Presentation on theme: "Financial Fraud in Cyberspace Ruzbeh Tusserkani. Is Financial Crime Like an Epidemic? Financial Health Criminals cross borders physically and exchange."— Presentation transcript:
Financial Fraud in Cyberspace Ruzbeh Tusserkani
Is Financial Crime Like an Epidemic? Financial Health Criminals cross borders physically and exchange data to establish new fraud methods Individuals must protect their physical wallets and bank statements and takes sensible electronic measures Banks can monitor customers’ risk profiles (KYC) and transactions for suspicious behavior Public Health Epidemics spread through global travel and mutations of viruses Individuals must take their own precautions like hygiene and wearing masks Governments implement broad measures to disseminate information, monitor risks and act quickly upon detecting outbreaks Quarantine should be final resort
Cyber Theft The new computer-based technology allows criminals to operate more efficiently and effectively. These thieves use cyberspace to distribute illegal goods and services or to defraud people for quick profit.
Computer Fraud These crimes include theft of information, “salami fraud” (skimming small amounts of money from many accounts) software theft, manipulation of accounts/banking, corporate espionage. ATMs (Automatic teller machines) are especially vulnerable.
Internet Securities Fraud This crime involves using the Internet to intentionally manipulate the securities marketplace for profit. The three major types of this fraud are: – Market manipulation – Fraudulent offerings of securities – Illegal touting
Identity Theft This occurs when someone uses the Internet to steal another’s identity and/or impersonate the victim to open credit card accounts and/or other financial transactions. Phishing (carding, spoofing)—some identity thieves create false s or websites designed to gain illegal access to a victim’s personal information.
Identity Theft & Identity Fraud Identity theft involves acquiring key pieces of your identifying information without the victim’s knowledge. Identity fraud occurs when thieves use the victims’ personal identifying information to order merchandise, obtain credit, or otherwise falsely represent themselves without the victim’s express consent.
Internet Usage And ID Theft
How Identities are Stolen High Tech Methods Phishing Spyware and Key Logging Skimming Trojan Horses, Viruses and Worms Hacking Spamming Low Tech Methods Automobile dealers, retailers, restaurants Personnel Files Dumpster Diving Lost/Stolen Wallets and Checkbooks Healthcare Records Mail Theft
Phishing High-tech scam using spam or pop-up messages from known businesses requesting account validation. Warnings of dire consequences if the victim fails to respond. Directs the victim to a Web site resembling a legitimate site where the operators trick the victim into divulging personal identifier information.
Spyware and Key Logging Software that collects personal information from your computer without your knowledge. Downloaded to your computer from the websites you visit, or invites itself in unannounced when you agree to download another program.
Skimming Occurs anywhere a credit card is accepted Rarely done at any location for more than 7 days A collusive employee completes a valid sale, then captures a second (unauthorized) swipe covertly before returning the card to the cardholder Fraudulent transactions frequently occur within hours of the compromise Cardholders are not aware that they have been victimized until they receive their credit card statements showing the fraudulent charges
Skimming Devices Hand Held Skimmer/ “Wedge” Can be made easily accessible inside clothing
Most Common Low Tech Schemes Unknown caller posing as a bank employee trying to verify a SSN and mother’s maiden name Fraudster requests a victim’s credit report Dishonest employee with access uses or sells personal information Fraudster changes the address on your account to their address through the financial institution Thief who steals your information during a burglary
Other Internet Fraud Schemes Pet (selling) scams Secret Shoppers and Funds Transfer Scams Adoption and Charity Frauds Romance Fraud
Hacking Hackers accessed more than 5 million Visa and MasterCard credit card accounts in the US. – February 2003 Hackers accessed a U.S. military database containing Social Security numbers and other personal information for 33,000 Air Force officers and enlisted personnel. -August 2005 Hackers compromised the confidentiality of 40 million credit card holders, and 200,000 records had left the network at Card- Systems. – June 2005 T-Mobile notified 400 customers whose data was accessed, but left open the possibility of more victims as the case progresses. – February 2005
Fraudulent Applications Personal information of a true person used to open a new account Common to add an additional fictitious person to the cardholder’s account Driven in part by the ease of obtaining instant credit – vehicles, loans, department store accounts
Account Takeover Personal and account information of a true person is compromised. Victim’s documents, statements and identifying cards are diverted by changing the address with custodian. Fraudster usually waits one month to order checks and/or credit cards. Upon receipt of the credit card, fraud charges occur quickly and usually end after a short time. Account “kiting” may follow.
Credit Card Fraud Test purchases with small charges before larger cash withdrawals Obtain large advances within a very short period Randomize banks using the same credit card Exhaust credit limit as quickly as possible Use bank or merchant insiders to avoid early detection
What it is… To move illegally acquired cash through financial systems so that it appears to be legally acquired The purpose of such transactions is to hide the identity of the real owner of or the illegal origin of assets.
Why do it… Avoid prosecution Increase profits Avoid seizure of accumulated wealth Appear legitimate Tax evasion
How to do it… Structuring – “smurfing” Bank Complicity Asset Purchases Securities’ Broker Telegraphic Transfer of Funds Travel Agencies Gambling in Casinos
It took 45 seconds to launder the money by a wire transfer, and it took the police officers 18 months to investigate the case.
Insider Fraud Typologies Embezzlement – Employee performs illegal activities in order to move money out of customer accounts – Activity could extend for months or years – Typical of : New employee, Employee experiencing financial pressure, Blackmail Compromising Personal Information – Employee transfers, to his associates, sensitive customer information that can be used later for identity theft or – account take over – Usually involves multiple accounts – The information can be used later to: Enroll into On-Line – banking, Perform transfers, Order new check book etc Bypassing account management controls – Employee works in collusion with a customer in order to compromise business controls and defraud the bank – Usually involves multiple accounts or a merchant – Typical for application approvals, merchant fraud, bank notes, deposit certificates, etc
Example Online Banking Fraud Eastern European network Used internet forums to purchase account information (credit records, account records, etc) Opened mule accounts in each bank where performed fraud by using false identities Used account info to overtake accounts through multiple channels (using call center to get online password, and moving money through the E-banking products) Used internet banking transfers to move money from overtaken accounts to the mule accounts Relationship with a US based drug-addicts network that were shipped with the debit cards and took the money from ATMs
Card Fraud Types Stolen Cards – Focus on deviation from ordinary behavior, and on comparison to known fraud cases – Entities: cards, accounts, customers Skimming – Differentiate between fraudulent and normal behavior at ATM/POS – Identify unlikely activities and behavior patterns of card usage – Proactively prevent mass fraud, by predicting fraudulent cards based on previously identified skimmed cards Bust Out Fraud – Evaluating the risk of new applications and first card activity “Tourism Fraud” – Smart card based fraud in exported to countries yet to deploy smart card systems
Financial Crime Globalization Example Team of Sri Lankan nationals caught withdrawing cash from ATMs in Phuket Thailand 4,000 fake cards found, encoded with details of UK cards Genuine UK cards were chip & pin encoded, but Thai ATMs had to rely on magnetic stripe only Genuine card details are bought and sold on the Internet for as little as a few dollars Machine to encode cards can also be bought on the internet for a few hundred dollars Multiple groups of criminals performing different roles in the criminal food chain
Money Laundering – AML / CFT “Efforts to use or conceal illicit funds such as proceeds of drug trafficking and organized crime” Many known typologies such as Structuring, Flow- though, Circulation, Grouping of accounts, Dummy loans, etc Countering the Financing of Terrorism (CFT) – Avoid dealing with banned parties Usually Driven by Regulations – “Know Your Customer” (Customer Due Diligence, Screening and Risk Profiling) – Cash transaction reporting can generate many “false positives” – Regulations can be “prescriptive” and inflexible, yet bank may be held responsible if fails to detect criminal behavior
Tighter AML regulation in the US and Europe is pushing money laundering activity into Asia Pacific…
Spending on anti-money laundering solutions in Asia will grow faster than in Europe or North America as regulators in Asia finally get serious about AML…
Fraud Percentage Very high data volumes and small number of fraud cases, result in extremely low (0.005%) percentage of fraudulent transactions that nevertheless can result in significant losses Fraud Coverage and Complexity Fraud takes many forms (Takeover, Financing, Mule, …) and is not limited to a single channel (Internet, Phone, Mail, …) Dynamic Environment Criminals constantly seek new methods, which requires the ability to be one step ahead and dynamically add new parameters and rules. Simplistic Rules-Based AML approaches Generate many Suspicious Transaction Reports, which may involve innocent customers while missing sophisticated criminals Multiple products, multiple channels Only monitoring all transactional activity on the enterprise level can reveal the fraudulent scenarios Summary - The Challenge
Financial Crime in 2008 and Beyond New era of corporate accountability and governance requirements Rapid changes in regulatory and legislative compliance Global deployment of new client services exposes organizations to much great risk Organized cross-border white collar Fraud Syndicates Linkages between Fraud, Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism