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1 (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT)
YALE/TULANE ESF-8 PLANNING AND RESPONSE PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT (FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT) MAP KEY LINKS BACKGROUND GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Nuclear and Industrial Safety Administration (NISA) INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS RELIEFWEB International Nuclear Safety Center International Atomic Energy Agency Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System WHO WHO – Health Action In Crisis WHO-WPRO US GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS US Government - Japan Earthquake and Tsunami The Department of State U.S Embassy in Japan State Dept.'s DipNote on Twitter State Dept. Background Note U.S. Agency for International Development OFDA The Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- Tsunami CDC-Earthquake CDC-Radiation Emergencies NIOSH FDA EPA OSHA DOE - NNSA PORTALS AND RESOURCES All Partners Access Network (APAN) Japan Disaster Wiki CATDAT and Earthquake Reports GDACS Center of Excellence – Disaster Management Humanitarian Assistance National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health Google Crisis Resources Japan Atomic Industrial Forum LIBRARY National Medical Library – Japan Earthquake Disaster Information Management Research Center Radiation Emergency Medical Management AFTERSHOCKS NUCLEAR POWER PLANT GAMMA READINGS RADIOACTIVITY IN FOOD RADIOACTIVITY IN WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SEA WATER RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL AND AIR HEALTH EFFECTS AS OF 1200 HRS EDT 19 APRIL 2011

2 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BACKGROUND
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) - Located on the east coast of Japan, 6 nuclear reactors are boiling water reactors (BWRs). The earthquake on 11 March severed off-site power to the plant and triggered the automatic shutdown of the three operating reactors - Units 1, 2, and 3. Control rods were inserted into the reactor cores, ending the fission chain reaction. The remaining reactors - Units 4, 5, and 6 -- had previously been shut down for routine maintenance. Backup diesel generators, designed to start with loss of off-site power, began providing electricity to pumps circulating coolant to the 6 reactors. The tsunami washed over the FDNPP, disabling the generators. Some batteries remained operable, but the site lost water circulation for reactor cooling. Over the ensuing days there was evidence of partial nuclear meltdowns in reactors 1, 2, and 3; hydrogen explosions destroyed the upper cladding of the buildings housing reactors 1, 3, and 4; an explosion damaged reactor 2's containment; and multiple fires broke out at reactor 4. Fears of radiation leaks led to a 30 km (18-mile) radius evacuation around the plant. Radioactive material was released on several occasions, due to both deliberate venting to relieve pressure, and uncontrolled (accidental) releases. These conditions resulted in radioactive contamination of the air, soil, drinking water, and seawater. Several large aftershocks and subsequent tsunami warnings have added to the difficulties faced by plant workers as they work to neutralize the situation at the FDNPP. Photo taken by an unmanned helicopter on 15 April 15 shows the lid of the containment vessel at the building housing the No. 4 reactor of the FDNPP. Photo: TEPCO/Kyodo News IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011

3 SITUATION The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi is now rated as a level 7 "Major Accident" on INES. On 17 April, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) announced that TEPCO had issued a "Roadmap towards Restoration from the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station". The roadmap outlines 63 measures to be taken in two steps over a period of six to nine months. TEPCO declared they will "make every effort to enable evacuees to return to their homes and for all citizens to be able to secure a sound life". In the first stage over the next 3 months, TEPCO aims to cool the Number 1 and 3 reactors in a stable manner. It plans to cover fuel rods with water by injecting water into the containment vessels. The company also plans to purify contaminated water and return it to the reactors. It will set up heat exchangers to remove heat from the reactors. TEPCO says it will contain the radioactivity leakage from the Number 2 reactor by patching the damaged section. Then it will take the same measures as at the Number 1 and 3 reactors. In the second stage, TEPCO plans to lower the temperature of the fuel in the reactors to below 100 degrees Celsius to stabilize its condition. Regarding the release of radioactive substances, it will set up water purification facilities to tackle highly contaminated water. TEPCO also plans to put giant covers over the reactor buildings to prevent the release of radioactive substances into the air. Regarding environmental monitoring, in the first stage, TEPCO will increase the number of monitoring points within the government-set evacuation areas. In the second stage, it will carry out decontamination to reduce radiation levels in the area. TEPCO is conducting a program for seawater (surface sampling) at a number of near-shore and off-shore monitoring locations. Following a directive from NISA, on 16th April TEPCO announced they will increase the number of sea sampling points from 10 to 16. A further four points will be added at 3 km from the coast and two points will be added at 8 km from the coast. Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) initiated the off-shore monitoring program on 23 March and subsequently points 9 and 10 were added to the off-shore sampling scheme. On 4 April, MEXT added two sampling points to the north and west of sampling point 1. These are referred to as points A and B (see Map1: MEXT Seawater sampling Locations). The last results reported on 18 April (sampling date 15 April) showed that Cs-137 and I-131 were detected at MEXT 4, 6 and 8. The highest concentrations were recorded at MEXT4 (below 200Bq/l for Cs-137 and about 160 Bq/l for I-131). At MEXT 6 and 8 sampling locations both C-s-137 and I-131 were reported at levels below about 40 Bq/l. At the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, high levels of radiation have kept workers from approaching the buildings housing the first 3 reactors, which lost their cooling functions in the March 11 earthquake and tsunami. On Friday, the highest radiation level measured outside the double-entry doors of the Number 1 to 3 reactor buildings was 2 to 4 millisieverts per hour. Radiation levels measured between the double doors of those reactor buildings was 270 millisieverts in the Number One reactor, 12 in Number 2, and 10 in Number 3. The radiation level detected at the Number One reactor exceeds the national exposure limit of 250 millisieverts for nuclear contract workers. Tokyo Electric Power Company, TEPCO, has started using a remote-controlled robot inside the reactor buildings. Photo taken by an unmanned helicopter on 15 April shows exposed pipes at the building housing the No. 3 reactor at FDNPP. Photo: Tokyo Electric Power Co./Kyodo News IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL JAIF EARTHQUAKE REPORT #56: 18 APRIL 2011 3

4 AFTERSHOCKS More than 500 aftershocks have rocked Japan in the weeks since a 9.0 magnitude quake and the tsunami devestated the nation. After shock are likelielt to last into 2012.according to USGS. On 17 April – 18:55 UTC : Several moderate aftershocks today, in the 4 to 5 magnitude range. On 16 April – 06:48 UTC : A strong aftershock at an intermediate depth in the greater Tokyo area. It was one of the first times that the epicenter of an aftershock came that close to Tokyo. 11 million people felt moderate shaking. UPDATE 13 April – 20:19 UTC : Very strong shallow magnitude 6.1 aftershock. Very strong and shallow aftershock but at a safe distance out of the coast (at least 100 km). 190 km (118 miles) E of Morioka, Honshu, Japan. At 05:07 UTC, 12 April, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0 occurred inland east of Honshu, Japan at a depth of 10.6 km. Distances from epicenter of the earthquake to NPP sites were; 46 km to Fukushima Daini, 53 km to Fukushima Daiichi, 72 km to Tokai, 165 km to Onagawa and 179 km to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa. At 23:08 UTC, 11 April, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.2 occurred offshore of the East Coast of Honshu, Japan) at a depth of 13.1 km. Distances from epicenter of the earthquake to NPP sites were: 188 km to Tokai, 217 km to Fukushima Daini, 229 km to Fukushima Daiichi, 236 km to Hamaoka and 285 km to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa. USGS Magnitude 6.0 Earthquake: 12 April JMA Tsunami Warning: 18 April CATDAT Update: 18 April 2011 4

5 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
5 5 5 5 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NOTE: The IAEA has provisionally upgraded the situation at Fukushima Daiichi from Level 5 to Level 7 on the INES Scale. CURRENT STATUS Overall, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remains very serious but there are early signs of recovery in some functions, such as electrical power and instrumentation. . TEPCO has provided a plan to NISA for the transfer of highly contaminated water from the basement floor of the turbine building of Unit 2 to the Main Building of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities in order to reduce the risk of this stagnant waste water being discharged to the environment. On 17th and 18th April, an unmanned robot was used to conduct inspections of the Reactor Buildings in Units 1, 2 and 3. As of 18th April, white smoke was still observed coming from Units 2, 3 and 4. CHANGES TO FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI PLANT STATUS In Unit 1 , fresh water is being continuously injected into the RPV through the feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. In Units 2 and 3, fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at an indicated rate of 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power. RPV temperatures remain above cold shutdown conditions in all Units. In Unit 1 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 170°C and at the bottom of the RPV is 115°C. In Unit 2, the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 142°C. In Unit 3 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 100°C and at the bottom of the RPV is 114°C. On 18th April the concrete pump truck sprayed water into the Unit 3 spent fuel pool. On 17th April, approximately 140 tons of fresh water was pumped into the Unit 4 spent fuel pool. There has been no change in the status in Units 5 and 6 or in Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility. On 17th and 18th April, anti-scattering agent was sprayed over an additional 3100 m2 area near the Centralized Waste Treatment Facility. INJECTION OF NITROGEN GAS In Unit 1 Nitrogen gas is being injected into the containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel. The pressure in this containment vessel has stabilized. The pressure in the RPV is increasing. In Units 2 and 3 Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure. JAIF Earthquake Report #53: 15 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 12 April IAEA International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale

6 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
6 6 6 6 6 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Power (MWe /MWth) 460/1380 784/2381 1100/3293 Type of Reactor BWR-3 BWR-4 BWR-5 Status at time of EQ In service – auto shutdown Outage Core and fuel integrity Damaged Severe damage No fuel in the Reactor Cold Shutdown Being maintained using off-site electrical power and existing plant equipment. RPV & RCS integrity RPV temperature high but slowly decreasing RPV temperature stable Not applicable due to outage plant status Containment integrity No information Damage suspected AC Power AC power available - power to instrumentation – Lighting to Central Control Room AC power available – power to instrumentation – Lighting to Central Control Room AC power available – power to instrumentation – Lighting to Central Control Room Building Slight damage Water level of RPV Around half of Fuel is uncovered Pressure of RPV Slowly increasing Stable CV Pressure Drywell Water injection to RPV Injection of freshwater – via mobile electric pump with off-site power Water injection to CV Spent Fuel Pool Status Fresh water injection by concrete pump truck Freshwater injection to the Fuel Pool Cooling Line Freshwater injection via Fuel Pool Cooling Line and Periodic spraying Severe Condition Concern No Immediate Concern 18 April 2011 IAEA Summary of Reactor Unit Status

7 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
7 7 7 7 7 FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT As a countermeasure against a possible tsunami, the distribution boards for the pumps injecting water to the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1, 2 and 3 were transferred to higher ground on 15 April. In order to minimize the liberation of radioactive material into the ocean, two sandbags filled with Zeolite were placed between the Inlet Screen Pump Room of Unit 1 and Unit 2.Further, five sandbags filled with Zeolite were placed between the Inlet Screen Pump Room of Unit 2 and Unit 3 on 17 April. The Zeolite material is designed to capture specific radioactive elements. It is intended to sample and analyze the Zeolite material periodically to determine the effectiveness of this procedure. The removal of debris (amount equivalent to 8 containers) using remote-control heavy machinery continued on 16 April. UNIT SITUATION UNIT 1 Unit 1 experienced an explosion on March 12, after attempts to vent gas from the containment. The explosion destroyed the outer shell of the building’s upper floors. Coolant within Unit 1 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, and Japanese authorities believe the core has been damaged. As of 26 March, lighting had been restored to the control center. Pooled water at the floor of Unit 1 showed high radiation levels (sampling on 27 March: .4mSv/hr). Transfer of stagnant water to the reactor condenser has been ongoing since 24 March. As of 1 April, the condenser is full. Drainage of the pooled water in the tunnel outside of the building of unit 1 to the suppression pool surge tank is now complete. Freshwater pumping to the RPV was established on 29 March, and continues. Fresh water is being continuously injected into the RPV through the feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. Water transfer from the condenser to the condensate storage tank was completed on 10 April. Nitrogen gas is being injected into the Unit 1 containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel. The pressure in this containment vessel has stabilized. The pressure in the RPV is stable. As of 18 April, the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 180 °C and at the bottom of the RPV is 117 °C. In accordance with the report of the Nuclear Emergency Response HQs (Prime Minister's Office) from 15 April, thermography temperatures of the Containment Vessel and Spent Fuel Pool in Unit 1 were 33 °C and 36°C respectively. UNIT 2 Coolant within Unit 2 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, and Japanese authorities believe the core has been damaged. TEPCO identified a possible leakage path of contaminated water from the Turbine building of Unit 2 to the sea via a series of trenches/tunnels used to provide power to the sea water intake pumps and supply of service water to the reactor and turbine buildings. On 4 April, a tracer was used in an attempt to determine where the water was coming from. On 5 April it was confirmed that the tracer was seen leaking from the crack into the sea. Coagulation agents (liquid glass) were injected into the holes drilled around the pits to block leakage of water. At 20:38 UTC on 5 April, it was reported that the leakage has stopped. Three steel plates were temporarily installed on 13 April on the ocean-side of the Inlet Bar screen to seal the leak. Approximately 660 tons of contaminated water were pumped from the trench to the condenser on 12 and 13 April. Fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at an indicated rate of 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power. Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure. An additional 60 T of fresh water was injected via the Spent Fuel Cooling System line to the spent fuel pool in Unit 2 by a temporary pump on 10 April. Fresh water injection (around 45 tons) to the spent fuel pool was carried out via the spent fuel pool cooling line of Unit 2 and completed by 16 April. Due to the occurrence of an earthquake on 16 April, the motor-driven pump was stopped. The spent fuel pool was confirmed to be filled with water. As of 18 April, the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 141°C. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuous as of 18 April. UNIT 3 Unit 3 experienced an explosion on 14 March that destroyed the outer shell of the building’s 3rd floor. Concern about damage to the primary containment vessel and spent fuel pool remain. Lighting to the Central Control Room was restored on 22 March. Since 29 March, fresh water is being injected continuously into the reactor pressure vessel through the fire extinguisher line using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. Pooled water at the floor of Unit 3 showed high radiation levels (sampling on 26 March: I-131 levels were 3.2 X 105 for Unit 3). The transfer of water from the Condensate Storage Tank to the Surge Tank of Suppression Pool was completed on 30 March at 23:37 UTC. On 14 April, a concrete pump truck began spraying fresh water into the spent fuel pool. The Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure. As of 18 April, The temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 91 °C and at the bottom of the RPV is 122 °C. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuous as of 18 April. In accordance with the report of the Nuclear Emergency Response HQs (Prime Minister's Office) from 15 April, thermography temperatures of the Containment Vessel and Spent Fuel Pool in Unit 3 were 58 °C and 59°C respectively. UNIT 4 All fuel from Unit 4 had been removed from the reactor core for routine maintenance before the earthquake and placed into the spent fuel pool. The building's outer shell was damaged on 14 March, causing sever damage to the buildings upper floors. Authorities remain concerned that structural damage may have reduced cooling capabilities in the spent fuel pool. Lighting to the Central Control Room was restored on 29 March. Fresh water (instead of sea water) is now being sprayed into the spent fuel pool using a concrete pump truck. White smoke was confirmed to generate continuous as of 16 April. On 14 April, a sample of the water in the spent fuel pool was collected for analysis.In accordance with NISA Release 94, TEPCO took water samples from the spent fuel pool of Unit 4 on 12 April, in order to examine the conditions. The sample was taken by using the arm of the concrete pump vehicle. At the same time, the temperature of water in the spent fuel pool of Unit 4 was measured with a thermistor attached to the arm of the concrete pump vehicle. The activities for I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were 220 Bq/cm3, 88 Bq/cm3 and 93 Bq/cm3 respectively. UNITS 5 & 6 Shut down for routine maintenance before the earthquake. Instrumentation indicated rising temperatures at spent fuel pools starting 14 March. Both reactors achieved cold shutdown on 20 March. Workers have opened holes in the roofs of both buildings to prevent hydrogen gas accumulation, which is suspected of causing explosions at units 1 and 3. Outside power supply was restored to Units 5 and 6 on 22 March. As of April, the temperature in the spent fuel pools of Units 5 and 6 is stable at 32.8°C and 22.5°C, respectively. Both reactors remain in cold shutdown, with low pressure and water temperature; systems operating on off-site AC power. At 21:00 4 April, low-level radioactive groundwater in the sub-drain pit of units 5 and 6 (around 1,500t) was discharged through the water discharge canal to the sea. In order to make room for higher contaminated water from the turbine buildings and trenches, T of low level contaminated water from Units 5 and 6 sub-drain pit were released to the sea from 4 to 9 April. In addition, T of low-level contaminated water was discharged from the Central Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility to the south discharge point. Common Spent Fuel Pools In addition to pools in each of the plant's reactor buildings, authorities are also concerned about rising temperatures in the Common Use Spent Fuel Pool, where spent fuel is stored after cooling for at least 18 months in the reactor buildings. Official confirmed fuel assemblies were fully covered by water on March 18. Outside power was available starting 24 March, and cooling began. Water spray by the concrete pump truck continues. On 3 April, the temperature was stable. On 10 April additional anti-scattering agent was sprayed in an area of about 550 m2 on the mountain-side of the Common Spent Fuel Pool to prevent the radioactive materials on the ground from being scattered. On 17 April the power supply to the Common Spent Fuel Pool was temporarily interrupted due to a short-circuit. IAEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 18 APRIL NISA Seismic Damage Update (85th Release: 10 Apri

8 GAMMA DOSE RATES IN μSv/hour 15 APRIL
Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures. The values have tended to decrease over time. For Fukushima, on 18th April a dose rate of 1.9 µSv/h was reported. In the Ibaraki prefecture, a gamma dose rate of 0.13 µSv/h was reported; in all other prefectures, reported gamma dose rates were below 0.1 µSv/h. Dose rates are also reported specifically for the Eastern part of the Fukushima prefecture, for distances beyond 30 km from Fukushima-Daiichi. On 16th April, the values in this area ranged from 0.1 to 25 µSv/h. In cooperation with local universities, Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)has set up an additional monitoring program and measurements of the gamma dose rates are made in 54 cities in 40 prefectures. As of 14 April, the gamma dose rates were below 0.1 µSv/h in 45 cities. In 8 cities, gamma dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 µSv/h. In Fukushima City, a value of 0.42 µSv/h was observed. NOTE: A person's radiation exposure due to all natural sources amounts on average to about 2.4 millisievert (mSv) per year. IAEA Brief Radiological Monitoring and Consequences 19 April 2011 AEA BRIEFING 14:30 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 METI: Readings of Environmental Radioactivity: 15 April 2011 12 April IAEA Radiological Monitoring & Consequences Report

9 GAMMA DOSE RATES IN μSv/hour 18 APRIL
Fukushima prefecture: 1.9 µSv/h

10 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY TRENDS AROUND FDNPP
JAIF: Trend of Radiation in the Environment around FDNPP: 19 April 2011

11 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY TRENDS BY PREFECTURE
From 15 to 17 April, I-131 was detected in only one prefecture on 15 April; with a reported value of 4.1 Bq/m2. During this period, deposition of Cs-137 was detected in 8 prefectures. The total deposition of Cs-137 in these prefectures on these 3 days ranged from 2.3 to 66 Bq/m2. Only in a few prefectures, I-131 or Cs-137 is detectable in drinking water at very low levels. As of 16 April, one restriction for infants related to I-131 (100 Bq/l) is in place in a small scale water supply in a village of the Fukushima prefecture. On 15 and 16 April, the IAEA Team made measurements at 44 different locations in the Fukushima area at distances ranging from 20 to 58 km, West from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At these locations, the dose rates ranged from 0.6 to 37 µSv/h. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.03 to 2.8 Megabecquerel/m2. The highest values were observed at distances of less than 30 km from the power plant. On 17 April, the IAEA Team made measurements at 17 different locations in the Fukushima area at distances ranging from 20 to 62 km, North and Northwest from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At these locations, the dose rates ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 µSv/h. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.03 to 0.27 Megabecquerel/m2. JAIF: Trend of Radiation in the Environment around FDNPP: 18 April 2011 JAIF: Earthquake Report 18 April

12 FOOD SAFETY As of 18 April, Local level distribution restrictions in place include: Spinach from in Katori City and Tako Town; and spinach, garland chrysanthemum, parsley, qing-geng-cai, celery and Korean lettuce from in Asahi City (all in Chiba prefecture). RESTRICTIONS AS OF 15 APRIL: The GoJ has decided to set consumption limits for radioactive iodine in fishery products at 2,000 Bq/kg which is the same limit set for vegetables. On 13 April, the Prime Minister of Japan requested the Governor of Fukushima prefecture to restrict the consumption of shiitake mushrooms (grown on logs in open fields only) produced at Iitate-village until further notice. Instructions were also issued to restrict the distribution of shiitake mushrooms (grown on logs in open fields only) produced in the cities of Date, Soma, Minamisoma, Tamura and Iwaki; the towns of Shinchi, Kawamata, Namie, Futaba, Ookuma, Tomioka, Naraha and Hirono, and; the villages of Iitate, Katsurao and Kawauchi until further notice. Planting rice in soils with Cs above 5000 Bq/kg is banned. In Tochigi, there are restrictions on the distribution of spinach and kakina. In Fukushima, there are restrictions on the consumption of leafy vegetables, headed and non-headed leafy vegetables, and flower-headed brassicas. There are also restrictions on the distribution of headed and non-headed leafy vegetables, flower-headed brassicas, spinach, kakina and unprocessed raw milk produced in the prefecture. Based on the test results of rice paddy soil around the FDNPP, the GoJ decided to regulate the planting of rice crops in the areas where it is likely that produced rice might exceed the provisional standard values established under the Food Sanitation Act. Farmers will be compensated for loss of the rice crops. Japan’s fishery ministry said it has ordered daily inspection of marine products caught off Ibaraki Prefecture, which is down-current from where contaminated radioactive water is being dumped into the ocean. A ministry official criticized EPCO for not informing it in advance before releasing the contaminated water into the ocean. The fishing industry is urging the government to set permitted levels of iodine in marine products as soon as possible. A total of 1644 milk, produce and other food samples results have been obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 19 March to 18 April, with 150 sample results received since 15 April. Four of the 150 food samples were above the provisional regulation value. All four samples were shiitake mushrooms from Fukushima Prefecture. LIFTED RESTRICTIONS: A number of restrictions have been lifted in Fukushima and Ibaraki. On 16 April, the restriction on the distribution of raw unprocessed milk produced in Fukushima was lifted in 25 areas (Fukushima city, Nihonmatsu city, Date city, Motomiya city, Kunimi town, Otama village, Furudono city, Koriyama city, Sukagawa city, Tamura city (excluding former Toji village area), Miharu town, Ono town, Kagamiishi town, Ishikawa town, Asakawa town, Hirata village, Shirakawa city, Yabuki town, Izumisakivillage, Nakajima village, Saigo village, Samekawa village, Hanawa town, Yamatsuri town, Iwaki city). On 17 April, the restriction on the distribution of Kakina and parsley produced throughout Ibaraki prefecture was lifted. The restriction on the distribution of spinach from Ibaraki prefecture was also lifted with the exception of spinach produced in the cities of Kitaibaraki and Takahagi. IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011

13 FOOD SAFETY Food sampling results from MHLW for radioactive cesium and/or iodine, tested between 16 March and 16 April (Table provided by MHLW2) 2Subtotal and total percentages added by WPRO WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011

14 FOOD SAFETY Food sampling results from MHLW for radioactive cesium and/or iodine, tested between 16 March and 16 April (Table provided by MHLW) Image: AP Photo/Eugene Hoshiko As of 17 March 2011, all local food safety inspection authorities were directed to monitor/investigate radionuclide levels in foods for identification/prevention of potential food safety risks associated with radioactive nuclide contaminations. The notice indicates the provisional regulation values for radionuclide in different types of foods. Foods that exceed these levels are regulated under the Food Sanitation Act. As such, actions to prevent consumption of foods that exceed the provisional levels must be applied. WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011

15 RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER
As of 18 April, the infant drinking restriction is still in place in Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, although the levels of I-131 measurement remain well below the provisional limit for infants. BACKGROUND - On 19 March, MHLW issued a notice to local governments that when the provisional regulation values for drinking water (300 Bq/kg for Iodine; 200 Bq/kg for Cesium) are exceeded, water supply utilities would notify the residents to refrain from drinking the water. On 21 March, MHLW issued an additional notice that for infants, the provisional regulation value for the intake of water is set at 100 Bq/kg. On 26 March, MHLW issued a notice to water supply utilities to stop or reduce intake of surface water, and cover water treatment facilities with plastic sheets, following rainfalls, where possible, which would reduce the Iodine levels in drinking water. WHOLE POPULATION – As of 16 April, the IAEA reported that iodine 131 and Cesium 137 were detectable at very low levels of contamination in a few prefectures and did not pose a health risk. INFANTS As of 18 April, the infant drinking restriction is still in place in Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, implemented since 1 April, although the levels of I-131 remain well below the provisional limit for infants. The measure is a precaution only as readings of iodine 131 at all three treatment plants remain below provisional limits of 100 Bq/l. Photo: Kyoto News IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011

16 RADIONUCLIDES IN SEA WATER
RADIATION LEVELS OF SEAWATER AT WATER DISCHARGE POINT OF FDNPP TEPCO: TEPCO is conducting a program for seawater (surface sampling) at a number of near-shore and off-shore monitoring locations . Until 3 April a general decreasing trend in radioactivity was observed at the sampling points TEPCO 1 to TEPCO 4. After the discharge of contaminated water on 4 April, a temporary increase in radioactivity was reported. Since 5 April, a general downward trend in the concentration of radionuclides in sea water for all TEPCO sampling points has been observed. Following a directive from NISA, on 16 April TEPCO announced they will increase the number of sea sampling points from 10 to 16. A further four points will be added at 3 km from the coast and two points will be added at 8 km from the coast. On 15 April, new data for TEPCO sampling points have been reported. At all four locations, the concentration of both I-131 and Cs-137 measured on 12 April was below 2kBq/l. On 18 April no new data for TEPCO sampling points have been reported. MEXT: MEXT initiated the off-shore monitoring program on 23 March and subsequently points 9 and 10 were added to the off-shore sampling scheme. On 4 April, MEXT added two sampling points to the north and west of sampling point 1. These are referred to as points A and B. On 14 April, Cs-137 levels were detected at MEXT point Bq/L, and point Bq/L. I-131 levels were detected at MEXT point Bq/L, and point Bq/l. On 13 April I-131 concentration of about 90 Bq/l was measured at Station MEXT4. At MEXT6, 8, 10 and B, I-131 below about 15 Bq/l was reported. The last results reported on 18 April (sampling date 15 April) showed that Cs-137 and I-131 were detected at MEXT 4, 6 and 8. The highest concentrations were recorded at MEXT4 (below 200Bq/l for Cs-137 and about 160 Bq/l for I-131). At MEXT 6 and 8 sampling locations both C-s-137 and I-131 were reported at levels below about 40 Bq/l. MEXT AND TEPCO SAMPLING OF I-131 IN SEA WATER Sampling Points Around Fukushima NPPs As of 19 April 2011 IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 Readings of Sea Area Monitoring: NPP 14 April 2011 JAIF: Monitoring of Sea Water Near FDNPP - 18 April 2011

17 RADIONUCLIDES IN SEA WATER
The maximum permissible concentrations in seawater are 40 Bq/l for I-131 and 90 Bq/l for Cs-137. Values in excess of the Iodine-131 limit were detected at sampling points 3, 4 and 5 on 23 and 24 March but dropped below the limit on 25 March. On 30 March, the maximum permissible concentration of 40 Bq/l for I-131 was exceeded at sampling point 10. From samples taken 16 April, the highest concentrations were recorded at MEXT4 (below 200Bq/l for Cs-137 and about 160 Bq/l for I-131). Map 1: TEPCO Seawater Sampling Locations: Map 2: MEXT Seawater Sampling Locations NOTE: It can be expected that, if no additional releases occur, the levels measured at the stations 30 km off-shore will decrease significantly by dilution into deeper layers and dispersion by ocean currents. IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011 Readings of Sea Area Monitoring: NPP 14 April 2011

18 RADIONUCLIDES IN SEA WATER
CONCERNS FOR MARINE PRODUCTS - Japan’s fishery ministry said it has ordered daily inspection of marine products caught off Ibaraki Prefecture. A ministry official criticized TEPCO for not informing it in advance before releasing the contaminated water into the ocean. The fishing industry is urging the GoJ to set permitted levels of iodine in marine products as soon as possible. The movements of all ships, including fishing boats, are restricted within a 30 km zone from the FDNPP, based on the hazardous area set by the Maritime Safety Agency. JAIF: Monitoring of Sea Water Near FDNPP – 19 April 2011

19 RADIONUCLIDES IN AIR AND SOIL
RADIATION LEVELS IN THE SOIL On 18th April, deposition of I-131 was detected in 6 prefectures ranging from 2.3 to 65 Bq/m2. Deposition of Cs-137 was detected in 2 prefectures; the values reported were 4.7 and 14.8 Bq/m2. From 15th to 17th April, I-131 was detected in only one prefecture on 15th April; with a reported value of 4.1 Bq/m2. During this period, deposition of Cs-137 was detected in 8 prefectures. The total deposition of Cs-137 in these prefectures on these 3 days ranged from 2.3 to 66 Bq/m2. On 17th April, the IAEA team made measurements at 17 different locations in the Fukushima area at distances ranging from 20 to 62 km, North and Northwest from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At these locations, the dose rates ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 µSv/h. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.03 to 0.27 Megabecquerel/m2. On 14th April, the presence of both I-131 and Cs-137 was detected in 1 and 5 prefectures respectively. The values reported for I-131 and Cs-137 were below 20 Bq/m2 at all stations. This shows a significant decrease from 12 April when I-131 values ranged from 1.6 to 460 Bq/m2 and for C-137 from 31 to 700 Bq/m2. The highest presence was observed in the Ibaraki prefecture. MEXT included new data on radiation in soil in Namie Town, 20 kms northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The levels of I-131 and Cs-137 are relatively high on 11 April, and have not decreased since 30 March. On 11 April, the latest measurements of I-131 and Cs-137 were Bq/kg and Bq/kg, respectively. TEPCO analyzed soil at five sampling points on the premises of the FDNPP. The soil samples on 21 and 22 March were analyzed and plutonium 238, 239 and 240 were detected. According to TEPCO, the density of detected plutonium is equivalent to the fallout observed in Japan when atmospheric nuclear testing was conducted in the past. The detected plutonium from two samples out of five may be the direct result of the recent incident, considering the activity ratio of the plutonium isotopes. However, these plutonium levels do not pose major risk to human health. TEPCO will continue radionuclide analysis of soil. RADIATION LEVELS IN THE AIR Overall, radiation levels between a 20-km and 60-km distance from the NPP are declining or are stable. High radiation levels continue to be clustered around the NW area of the plant. The highest level of cumulative dose of I-131 as of 17 April was mSv at 30 kms NW of the NPP. Cumulative doses at various locations between 20 kms and 60 kms are shown for I-131. The highest level as of 17 April was mSv at 30 kms northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi plant NOTE: Radiation levels in area ~30km NW of plant remain higher than normal, but there is continued decrease in radiation levels IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011

20 HEALTH CONCERNS The health risk posed by the short period of tap water intake exceeding the index values is extremely low. It is not intended to restrict drinking water (including infants’ ingestion of tap water) if there is no access to alternative drinking water. MLHW reports that tap water is safe for washing hands and bathing at home without any concern. CURRENT RISK GoJ’s recent actions in response to events at the FDNPP are in line with the existing recommendations for radiation exposure. The GoJ has evacuated individuals who were living within a 20-km radius around the FDNPP. GoJ announced that because of accumulated radiation contamination, it would encourage people to leave certain areas beyond its 20 km (12 mile) exclusion zone around the plant. Thousands of people could be affected by the move. Children, pregnant women, and hospitalized patients should stay out of some areas km from the nuclear complex. On 11 April GoJ announced they will establish “Planned Evacuation Areas” and “Evacuation Prepared Area” in the areas beyond the 20km radius from the FDNPP. This decision is based on findings that areas beyond the 20km radius could be exposed to over 20mSv during the next year. RISK OF RADIOACTIVE EXPOSURE FROM FOOD CONTAMINATION There is a risk of exposure as a result of contamination in food. However, contaminated food would have to be consumed over prolonged periods to represent a risk to human health. A total of 1644 milk, produce and other food samples results have been obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 19 March to 18 April, with 150 sample results received since 15 April. Four of the 150 food samples were above the provisional regulation value. All four samples were shiitake mushrooms from Fukushima Prefecture. Only in a few prefectures, I-131 or Cs-137 is detectable in drinking water at very low levels. As of 16th April, one restriction for infants related to I-131 (100 Bq/l) is in place in a small scale water supply in a village of the Fukushima prefecture. RADIATION MONITORING From 15th to 17th April, I-131 was detected in only one prefecture on 15th April; with a reported value of 4.1 Bq/m2. During this period, deposition of Cs-137 was detected in 8 prefectures. The total deposition of Cs-137 in these prefectures on these 3 days ranged from 2.3 to 66 Bq/m2. Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures, the values have tended to decrease. For Fukushima, on 14 April a dose rate of 2.0 μSv/h, for the Ibaraki prefecture a gamma dose rate of 0.14 μSv/h was reported. Highest observed values at distances of less than 30 km from the power plant. 17th April, measurements of the gamma dose rates were reported for 53 cities in 40 prefectures. In 43 cities, the gamma dose rates were below 0.1 µSv/h. In 9 cities, gamma dose rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 µSv/h. In Fukushima City, a value of 0.42 µSv/h was observed. LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS Exposure to high doses of radiation can increase the risk of cancer. If I-131 is inhaled or ingested, it will concentrate in the thyroid gland and increase the risk of thyroid cancer. Among persons exposed to I-131, the risk of thyroid cancer can be lowered by taking potassium iodide pills, which helps prevent the uptake of the radioactive iodine. Risk of thyroid cancer following radiation exposure higher in children and young adults. ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS If the dose of radiation exceeds a certain threshold level, it can produce acute effects, including skin redness, hair loss, radiation burns, and acute radiation syndrome. In a nuclear power accident, rescuers, first responders, and nuclear power plant workers may be exposed to doses of radiation high enough to cause acute effects, but usually not the general public. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES (UPON EXPOSURE) Upon coming indoors after radiation exposure, undress in the doorway to avoid further contamination of home or shelter. Remove clothing and shoes and place them in a plastic bag. Seal the bag and place it in a safe location away from living areas, children, and pets. Shower or bathe with warm water and soap. Notify authorities of possibly contaminated clothing and personal belongings so that they can be handled appropriately and disposed of according to accepted national procedures. Potassium iodide pills are not “radiation antidotes”. They do not protect against external radiation, or against any other radioactive substances besides radioiodine. They may cause medical complications for some individuals with poorly functioning kidneys. KI should be taken only when there is a clear public health recommendation. IAEA BRIEFING 15:35 UTC: 18 APRIL 2011 WHO-WPRO SitRep 30: 18 April 2011 MHLW Press Release: 17 April 2011


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