radiation that most people are exposed to in every day circumstances. Radiation levels are being monitored by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which operates 63 surveillance stations around the world. HEALTH RISKS TO PEOPLE LIVING OUTSIDE OF JAPAN DUE TO RADIATION (FROM FDNPP) Thus far, there are no health risks to people living in other countries from radioactive material released into the atmosphere from the Japanese nuclear power plants. Radiation levels measured to date in other countries are far below the level of background radiation that most people are exposed to in every day circumstances. Radiation levels are being monitored by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which operates 63 surveillance stations around the world.


Download ppt "YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google