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Physics of Tsunami By: Febdian Rusydi Aree Witolear.

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Presentation on theme: "Physics of Tsunami By: Febdian Rusydi Aree Witolear."— Presentation transcript:


2 Physics of Tsunami By: Febdian Rusydi Aree Witolear


4 Part 1 Earthquake

5 Causes of Earthquake 1.Volcanic eruption 2.Meteor impacts 3.Underground explosions (like nuclear tests) 4.Movement of plates (tectonic)

6 Plate Tectonics Lithosphere  Comprised of many plates that slide over the lubricating athenosphere layer. Why does it move? Fluid (magma) underneath is moving all the time.

7 Plate Tectonics At the boundaries between plates 1.Plates slide against each other 2.Plates move apart  magma flows up to the surface 3.Plates push together  one subducts the other, or neither plate subducts under the other. San Andreas Fault 1 23

8 Earthquake at Sea 1 st possibility:

9 Earthquake at Sea 2 nd possibility:


11 Part 2 Tsunami

12 Tsunami Tsunami (tsoo – nah – mee) Tsu (harbor) & nami (wave) “A natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale” (

13 Theory of Waves Traveling Wave Wave moves energy, not matter! Energy  E ~ f ~ v/ T = 1/f

14 Ocean Waves -Wind blows  grab water molecules -Water’s surface stretches  ripples (capillary waves) -Ripples moves  more molecules collected -Size and momentum increase  reach the beach

15 Tsunami Waves

16 Tsunami At Sea Unlike a normal wave, energy of a tsunami moves through the water, not on top of it. Velocity: d = water depth Moves fast in deep waters  400 km/hour! No more than 1 meter high  can not be seen “…we only felt that the waves were larger than normal. Only that!” - Rusli, a fisherman

17 Energy Loss Waves loses energy as it moves away from its source Energy loss rate ~ 1 / wavelength  The longer the wavelength, the less energy it loses Tsunami wavelength = 200 km!  Energy is almost constant far from epicenter

18 Normal Wave vs Tsunami Wave Ocean Wave Speed = 8-100 kph Wave Period = 5-20 seconds apart Wave Length = 100- 200 meters apart Tsunami Wave Speed = 800-1000 kph Wave Period = 10 min-2 hours apart Wave Length = 100- 500 km apart

19 As Tsunami Moves…


21 At the Beach Shallow water compresses the energy Tsunami moving away the beach: fast, short height  v & increase, A decrease Tsunami moving toward the beach: slow, tall height  v & decrease, A increase



24 Part 3 Impact

25 Some Pictures from Satellite

26 Tsunami 12/26 Magnitude of earthquake = 9.0 SR Slipped plate length = 1,200 km Slip over = 15 m Height of wave reach up to 30 m with speed ~ 800 km/hr

27 Detected Earthquake

28 Tsunami Animation

29 Tsunami in Aceh Magnitude: 9.0 on the Richter scale The Energy possessed (roughly): ~ 5 MTons of TNT = 2*10 18 Joules ~ 2 x explosive energy during all WW II ~ 30% energy consumed in USA a year ~ 70 days Hurricane Isabel

30 Impact on Earth Some smaller island southwest Sumatera moved ~ 20 m to southwest Northern tip of Sumatera moved ~ 36m to southwest Some small islands near Aceh province are gone forever New lakes/rivers created in ex-land in Aceh, disconnecting transportation to ex- villages

31 What we believe This is not a disaster, but a miracle Miracle that changes many things in our social life! The miracle is not finished yet We have a responsibility, to finish the miracle: DONATE YOUR MONEY FOR ACEH!DONATE YOUR MONEY FOR ACEH!

32 Poem by Heri Latief

33 The End Credits: BBC, How Stuff Works

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